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+===========================================================================
+ HVCS
+ IBM "Hypervisor Virtual Console Server" Installation Guide
+ for Linux Kernel 2.6.4+
+ Copyright (C) 2004 IBM Corporation
+
+===========================================================================
+NOTE:Eight space tabs are the optimum editor setting for reading this file.
+===========================================================================
+
+ Author(s) : Ryan S. Arnold <rsa@us.ibm.com>
+ Date Created: March, 02, 2004
+ Last Changed: August, 24, 2004
+
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+Table of contents:
+
+ 1. Driver Introduction:
+ 2. System Requirements
+ 3. Build Options:
+ 3.1 Built-in:
+ 3.2 Module:
+ 4. Installation:
+ 5. Connection:
+ 6. Disconnection:
+ 7. Configuration:
+ 8. Questions & Answers:
+ 9. Reporting Bugs:
+
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+1. Driver Introduction:
+
+This is the device driver for the IBM Hypervisor Virtual Console Server,
+"hvcs". The IBM hvcs provides a tty driver interface to allow Linux user
+space applications access to the system consoles of logically partitioned
+operating systems (Linux and AIX) running on the same partitioned Power5
+ppc64 system. Physical hardware consoles per partition are not practical
+on this hardware so system consoles are accessed by this driver using
+firmware interfaces to virtual terminal devices.
+
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+2. System Requirements:
+
+This device driver was written using 2.6.4 Linux kernel APIs and will only
+build and run on kernels of this version or later.
+
+This driver was written to operate solely on IBM Power5 ppc64 hardware
+though some care was taken to abstract the architecture dependent firmware
+calls from the driver code.
+
+Sysfs must be mounted on the system so that the user can determine which
+major and minor numbers are associated with each vty-server. Directions
+for sysfs mounting are outside the scope of this document.
+
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+3. Build Options:
+
+The hvcs driver registers itself as a tty driver. The tty layer
+dynamically allocates a block of major and minor numbers in a quantity
+requested by the registering driver. The hvcs driver asks the tty layer
+for 64 of these major/minor numbers by default to use for hvcs device node
+entries.
+
+If the default number of device entries is adequate then this driver can be
+built into the kernel. If not, the default can be over-ridden by inserting
+the driver as a module with insmod parameters.
+
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+3.1 Built-in:
+
+The following menuconfig example demonstrates selecting to build this
+driver into the kernel.
+
+ Device Drivers --->
+ Character devices --->
+ <*> IBM Hypervisor Virtual Console Server Support
+
+Begin the kernel make process.
+
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+3.2 Module:
+
+The following menuconfig example demonstrates selecting to build this
+driver as a kernel module.
+
+ Device Drivers --->
+ Character devices --->
+ <M> IBM Hypervisor Virtual Console Server Support
+
+The make process will build the following kernel modules:
+
+ hvcs.ko
+ hvcserver.ko
+
+To insert the module with the default allocation execute the following
+commands in the order they appear:
+
+ insmod hvcserver.ko
+ insmod hvcs.ko
+
+The hvcserver module contains architecture specific firmware calls and must
+be inserted first, otherwise the hvcs module will not find some of the
+symbols it expects.
+
+To override the default use an insmod parameter as follows (requesting 4
+tty devices as an example):
+
+ insmod hvcs.ko hvcs_parm_num_devs=4
+
+There is a maximum number of dev entries that can be specified on insmod.
+We think that 1024 is currently a decent maximum number of server adapters
+to allow. This can always be changed by modifying the constant in the
+source file before building.
+
+NOTE: The length of time it takes to insmod the driver seems to be related
+to the number of tty interfaces the registering driver requests.
+
+In order to remove the driver module execute the following command:
+
+ rmmod hvcs.ko
+
+The recommended method for installing hvcs as a module is to use depmod to
+build a current modules.dep file in /lib/modules/`uname -r` and then
+execute:
+
+modprobe hvcs hvcs_parm_num_devs=4
+
+The modules.dep file indicates that hvcserver.ko needs to be inserted
+before hvcs.ko and modprobe uses this file to smartly insert the modules in
+the proper order.
