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+ Brief Notes on C-Media 8338/8738/8768/8770 Driver
+ Takashi Iwai <email@example.com>
+Front/Rear Multi-channel Playback
+CM8x38 chip can use ADC as the second DAC so that two different stereo
+channels can be used for front/rear playbacks. Since there are two
+DACs, both streams are handled independently unlike the 4/6ch multi-
+channel playbacks in the section below.
+As default, ALSA driver assigns the first PCM device (i.e. hw:0,0 for
+card#0) for front and 4/6ch playbacks, while the second PCM device
+(hw:0,1) is assigned to the second DAC for rear playback.
+There are slight differences between the two DACs:
+- The first DAC supports U8 and S16LE formats, while the second DAC
+ supports only S16LE.
+- The second DAC supports only two channel stereo.
+Please note that the CM8x38 DAC doesn't support continuous playback
+rate but only fixed rates: 5512, 8000, 11025, 16000, 22050, 32000,
+44100 and 48000 Hz.
+The rear output can be heard only when "Four Channel Mode" switch is
+disabled. Otherwise no signal will be routed to the rear speakers.
+As default it's turned on.
+*** WARNING ***
+When "Four Channel Mode" switch is off, the output from rear speakers
+will be FULL VOLUME regardless of Master and PCM volumes.
+This might damage your audio equipment. Please disconnect speakers
+before your turn off this switch.
+*** WARNING ***
+[ Well.. I once got the output with correct volume (i.e. same with the
+ front one) and was so excited. It was even with "Four Channel" bit
+ on and "double DAC" mode. Actually I could hear separate 4 channels
+ from front and rear speakers! But.. after reboot, all was gone.
+ It's a very pity that I didn't save the register dump at that
+ time.. Maybe there is an unknown register to achieve this... ]
+If your card has an extra output jack for the rear output, the rear
+playback should be routed there as default. If not, there is a
+control switch in the driver "Line-In As Rear", which you can change
+via alsamixer or somewhat else. When this switch is on, line-in jack
+is used as rear output.
+There are two more controls regarding to the rear output.
+The "Exchange DAC" switch is used to exchange front and rear playback
+routes, i.e. the 2nd DAC is output from front output.
+4/6 Multi-Channel Playback
+The recent CM8738 chips support for the 4/6 multi-channel playback
+function. This is useful especially for AC3 decoding.
+When the multi-channel is supported, the driver name has a suffix
+"-MC" such like "CMI8738-MC6". You can check this name from
+When the 4/6-ch output is enabled, the second DAC accepts up to 6 (or
+4) channels. While the dual DAC supports two different rates or
+formats, the 4/6-ch playback supports only the same condition for all
+channels. Since the multi-channel playback mode uses both DACs, you
+cannot operate with full-duplex.
+The 4.0 and 5.1 modes are defined as the pcm "surround40" and "surround51"
+in alsa-lib. For example, you can play a WAV file with 6 channels like
+ % aplay -Dsurround51 sixchannels.wav
+For programming the 4/6 channel playback, you need to specify the PCM
+channels as you like and set the format S16LE. For example, for playback
+with 4 channels,
+ snd_pcm_hw_params_set_access(pcm, hw, SND_PCM_ACCESS_RW_INTERLEAVED);
+ // or mmap if you like
+ snd_pcm_hw_params_set_format(pcm, hw, SND_PCM_FORMAT_S16_LE);
+ snd_pcm_hw_params_set_channels(pcm, hw, 4);
+and use the interleaved 4 channel data.
+There are some control switchs affecting to the speaker connections:
+"Line-In Mode" - an enum control to change the behavior of line-in
+ jack. Either "Line-In", "Rear Output" or "Bass Output" can
+ be selected. The last item is available only with model 039
+ or newer.
+ When "Rear Output" is chosen, the surround channels 3 and 4
+ are output to line-in jack.
+"Mic-In Mode" - an enum control to change the behavior of mic-in
+ jack. Either "Mic-In" or "Center/LFE Output" can be
+ When "Center/LFE Output" is chosen, the center and bass
+ channels (channels 5 and 6) are output to mic-in jack.
+The CM8x38 provides the excellent SPDIF capability with very cheap
+price (yes, that's the reason I bought the card :)
+The SPDIF playback and capture are done via the third PCM device
+(hw:0,2). Usually this is assigned to the PCM device "spdif".
+The available rates are 44100 and 48000 Hz.
+For playback with aplay, you can run like below:
+ % aplay -Dhw:0,2 foo.wav
+ % aplay -Dspdif foo.wav
+24bit format is also supported experimentally.
