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+Runtime Power Management Framework for I/O Devices
+
+(C) 2009-2011 Rafael J. Wysocki <rjw@sisk.pl>, Novell Inc.
+(C) 2010 Alan Stern <stern@rowland.harvard.edu>
+
+1. Introduction
+
+Support for runtime power management (runtime PM) of I/O devices is provided
+at the power management core (PM core) level by means of:
+
+* The power management workqueue pm_wq in which bus types and device drivers can
+ put their PM-related work items. It is strongly recommended that pm_wq be
+ used for queuing all work items related to runtime PM, because this allows
+ them to be synchronized with system-wide power transitions (suspend to RAM,
+ hibernation and resume from system sleep states). pm_wq is declared in
+ include/linux/pm_runtime.h and defined in kernel/power/main.c.
+
+* A number of runtime PM fields in the 'power' member of 'struct device' (which
+ is of the type 'struct dev_pm_info', defined in include/linux/pm.h) that can
+ be used for synchronizing runtime PM operations with one another.
+
+* Three device runtime PM callbacks in 'struct dev_pm_ops' (defined in
+ include/linux/pm.h).
+
+* A set of helper functions defined in drivers/base/power/runtime.c that can be
+ used for carrying out runtime PM operations in such a way that the
+ synchronization between them is taken care of by the PM core. Bus types and
+ device drivers are encouraged to use these functions.
+
+The runtime PM callbacks present in 'struct dev_pm_ops', the device runtime PM
+fields of 'struct dev_pm_info' and the core helper functions provided for
+runtime PM are described below.
+
+2. Device Runtime PM Callbacks
+
+There are three device runtime PM callbacks defined in 'struct dev_pm_ops':
+
+struct dev_pm_ops {
+ ...
+ int (*runtime_suspend)(struct device *dev);
+ int (*runtime_resume)(struct device *dev);
+ int (*runtime_idle)(struct device *dev);
+ ...
+};
+
+The ->runtime_suspend(), ->runtime_resume() and ->runtime_idle() callbacks
+are executed by the PM core for the device's subsystem that may be either of
+the following:
+
+ 1. PM domain of the device, if the device's PM domain object, dev->pm_domain,
+ is present.
+
+ 2. Device type of the device, if both dev->type and dev->type->pm are present.
+
+ 3. Device class of the device, if both dev->class and dev->class->pm are
+ present.
+
+ 4. Bus type of the device, if both dev->bus and dev->bus->pm are present.
+
+If the subsystem chosen by applying the above rules doesn't provide the relevant
+callback, the PM core will invoke the corresponding driver callback stored in
+dev->driver->pm directly (if present).
+
+The PM core always checks which callback to use in the order given above, so the
+priority order of callbacks from high to low is: PM domain, device type, class
+and bus type. Moreover, the high-priority one will always take precedence over
+a low-priority one. The PM domain, bus type, device type and class callbacks
+are referred to as subsystem-level callbacks in what follows.
+
+By default, the callbacks are always invoked in process context with interrupts
+enabled. However, the pm_runtime_irq_safe() helper function can be used to tell
+the PM core that it is safe to run the ->runtime_suspend(), ->runtime_resume()
+and ->runtime_idle() callbacks for the given device in atomic context with
+interrupts disabled. This implies that the callback routines in question must
+not block or sleep, but it also means that the synchronous helper functions
+listed at the end of Section 4 may be used for that device within an interrupt
+handler or generally in an atomic context.
+
+The subsystem-level suspend callback, if present, is _entirely_ _responsible_
+for handling the suspend of the device as appropriate, which may, but need not
+include executing the device driver's own ->runtime_suspend() callback (from the
+PM core's point of view it is not necessary to implement a ->runtime_suspend()
+callback in a device driver as long as the subsystem-level suspend callback
+knows what to do to handle the device).
+
+ * Once the subsystem-level suspend callback (or the driver suspend callback,
+ if invoked directly) has completed successfully for the given device, the PM
+ core regards the device as suspended, which need not mean that it has been
+ put into a low power state. It is supposed to mean, however, that the
+ device will not process data and will not communicate with the CPU(s) and
+ RAM until the appropriate resume callback is executed for it. The runtime
+ PM status of a device after successful execution of the suspend callback is
+ 'suspended'.