+
+The following modprobe command is used to remove hvcs and hvcserver in the
+proper order:
+
+modprobe -r hvcs
+
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+4. Installation:
+
+The tty layer creates sysfs entries which contain the major and minor
+numbers allocated for the hvcs driver. The following snippet of "tree"
+output of the sysfs directory shows where these numbers are presented:
+
+ sys/
+ |-- *other sysfs base dirs*
+ |
+ |-- class
+ | |-- *other classes of devices*
+ | |
+ | `-- tty
+ | |-- *other tty devices*
+ | |
+ | |-- hvcs0
+ | | `-- dev
+ | |-- hvcs1
+ | | `-- dev
+ | |-- hvcs2
+ | | `-- dev
+ | |-- hvcs3
+ | | `-- dev
+ | |
+ | |-- *other tty devices*
+ |
+ |-- *other sysfs base dirs*
+
+For the above examples the following output is a result of cat'ing the
+"dev" entry in the hvcs directory:
+
+ Pow5:/sys/class/tty/hvcs0/ # cat dev
+ 254:0
+
+ Pow5:/sys/class/tty/hvcs1/ # cat dev
+ 254:1
+
+ Pow5:/sys/class/tty/hvcs2/ # cat dev
+ 254:2
+
+ Pow5:/sys/class/tty/hvcs3/ # cat dev
+ 254:3
+
+The output from reading the "dev" attribute is the char device major and
+minor numbers that the tty layer has allocated for this driver's use. Most
+systems running hvcs will already have the device entries created or udev
+will do it automatically.
+
+Given the example output above, to manually create a /dev/hvcs* node entry
+mknod can be used as follows:
+
+ mknod /dev/hvcs0 c 254 0
+ mknod /dev/hvcs1 c 254 1
+ mknod /dev/hvcs2 c 254 2
+ mknod /dev/hvcs3 c 254 3
+
+Using mknod to manually create the device entries makes these device nodes
+persistent. Once created they will exist prior to the driver insmod.
+
+Attempting to connect an application to /dev/hvcs* prior to insertion of
+the hvcs module will result in an error message similar to the following:
+
+ "/dev/hvcs*: No such device".
+
+NOTE: Just because there is a device node present doesn't mean that there
+is a vty-server device configured for that node.
+
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+5. Connection
+
+Since this driver controls devices that provide a tty interface a user can
+interact with the device node entries using any standard tty-interactive
+method (e.g. "cat", "dd", "echo"). The intent of this driver however, is
+to provide real time console interaction with a Linux partition's console,
+which requires the use of applications that provide bi-directional,
+interactive I/O with a tty device.
+
+Applications (e.g. "minicom" and "screen") that act as terminal emulators
+or perform terminal type control sequence conversion on the data being
+passed through them are NOT acceptable for providing interactive console
+I/O. These programs often emulate antiquated terminal types (vt100 and
+ANSI) and expect inbound data to take the form of one of these supported
+terminal types but they either do not convert, or do not _adequately_
+convert, outbound data into the terminal type of the terminal which invoked
+them (though screen makes an attempt and can apparently be configured with
+much termcap wrestling.)
+
+For this reason kermit and cu are two of the recommended applications for
+interacting with a Linux console via an hvcs device. These programs simply
+act as a conduit for data transfer to and from the tty device. They do not
+require inbound data to take the form of a particular terminal type, nor do
+they cook outbound data to a particular terminal type.
+
+In order to ensure proper functioning of console applications one must make
+sure that once connected to a /dev/hvcs console that the console's $TERM
+env variable is set to the exact terminal type of the terminal emulator
+used to launch the interactive I/O application. If one is using xterm and
+kermit to connect to /dev/hvcs0 when the console prompt becomes available
+one should "export TERM=xterm" on the console. This tells ncurses
+applications that are invoked from the console that they should output
+control sequences that xterm can understand.
+
+As a precautionary measure an hvcs user should always "exit" from their
+session before disconnecting an application such as kermit from the device
+node. If this is not done, the next user to connect to the console will
+continue using the previous user's logged in session which includes
+using the $TERM variable that the previous user supplied.
+
+Hotplug add and remove of vty-server adapters affects which /dev/hvcs* node
+is used to connect to each vty-server adapter. In order to determine which
+vty-server adapter is associated with which /dev/hvcs* node a special sysfs
+attribute has been added to each vty-server sysfs entry. This entry is
+called "index" and showing it reveals an integer that refers to the
+/dev/hvcs* entry to use to connect to that device. For instance cating the
+index attribute of vty-server adapter 30000004 shows the following.