+The playback and capture over SPDIF use normal DAC and ADC,
+respectively, so you cannot playback both analog and digital streams
+To enable SPDIF output, you need to turn on "IEC958 Output Switch"
+control via mixer or alsactl ("IEC958" is the official name of
+so-called S/PDIF). Then you'll see the red light on from the card so
+you know that's working obviously :)
+The SPDIF input is always enabled, so you can hear SPDIF input data
+from line-out with "IEC958 In Monitor" switch at any time (see
+You can play via SPDIF even with the first device (hw:0,0),
+but SPDIF is enabled only when the proper format (S16LE), sample rate
+(441100 or 48000) and channels (2) are used. Otherwise it's turned
+off. (Also don't forget to turn on "IEC958 Output Switch", too.)
+Additionally there are relevant control switches:
+"IEC958 Mix Analog" - Mix analog PCM playback and FM-OPL/3 streams and
+ output through SPDIF. This switch appears only on old chip
+ models (CM8738 033 and 037).
+ Note: without this control you can output PCM to SPDIF.
+ This is "mixing" of streams, so e.g. it's not for AC3 output
+ (see the next section).
+"IEC958 In Select" - Select SPDIF input, the internal CD-in (false)
+ and the external input (true).
+"IEC958 Loop" - SPDIF input data is loop back into SPDIF
+ output (aka bypass)
+"IEC958 Copyright" - Set the copyright bit.
+"IEC958 5V" - Select 0.5V (coax) or 5V (optical) interface.
+ On some cards this doesn't work and you need to change the
+ configuration with hardware dip-switch.
+"IEC958 In Monitor" - SPDIF input is routed to DAC.
+"IEC958 In Phase Inverse" - Set SPDIF input format as inverse.
+ [FIXME: this doesn't work on all chips..]
+"IEC958 In Valid" - Set input validity flag detection.
+Note: When "PCM Playback Switch" is on, you'll hear the digital output
+stream through analog line-out.
+The AC3 (RAW DIGITAL) OUTPUT
+The driver supports raw digital (typically AC3) i/o over SPDIF. This
+can be toggled via IEC958 playback control, but usually you need to
+access it via alsa-lib. See alsa-lib documents for more details.
+On the raw digital mode, the "PCM Playback Switch" is automatically
+turned off so that non-audio data is heard from the analog line-out.
+Similarly the following switches are off: "IEC958 Mix Analog" and
+"IEC958 Loop". The switches are resumed after closing the SPDIF PCM
+device automatically to the previous state.
+On the model 033, AC3 is implemented by the software conversion in
+the alsa-lib. If you need to bypass the software conversion of IEC958
+subframes, pass the "soft_ac3=0" module option. This doesn't matter
+on the newer models.
+ANALOG MIXER INTERFACE
+The mixer interface on CM8x38 is similar to SB16.
+There are Master, PCM, Synth, CD, Line, Mic and PC Speaker playback
+volumes. Synth, CD, Line and Mic have playback and capture switches,
+too, as well as SB16.
+In addition to the standard SB mixer, CM8x38 provides more functions.
+- PCM playback switch
+- PCM capture switch (to capture the data sent to DAC)
+- Mic Boost switch
+- Mic capture volume
+- Aux playback volume/switch and capture switch
+- 3D control switch
+With CMI8338 chips, the MPU401-UART interface is disabled as default.
+You need to set the module option "mpu_port" to a valid I/O port address
+to enable MIDI support. Valid I/O ports are 0x300, 0x310, 0x320 and
+0x330. Choose a value that doesn't conflict with other cards.
+With CMI8738 and newer chips, the MIDI interface is enabled by default
+and the driver automatically chooses a port address.
+There is _no_ hardware wavetable function on this chip (except for
+OPL3 synth below).
+What's said as MIDI synth on Windows is a software synthesizer
+emulation. On Linux use TiMidity or other softsynth program for
+playing MIDI music.
+FM OPL/3 Synth
+The FM OPL/3 is also enabled as default only for the first card.
+Set "fm_port" module option for more cards.
+The output quality of FM OPL/3 is, however, very weird.
+I don't know why..
+CMI8768 and newer chips do not have the FM synth.
+Joystick and Modem
+The legacy joystick is supported. To enable the joystick support, pass
+joystick_port=1 module option. The value 1 means the auto-detection.
+If the auto-detection fails, try to pass the exact I/O address.
+The modem is enabled dynamically via a card control switch "Modem".
+The registers are shown in /proc/asound/cardX/cmipci. If you have any
+problem (especially unexpected behavior of mixer), please attach the
+output of this proc file together with the bug report.