+
+ * If the suspend callback returns -EBUSY or -EAGAIN, the device's runtime PM
+ status remains 'active', which means that the device _must_ be fully
+ operational afterwards.
+
+ * If the suspend callback returns an error code different from -EBUSY and
+ -EAGAIN, the PM core regards this as a fatal error and will refuse to run
+ the helper functions described in Section 4 for the device until its status
+ is directly set to either'active', or 'suspended' (the PM core provides
+ special helper functions for this purpose).
+
+In particular, if the driver requires remote wakeup capability (i.e. hardware
+mechanism allowing the device to request a change of its power state, such as
+PCI PME) for proper functioning and device_run_wake() returns 'false' for the
+device, then ->runtime_suspend() should return -EBUSY. On the other hand, if
+device_run_wake() returns 'true' for the device and the device is put into a
+low-power state during the execution of the suspend callback, it is expected
+that remote wakeup will be enabled for the device. Generally, remote wakeup
+should be enabled for all input devices put into low-power states at run time.
+
+The subsystem-level resume callback, if present, is _entirely_ _responsible_ for
+handling the resume of the device as appropriate, which may, but need not
+include executing the device driver's own ->runtime_resume() callback (from the
+PM core's point of view it is not necessary to implement a ->runtime_resume()
+callback in a device driver as long as the subsystem-level resume callback knows
+what to do to handle the device).
+
+ * Once the subsystem-level resume callback (or the driver resume callback, if
+ invoked directly) has completed successfully, the PM core regards the device
+ as fully operational, which means that the device _must_ be able to complete
+ I/O operations as needed. The runtime PM status of the device is then
+ 'active'.
+
+ * If the resume callback returns an error code, the PM core regards this as a
+ fatal error and will refuse to run the helper functions described in Section
+ 4 for the device, until its status is directly set to either 'active', or
+ 'suspended' (by means of special helper functions provided by the PM core
+ for this purpose).
+
+The idle callback (a subsystem-level one, if present, or the driver one) is
+executed by the PM core whenever the device appears to be idle, which is
+indicated to the PM core by two counters, the device's usage counter and the
+counter of 'active' children of the device.
+
+ * If any of these counters is decreased using a helper function provided by
+ the PM core and it turns out to be equal to zero, the other counter is
+ checked. If that counter also is equal to zero, the PM core executes the
+ idle callback with the device as its argument.
+
+The action performed by the idle callback is totally dependent on the subsystem
+(or driver) in question, but the expected and recommended action is to check
+if the device can be suspended (i.e. if all of the conditions necessary for
+suspending the device are satisfied) and to queue up a suspend request for the
+device in that case. The value returned by this callback is ignored by the PM
+core.
+
+The helper functions provided by the PM core, described in Section 4, guarantee
+that the following constraints are met with respect to runtime PM callbacks for
+one device:
+
+(1) The callbacks are mutually exclusive (e.g. it is forbidden to execute
+ ->runtime_suspend() in parallel with ->runtime_resume() or with another
+ instance of ->runtime_suspend() for the same device) with the exception that
+ ->runtime_suspend() or ->runtime_resume() can be executed in parallel with
+ ->runtime_idle() (although ->runtime_idle() will not be started while any
+ of the other callbacks is being executed for the same device).
+
+(2) ->runtime_idle() and ->runtime_suspend() can only be executed for 'active'
+ devices (i.e. the PM core will only execute ->runtime_idle() or
+ ->runtime_suspend() for the devices the runtime PM status of which is
+ 'active').
+
+(3) ->runtime_idle() and ->runtime_suspend() can only be executed for a device
+ the usage counter of which is equal to zero _and_ either the counter of
+ 'active' children of which is equal to zero, or the 'power.ignore_children'
+ flag of which is set.
+
+(4) ->runtime_resume() can only be executed for 'suspended' devices (i.e. the
+ PM core will only execute ->runtime_resume() for the devices the runtime
+ PM status of which is 'suspended').