+
+ Pow5:/sys/bus/vio/drivers/hvcs/30000004 # cat index
+ 2
+
+This index of '2' means that in order to connect to vty-server adapter
+30000004 the user should interact with /dev/hvcs2.
+
+It should be noted that due to the system hotplug I/O capabilities of a
+system the /dev/hvcs* entry that interacts with a particular vty-server
+adapter is not guaranteed to remain the same across system reboots. Look
+in the Q & A section for more on this issue.
+
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+6. Disconnection
+
+As a security feature to prevent the delivery of stale data to an
+unintended target the Power5 system firmware disables the fetching of data
+and discards that data when a connection between a vty-server and a vty has
+been severed. As an example, when a vty-server is immediately disconnected
+from a vty following output of data to the vty the vty adapter may not have
+enough time between when it received the data interrupt and when the
+connection was severed to fetch the data from firmware before the fetch is
+disabled by firmware.
+
+When hvcs is being used to serve consoles this behavior is not a huge issue
+because the adapter stays connected for large amounts of time following
+almost all data writes. When hvcs is being used as a tty conduit to tunnel
+data between two partitions [see Q & A below] this is a huge problem
+because the standard Linux behavior when cat'ing or dd'ing data to a device
+is to open the tty, send the data, and then close the tty. If this driver
+manually terminated vty-server connections on tty close this would close
+the vty-server and vty connection before the target vty has had a chance to
+fetch the data.
+
+Additionally, disconnecting a vty-server and vty only on module removal or
+adapter removal is impractical because other vty-servers in other
+partitions may require the usage of the target vty at any time.
+
+Due to this behavioral restriction disconnection of vty-servers from the
+connected vty is a manual procedure using a write to a sysfs attribute
+outlined below, on the other hand the initial vty-server connection to a
+vty is established automatically by this driver. Manual vty-server
+connection is never required.
+
+In order to terminate the connection between a vty-server and vty the
+"vterm_state" sysfs attribute within each vty-server's sysfs entry is used.
+Reading this attribute reveals the current connection state of the
+vty-server adapter. A zero means that the vty-server is not connected to a
+vty. A one indicates that a connection is active.
+
+Writing a '0' (zero) to the vterm_state attribute will disconnect the VTERM
+connection between the vty-server and target vty ONLY if the vterm_state
+previously read '1'. The write directive is ignored if the vterm_state
+read '0' or if any value other than '0' was written to the vterm_state
+attribute. The following example will show the method used for verifying
+the vty-server connection status and disconnecting a vty-server connection.
+
+ Pow5:/sys/bus/vio/drivers/hvcs/30000004 # cat vterm_state
+ 1
+
+ Pow5:/sys/bus/vio/drivers/hvcs/30000004 # echo 0 > vterm_state
+
+ Pow5:/sys/bus/vio/drivers/hvcs/30000004 # cat vterm_state
+ 0
+
+All vty-server connections are automatically terminated when the device is
+hotplug removed and when the module is removed.
+
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+7. Configuration
+
+Each vty-server has a sysfs entry in the /sys/devices/vio directory, which
+is symlinked in several other sysfs tree directories, notably under the
+hvcs driver entry, which looks like the following example:
+
+ Pow5:/sys/bus/vio/drivers/hvcs # ls
+ . .. 30000003 30000004 rescan
+
+By design, firmware notifies the hvcs driver of vty-server lifetimes and
+partner vty removals but not the addition of partner vtys. Since an HMC
+Super Admin can add partner info dynamically we have provided the hvcs
+driver sysfs directory with the "rescan" update attribute which will query
+firmware and update the partner info for all the vty-servers that this
+driver manages. Writing a '1' to the attribute triggers the update. An
+explicit example follows:
+
+ Pow5:/sys/bus/vio/drivers/hvcs # echo 1 > rescan
+
+Reading the attribute will indicate a state of '1' or '0'. A one indicates
+that an update is in process. A zero indicates that an update has
+completed or was never executed.