+
+Additionally, the helper functions provided by the PM core obey the following
+rules:
+
+ * If ->runtime_suspend() is about to be executed or there's a pending request
+ to execute it, ->runtime_idle() will not be executed for the same device.
+
+ * A request to execute or to schedule the execution of ->runtime_suspend()
+ will cancel any pending requests to execute ->runtime_idle() for the same
+ device.
+
+ * If ->runtime_resume() is about to be executed or there's a pending request
+ to execute it, the other callbacks will not be executed for the same device.
+
+ * A request to execute ->runtime_resume() will cancel any pending or
+ scheduled requests to execute the other callbacks for the same device,
+ except for scheduled autosuspends.
+
+3. Runtime PM Device Fields
+
+The following device runtime PM fields are present in 'struct dev_pm_info', as
+defined in include/linux/pm.h:
+
+ struct timer_list suspend_timer;
+ - timer used for scheduling (delayed) suspend and autosuspend requests
+
+ unsigned long timer_expires;
+ - timer expiration time, in jiffies (if this is different from zero, the
+ timer is running and will expire at that time, otherwise the timer is not
+ running)
+
+ struct work_struct work;
+ - work structure used for queuing up requests (i.e. work items in pm_wq)
+
+ wait_queue_head_t wait_queue;
+ - wait queue used if any of the helper functions needs to wait for another
+ one to complete
+
+ spinlock_t lock;
+ - lock used for synchronisation
+
+ atomic_t usage_count;
+ - the usage counter of the device
+
+ atomic_t child_count;
+ - the count of 'active' children of the device
+
+ unsigned int ignore_children;
+ - if set, the value of child_count is ignored (but still updated)
+
+ unsigned int disable_depth;
+ - used for disabling the helper funcions (they work normally if this is
+ equal to zero); the initial value of it is 1 (i.e. runtime PM is
+ initially disabled for all devices)
+
+ unsigned int runtime_error;
+ - if set, there was a fatal error (one of the callbacks returned error code
+ as described in Section 2), so the helper funtions will not work until
+ this flag is cleared; this is the error code returned by the failing
+ callback
+
+ unsigned int idle_notification;
+ - if set, ->runtime_idle() is being executed
+
+ unsigned int request_pending;
+ - if set, there's a pending request (i.e. a work item queued up into pm_wq)
+
+ enum rpm_request request;
+ - type of request that's pending (valid if request_pending is set)
+
+ unsigned int deferred_resume;
+ - set if ->runtime_resume() is about to be run while ->runtime_suspend() is
+ being executed for that device and it is not practical to wait for the
+ suspend to complete; means "start a resume as soon as you've suspended"
+
+ unsigned int run_wake;
+ - set if the device is capable of generating runtime wake-up events
+
+ enum rpm_status runtime_status;
+ - the runtime PM status of the device; this field's initial value is
+ RPM_SUSPENDED, which means that each device is initially regarded by the
+ PM core as 'suspended', regardless of its real hardware status
+
+ unsigned int runtime_auto;
+ - if set, indicates that the user space has allowed the device driver to
+ power manage the device at run time via the /sys/devices/.../power/control
+ interface; it may only be modified with the help of the pm_runtime_allow()
+ and pm_runtime_forbid() helper functions
+
+ unsigned int no_callbacks;
+ - indicates that the device does not use the runtime PM callbacks (see
+ Section 8); it may be modified only by the pm_runtime_no_callbacks()
+ helper function
+
+ unsigned int irq_safe;
+ - indicates that the ->runtime_suspend() and ->runtime_resume() callbacks
+ will be invoked with the spinlock held and interrupts disabled
+
+ unsigned int use_autosuspend;
+ - indicates that the device's driver supports delayed autosuspend (see
+ Section 9); it may be modified only by the
+ pm_runtime{_dont}_use_autosuspend() helper functions
+
+ unsigned int timer_autosuspends;
+ - indicates that the PM core should attempt to carry out an autosuspend
+ when the timer expires rather than a normal suspend
+
+ int autosuspend_delay;
+ - the delay time (in milliseconds) to be used for autosuspend
+
+ unsigned long last_busy;
+ - the time (in jiffies) when the pm_runtime_mark_last_busy() helper
+ function was last called for this device; used in calculating inactivity
+ periods for autosuspend
+
+All of the above fields are members of the 'power' member of 'struct device'.
+
+4. Runtime PM Device Helper Functions
+
+The following runtime PM helper functions are defined in
+drivers/base/power/runtime.c and include/linux/pm_runtime.h:
+
+ void pm_runtime_init(struct device *dev);
+ - initialize the device runtime PM fields in 'struct dev_pm_info'
+
+ void pm_runtime_remove(struct device *dev);
+ - make sure that the runtime PM of the device will be disabled after
+ removing the device from device hierarchy
+
+ int pm_runtime_idle(struct device *dev);
+ - execute the subsystem-level idle callback for the device; returns 0 on
+ success or error code on failure, where -EINPROGRESS means that
+ ->runtime_idle() is already being executed
+
+ int pm_runtime_suspend(struct device *dev);
+ - execute the subsystem-level suspend callback for the device; returns 0 on
+ success, 1 if the device's runtime PM status was already 'suspended', or
+ error code on failure, where -EAGAIN or -EBUSY means it is safe to attempt
+ to suspend the device again in future and -EACCES means that
+ 'power.disable_depth' is different from 0
+
+ int pm_runtime_autosuspend(struct device *dev);
+ - same as pm_runtime_suspend() except that the autosuspend delay is taken
+ into account; if pm_runtime_autosuspend_expiration() says the delay has
+ not yet expired then an autosuspend is scheduled for the appropriate time
+ and 0 is returned
+
+ int pm_runtime_resume(struct device *dev);
+ - execute the subsystem-level resume callback for the device; returns 0 on
+ success, 1 if the device's runtime PM status was already 'active' or
+ error code on failure, where -EAGAIN means it may be safe to attempt to
+ resume the device again in future, but 'power.runtime_error' should be
+ checked additionally, and -EACCES means that 'power.disable_depth' is
+ different from 0
+
+ int pm_request_idle(struct device *dev);
+ - submit a request to execute the subsystem-level idle callback for the
+ device (the request is represented by a work item in pm_wq); returns 0 on
+ success or error code if the request has not been queued up
+
+ int pm_request_autosuspend(struct device *dev);
+ - schedule the execution of the subsystem-level suspend callback for the
+ device when the autosuspend delay has expired; if the delay has already
+ expired then the work item is queued up immediately
+
+ int pm_schedule_suspend(struct device *dev, unsigned int delay);
+ - schedule the execution of the subsystem-level suspend callback for the
+ device in future, where 'delay' is the time to wait before queuing up a
+ suspend work item in pm_wq, in milliseconds (if 'delay' is zero, the work
+ item is queued up immediately); returns 0 on success, 1 if the device's PM
+ runtime status was already 'suspended', or error code if the request
+ hasn't been scheduled (or queued up if 'delay' is 0); if the execution of
+ ->runtime_suspend() is already scheduled and not yet expired, the new
+ value of 'delay' will be used as the time to wait
+
+ int pm_request_resume(struct device *dev);
+ - submit a request to execute the subsystem-level resume callback for the
+ device (the request is represented by a work item in pm_wq); returns 0 on
+ success, 1 if the device's runtime PM status was already 'active', or
+ error code if the request hasn't been queued up
+
+ void pm_runtime_get_noresume(struct device *dev);
+ - increment the device's usage counter
+
+ int pm_runtime_get(struct device *dev);
+ - increment the device's usage counter, run pm_request_resume(dev) and
+ return its result
+
+ int pm_runtime_get_sync(struct device *dev);
+ - increment the device's usage counter, run pm_runtime_resume(dev) and
+ return its result
+
+ void pm_runtime_put_noidle(struct device *dev);
+ - decrement the device's usage counter
+
+ int pm_runtime_put(struct device *dev);
+ - decrement the device's usage counter; if the result is 0 then run
+ pm_request_idle(dev) and return its result
+
+ int pm_runtime_put_autosuspend(struct device *dev);
+ - decrement the device's usage counter; if the result is 0 then run
+ pm_request_autosuspend(dev) and return its result
+
+ int pm_runtime_put_sync(struct device *dev);