+
+Vty-server entries in this directory are a 32 bit partition unique unit
+address that is created by firmware. An example vty-server sysfs entry
+looks like the following:
+
+ Pow5:/sys/bus/vio/drivers/hvcs/30000004 # ls
+ . current_vty devspec name partner_vtys
+ .. index partner_clcs vterm_state
+
+Each entry is provided, by default with a "name" attribute. Reading the
+"name" attribute will reveal the device type as shown in the following
+example:
+
+ Pow5:/sys/bus/vio/drivers/hvcs/30000003 # cat name
+ vty-server
+
+Each entry is also provided, by default, with a "devspec" attribute which
+reveals the full device specification when read, as shown in the following
+example:
+
+ Pow5:/sys/bus/vio/drivers/hvcs/30000004 # cat devspec
+ /vdevice/vty-server@30000004
+
+Each vty-server sysfs dir is provided with two read-only attributes that
+provide lists of easily parsed partner vty data: "partner_vtys" and
+"partner_clcs".
+
+ Pow5:/sys/bus/vio/drivers/hvcs/30000004 # cat partner_vtys
+ 30000000
+ 30000001
+ 30000002
+ 30000000
+ 30000000
+
+ Pow5:/sys/bus/vio/drivers/hvcs/30000004 # cat partner_clcs
+ U5112.428.103048A-V3-C0
+ U5112.428.103048A-V3-C2
+ U5112.428.103048A-V3-C3
+ U5112.428.103048A-V4-C0
+ U5112.428.103048A-V5-C0
+
+Reading partner_vtys returns a list of partner vtys. Vty unit address
+numbering is only per-partition-unique so entries will frequently repeat.
+
+Reading partner_clcs returns a list of "converged location codes" which are
+composed of a system serial number followed by "-V*", where the '*' is the
+target partition number, and "-C*", where the '*' is the slot of the
+adapter. The first vty partner corresponds to the first clc item, the
+second vty partner to the second clc item, etc.
+
+A vty-server can only be connected to a single vty at a time. The entry,
+"current_vty" prints the clc of the currently selected partner vty when
+read.
+
+The current_vty can be changed by writing a valid partner clc to the entry
+as in the following example:
+
+ Pow5:/sys/bus/vio/drivers/hvcs/30000004 # echo U5112.428.10304
+ 8A-V4-C0 > current_vty
+
+Changing the current_vty when a vty-server is already connected to a vty
+does not affect the current connection. The change takes effect when the
+currently open connection is freed.
+
+Information on the "vterm_state" attribute was covered earlier on the
+chapter entitled "disconnection".
+
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+8. Questions & Answers:
+===========================================================================
+Q: What are the security concerns involving hvcs?
+
+A: There are three main security concerns:
+
+ 1. The creator of the /dev/hvcs* nodes has the ability to restrict
+ the access of the device entries to certain users or groups. It
+ may be best to create a special hvcs group privilege for providing
+ access to system consoles.
+
+ 2. To provide network security when grabbing the console it is
+ suggested that the user connect to the console hosting partition
+ using a secure method, such as SSH or sit at a hardware console.
+
+ 3. Make sure to exit the user session when done with a console or
+ the next vty-server connection (which may be from another
+ partition) will experience the previously logged in session.
+
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+Q: How do I multiplex a console that I grab through hvcs so that other
+people can see it:
+
+A: You can use "screen" to directly connect to the /dev/hvcs* device and
+setup a session on your machine with the console group privileges. As
+pointed out earlier by default screen doesn't provide the termcap settings
+for most terminal emulators to provide adequate character conversion from
+term type "screen" to others. This means that curses based programs may
+not display properly in screen sessions.
+
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+Q: Why are the colors all messed up?
+Q: Why are the control characters acting strange or not working?
+Q: Why is the console output all strange and unintelligible?
+
+A: Please see the preceding section on "Connection" for a discussion of how
+applications can affect the display of character control sequences.
+Additionally, just because you logged into the console using and xterm
+doesn't mean someone else didn't log into the console with the HMC console
+(vt320) before you and leave the session logged in. The best thing to do
+is to export TERM to the terminal type of your terminal emulator when you
+get the console. Additionally make sure to "exit" the console before you
+disconnect from the console. This will ensure that the next user gets
+their own TERM type set when they login.