+ - decrement the device's usage counter; if the result is 0 then run
+ pm_runtime_idle(dev) and return its result
+
+ int pm_runtime_put_sync_suspend(struct device *dev);
+ - decrement the device's usage counter; if the result is 0 then run
+ pm_runtime_suspend(dev) and return its result
+
+ int pm_runtime_put_sync_autosuspend(struct device *dev);
+ - decrement the device's usage counter; if the result is 0 then run
+ pm_runtime_autosuspend(dev) and return its result
+
+ void pm_runtime_enable(struct device *dev);
+ - decrement the device's 'power.disable_depth' field; if that field is equal
+ to zero, the runtime PM helper functions can execute subsystem-level
+ callbacks described in Section 2 for the device
+
+ int pm_runtime_disable(struct device *dev);
+ - increment the device's 'power.disable_depth' field (if the value of that
+ field was previously zero, this prevents subsystem-level runtime PM
+ callbacks from being run for the device), make sure that all of the pending
+ runtime PM operations on the device are either completed or canceled;
+ returns 1 if there was a resume request pending and it was necessary to
+ execute the subsystem-level resume callback for the device to satisfy that
+ request, otherwise 0 is returned
+
+ int pm_runtime_barrier(struct device *dev);
+ - check if there's a resume request pending for the device and resume it
+ (synchronously) in that case, cancel any other pending runtime PM requests
+ regarding it and wait for all runtime PM operations on it in progress to
+ complete; returns 1 if there was a resume request pending and it was
+ necessary to execute the subsystem-level resume callback for the device to
+ satisfy that request, otherwise 0 is returned
+
+ void pm_suspend_ignore_children(struct device *dev, bool enable);
+ - set/unset the power.ignore_children flag of the device
+
+ int pm_runtime_set_active(struct device *dev);
+ - clear the device's 'power.runtime_error' flag, set the device's runtime
+ PM status to 'active' and update its parent's counter of 'active'
+ children as appropriate (it is only valid to use this function if
+ 'power.runtime_error' is set or 'power.disable_depth' is greater than
+ zero); it will fail and return error code if the device has a parent
+ which is not active and the 'power.ignore_children' flag of which is unset
+
+ void pm_runtime_set_suspended(struct device *dev);
+ - clear the device's 'power.runtime_error' flag, set the device's runtime
+ PM status to 'suspended' and update its parent's counter of 'active'
+ children as appropriate (it is only valid to use this function if
+ 'power.runtime_error' is set or 'power.disable_depth' is greater than
+ zero)
+
+ bool pm_runtime_active(struct device *dev);
+ - return true if the device's runtime PM status is 'active' or its
+ 'power.disable_depth' field is not equal to zero, or false otherwise
+
+ bool pm_runtime_suspended(struct device *dev);
+ - return true if the device's runtime PM status is 'suspended' and its
+ 'power.disable_depth' field is equal to zero, or false otherwise
+
+ bool pm_runtime_status_suspended(struct device *dev);
+ - return true if the device's runtime PM status is 'suspended'
+
+ void pm_runtime_allow(struct device *dev);
+ - set the power.runtime_auto flag for the device and decrease its usage
+ counter (used by the /sys/devices/.../power/control interface to
+ effectively allow the device to be power managed at run time)
+
+ void pm_runtime_forbid(struct device *dev);
+ - unset the power.runtime_auto flag for the device and increase its usage
+ counter (used by the /sys/devices/.../power/control interface to
+ effectively prevent the device from being power managed at run time)
+
+ void pm_runtime_no_callbacks(struct device *dev);
+ - set the power.no_callbacks flag for the device and remove the runtime
+ PM attributes from /sys/devices/.../power (or prevent them from being
+ added when the device is registered)
+
+ void pm_runtime_irq_safe(struct device *dev);
+ - set the power.irq_safe flag for the device, causing the runtime-PM
+ callbacks to be invoked with interrupts off
+
+ void pm_runtime_mark_last_busy(struct device *dev);
+ - set the power.last_busy field to the current time
+
+ void pm_runtime_use_autosuspend(struct device *dev);
+ - set the power.use_autosuspend flag, enabling autosuspend delays
+
+ void pm_runtime_dont_use_autosuspend(struct device *dev);
+ - clear the power.use_autosuspend flag, disabling autosuspend delays
+
+ void pm_runtime_set_autosuspend_delay(struct device *dev, int delay);
+ - set the power.autosuspend_delay value to 'delay' (expressed in
+ milliseconds); if 'delay' is negative then runtime suspends are
+ prevented
+
+ unsigned long pm_runtime_autosuspend_expiration(struct device *dev);
+ - calculate the time when the current autosuspend delay period will expire,
+ based on power.last_busy and power.autosuspend_delay; if the delay time
+ is 1000 ms or larger then the expiration time is rounded up to the
+ nearest second; returns 0 if the delay period has already expired or
+ power.use_autosuspend isn't set, otherwise returns the expiration time
+ in jiffies
+
+It is safe to execute the following helper functions from interrupt context:
+
+pm_request_idle()
+pm_request_autosuspend()
+pm_schedule_suspend()
+pm_request_resume()
+pm_runtime_get_noresume()
+pm_runtime_get()
+pm_runtime_put_noidle()
+pm_runtime_put()
+pm_runtime_put_autosuspend()
+pm_runtime_enable()
+pm_suspend_ignore_children()
+pm_runtime_set_active()
+pm_runtime_set_suspended()
+pm_runtime_suspended()
+pm_runtime_mark_last_busy()
+pm_runtime_autosuspend_expiration()
+
+If pm_runtime_irq_safe() has been called for a device then the following helper
+functions may also be used in interrupt context:
+
+pm_runtime_idle()
+pm_runtime_suspend()
+pm_runtime_autosuspend()
+pm_runtime_resume()
+pm_runtime_get_sync()
+pm_runtime_put_sync()
+pm_runtime_put_sync_suspend()
+pm_runtime_put_sync_autosuspend()
+
+5. Runtime PM Initialization, Device Probing and Removal
+
+Initially, the runtime PM is disabled for all devices, which means that the
+majority of the runtime PM helper funtions described in Section 4 will return
+-EAGAIN until pm_runtime_enable() is called for the device.
+
+In addition to that, the initial runtime PM status of all devices is
+'suspended', but it need not reflect the actual physical state of the device.
+Thus, if the device is initially active (i.e. it is able to process I/O), its
+runtime PM status must be changed to 'active', with the help of
+pm_runtime_set_active(), before pm_runtime_enable() is called for the device.
+
+However, if the device has a parent and the parent's runtime PM is enabled,
+calling pm_runtime_set_active() for the device will affect the parent, unless
+the parent's 'power.ignore_children' flag is set. Namely, in that case the
+parent won't be able to suspend at run time, using the PM core's helper
+functions, as long as the child's status is 'active', even if the child's
+runtime PM is still disabled (i.e. pm_runtime_enable() hasn't been called for
+the child yet or pm_runtime_disable() has been called for it). For this reason,
+once pm_runtime_set_active() has been called for the device, pm_runtime_enable()
+should be called for it too as soon as reasonably possible or its runtime PM
+status should be changed back to 'suspended' with the help of
+pm_runtime_set_suspended().
+
+If the default initial runtime PM status of the device (i.e. 'suspended')
+reflects the actual state of the device, its bus type's or its driver's
+->probe() callback will likely need to wake it up using one of the PM core's
+helper functions described in Section 4. In that case, pm_runtime_resume()
+should be used. Of course, for this purpose the device's runtime PM has to be
+enabled earlier by calling pm_runtime_enable().
+
+If the device bus type's or driver's ->probe() callback runs
+pm_runtime_suspend() or pm_runtime_idle() or their asynchronous counterparts,
+they will fail returning -EAGAIN, because the device's usage counter is
+incremented by the driver core before executing ->probe(). Still, it may be
+desirable to suspend the device as soon as ->probe() has finished, so the driver
+core uses pm_runtime_put_sync() to invoke the subsystem-level idle callback for
+the device at that time.