+
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+Q: When I try to CONNECT kermit to an hvcs device I get:
+"Sorry, can't open connection: /dev/hvcs*"What is happening?
+
+A: Some other Power5 console mechanism has a connection to the vty and
+isn't giving it up. You can try to force disconnect the consoles from the
+HMC by right clicking on the partition and then selecting "close terminal".
+Otherwise you have to hunt down the people who have console authority. It
+is possible that you already have the console open using another kermit
+session and just forgot about it. Please review the console options for
+Power5 systems to determine the many ways a system console can be held.
+
+OR
+
+A: Another user may not have a connectivity method currently attached to a
+/dev/hvcs device but the vterm_state may reveal that they still have the
+vty-server connection established. They need to free this using the method
+outlined in the section on "Disconnection" in order for others to connect
+to the target vty.
+
+OR
+
+A: The user profile you are using to execute kermit probably doesn't have
+permissions to use the /dev/hvcs* device.
+
+OR
+
+A: You probably haven't inserted the hvcs.ko module yet but the /dev/hvcs*
+entry still exists (on systems without udev).
+
+OR
+
+A: There is not a corresponding vty-server device that maps to an existing
+/dev/hvcs* entry.
+
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+Q: When I try to CONNECT kermit to an hvcs device I get:
+"Sorry, write access to UUCP lockfile directory denied."
+
+A: The /dev/hvcs* entry you have specified doesn't exist where you said it
+does? Maybe you haven't inserted the module (on systems with udev).
+
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+Q: If I already have one Linux partition installed can I use hvcs on said
+partition to provide the console for the install of a second Linux
+partition?
+
+A: Yes granted that your are connected to the /dev/hvcs* device using
+kermit or cu or some other program that doesn't provide terminal emulation.
+
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+Q: Can I connect to more than one partition's console at a time using this
+driver?
+
+A: Yes. Of course this means that there must be more than one vty-server
+configured for this partition and each must point to a disconnected vty.
+
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+Q: Does the hvcs driver support dynamic (hotplug) addition of devices?
+
+A: Yes, if you have dlpar and hotplug enabled for your system and it has
+been built into the kernel the hvcs drivers is configured to dynamically
+handle additions of new devices and removals of unused devices.
+
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+Q: For some reason /dev/hvcs* doesn't map to the same vty-server adapter
+after a reboot. What happened?
+
+A: Assignment of vty-server adapters to /dev/hvcs* entries is always done
+in the order that the adapters are exposed. Due to hotplug capabilities of
+this driver assignment of hotplug added vty-servers may be in a different
+order than how they would be exposed on module load. Rebooting or
+reloading the module after dynamic addition may result in the /dev/hvcs*
+and vty-server coupling changing if a vty-server adapter was added in a
+slot between two other vty-server adapters. Refer to the section above
+on how to determine which vty-server goes with which /dev/hvcs* node.
+Hint; look at the sysfs "index" attribute for the vty-server.
+
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+Q: Can I use /dev/hvcs* as a conduit to another partition and use a tty
+device on that partition as the other end of the pipe?
+
+A: Yes, on Power5 platforms the hvc_console driver provides a tty interface
+for extra /dev/hvc* devices (where /dev/hvc0 is most likely the console).
+In order to get a tty conduit working between the two partitions the HMC
+Super Admin must create an additional "serial server" for the target
+partition with the HMC gui which will show up as /dev/hvc* when the target
+partition is rebooted.
+
+The HMC Super Admin then creates an additional "serial client" for the
+current partition and points this at the target partition's newly created
+"serial server" adapter (remember the slot). This shows up as an
+additional /dev/hvcs* device.
+
+Now a program on the target system can be configured to read or write to
+/dev/hvc* and another program on the current partition can be configured to
+read or write to /dev/hvcs*. Now you have a tty conduit between two
+partitions.
+
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+9. Reporting Bugs:
+
+The proper channel for reporting bugs is either through the Linux OS
+distribution company that provided your OS or by posting issues to the
+PowerPC development mailing list at:
+
+linuxppc-dev@lists.ozlabs.org
+
+This request is to provide a documented and searchable public exchange
+of the problems and solutions surrounding this driver for the benefit of
+all users.