+
+Moreover, the driver core prevents runtime PM callbacks from racing with the bus
+notifier callback in __device_release_driver(), which is necessary, because the
+notifier is used by some subsystems to carry out operations affecting the
+runtime PM functionality. It does so by calling pm_runtime_get_sync() before
+driver_sysfs_remove() and the BUS_NOTIFY_UNBIND_DRIVER notifications. This
+resumes the device if it's in the suspended state and prevents it from
+being suspended again while those routines are being executed.
+
+To allow bus types and drivers to put devices into the suspended state by
+calling pm_runtime_suspend() from their ->remove() routines, the driver core
+executes pm_runtime_put_sync() after running the BUS_NOTIFY_UNBIND_DRIVER
+notifications in __device_release_driver(). This requires bus types and
+drivers to make their ->remove() callbacks avoid races with runtime PM directly,
+but also it allows of more flexibility in the handling of devices during the
+removal of their drivers.
+
+The user space can effectively disallow the driver of the device to power manage
+it at run time by changing the value of its /sys/devices/.../power/control
+attribute to "on", which causes pm_runtime_forbid() to be called. In principle,
+this mechanism may also be used by the driver to effectively turn off the
+runtime power management of the device until the user space turns it on.
+Namely, during the initialization the driver can make sure that the runtime PM
+status of the device is 'active' and call pm_runtime_forbid(). It should be
+noted, however, that if the user space has already intentionally changed the
+value of /sys/devices/.../power/control to "auto" to allow the driver to power
+manage the device at run time, the driver may confuse it by using
+pm_runtime_forbid() this way.
+
+6. Runtime PM and System Sleep
+
+Runtime PM and system sleep (i.e., system suspend and hibernation, also known
+as suspend-to-RAM and suspend-to-disk) interact with each other in a couple of
+ways. If a device is active when a system sleep starts, everything is
+straightforward. But what should happen if the device is already suspended?
+
+The device may have different wake-up settings for runtime PM and system sleep.
+For example, remote wake-up may be enabled for runtime suspend but disallowed
+for system sleep (device_may_wakeup(dev) returns 'false'). When this happens,
+the subsystem-level system suspend callback is responsible for changing the
+device's wake-up setting (it may leave that to the device driver's system
+suspend routine). It may be necessary to resume the device and suspend it again
+in order to do so. The same is true if the driver uses different power levels
+or other settings for runtime suspend and system sleep.
+
+During system resume, the simplest approach is to bring all devices back to full
+power, even if they had been suspended before the system suspend began. There
+are several reasons for this, including:
+
+ * The device might need to switch power levels, wake-up settings, etc.
+
+ * Remote wake-up events might have been lost by the firmware.
+
+ * The device's children may need the device to be at full power in order
+ to resume themselves.
+
+ * The driver's idea of the device state may not agree with the device's
+ physical state. This can happen during resume from hibernation.
+
+ * The device might need to be reset.
+
+ * Even though the device was suspended, if its usage counter was > 0 then most
+ likely it would need a runtime resume in the near future anyway.
+
+If the device had been suspended before the system suspend began and it's
+brought back to full power during resume, then its runtime PM status will have
+to be updated to reflect the actual post-system sleep status. The way to do
+this is:
+
+ pm_runtime_disable(dev);
+ pm_runtime_set_active(dev);
+ pm_runtime_enable(dev);
+
+The PM core always increments the runtime usage counter before calling the
+->suspend() callback and decrements it after calling the ->resume() callback.
+Hence disabling runtime PM temporarily like this will not cause any runtime
+suspend attempts to be permanently lost. If the usage count goes to zero
+following the return of the ->resume() callback, the ->runtime_idle() callback
+will be invoked as usual.
+
+On some systems, however, system sleep is not entered through a global firmware
+or hardware operation. Instead, all hardware components are put into low-power
+states directly by the kernel in a coordinated way. Then, the system sleep
+state effectively follows from the states the hardware components end up in
+and the system is woken up from that state by a hardware interrupt or a similar
+mechanism entirely under the kernel's control. As a result, the kernel never
+gives control away and the states of all devices during resume are precisely
+known to it. If that is the case and none of the situations listed above takes
+place (in particular, if the system is not waking up from hibernation), it may
+be more efficient to leave the devices that had been suspended before the system
+suspend began in the suspended state.
+
+The PM core does its best to reduce the probability of race conditions between
+the runtime PM and system suspend/resume (and hibernation) callbacks by carrying
+out the following operations:
+
+ * During system suspend it calls pm_runtime_get_noresume() and
+ pm_runtime_barrier() for every device right before executing the
+ subsystem-level .suspend() callback for it. In addition to that it calls
+ __pm_runtime_disable() with 'false' as the second argument for every device
+ right before executing the subsystem-level .suspend_late() callback for it.
+
+ * During system resume it calls pm_runtime_enable() and pm_runtime_put_sync()
+ for every device right after executing the subsystem-level .resume_early()
+ callback and right after executing the subsystem-level .resume() callback
+ for it, respectively.
+
+7. Generic subsystem callbacks
+
+Subsystems may wish to conserve code space by using the set of generic power
+management callbacks provided by the PM core, defined in
+driver/base/power/generic_ops.c:
+
+ int pm_generic_runtime_idle(struct device *dev);
+ - invoke the ->runtime_idle() callback provided by the driver of this
+ device, if defined, and call pm_runtime_suspend() for this device if the
+ return value is 0 or the callback is not defined
+
+ int pm_generic_runtime_suspend(struct device *dev);
+ - invoke the ->runtime_suspend() callback provided by the driver of this
+ device and return its result, or return -EINVAL if not defined
+
+ int pm_generic_runtime_resume(struct device *dev);
+ - invoke the ->runtime_resume() callback provided by the driver of this
+ device and return its result, or return -EINVAL if not defined
+
+ int pm_generic_suspend(struct device *dev);
+ - if the device has not been suspended at run time, invoke the ->suspend()
+ callback provided by its driver and return its result, or return 0 if not
+ defined
+
+ int pm_generic_suspend_noirq(struct device *dev);
+ - if pm_runtime_suspended(dev) returns "false", invoke the ->suspend_noirq()
+ callback provided by the device's driver and return its result, or return
+ 0 if not defined
+
+ int pm_generic_resume(struct device *dev);
+ - invoke the ->resume() callback provided by the driver of this device and,
+ if successful, change the device's runtime PM status to 'active'
+
+ int pm_generic_resume_noirq(struct device *dev);
+ - invoke the ->resume_noirq() callback provided by the driver of this device
+
+ int pm_generic_freeze(struct device *dev);
+ - if the device has not been suspended at run time, invoke the ->freeze()
+ callback provided by its driver and return its result, or return 0 if not
+ defined
+
+ int pm_generic_freeze_noirq(struct device *dev);
+ - if pm_runtime_suspended(dev) returns "false", invoke the ->freeze_noirq()
+ callback provided by the device's driver and return its result, or return
+ 0 if not defined
+
+ int pm_generic_thaw(struct device *dev);
+ - if the device has not been suspended at run time, invoke the ->thaw()
+ callback provided by its driver and return its result, or return 0 if not
+ defined
+
+ int pm_generic_thaw_noirq(struct device *dev);
+ - if pm_runtime_suspended(dev) returns "false", invoke the ->thaw_noirq()
+ callback provided by the device's driver and return its result, or return
+ 0 if not defined
+
+ int pm_generic_poweroff(struct device *dev);
+ - if the device has not been suspended at run time, invoke the ->poweroff()
+ callback provided by its driver and return its result, or return 0 if not
+ defined
+
+ int pm_generic_poweroff_noirq(struct device *dev);
+ - if pm_runtime_suspended(dev) returns "false", run the ->poweroff_noirq()
+ callback provided by the device's driver and return its result, or return
+ 0 if not defined
+
+ int pm_generic_restore(struct device *dev);
+ - invoke the ->restore() callback provided by the driver of this device and,
+ if successful, change the device's runtime PM status to 'active'
+
+ int pm_generic_restore_noirq(struct device *dev);
+ - invoke the ->restore_noirq() callback provided by the device's driver
+
+These functions can be assigned to the ->runtime_idle(), ->runtime_suspend(),
+->runtime_resume(), ->suspend(), ->suspend_noirq(), ->resume(),
+->resume_noirq(), ->freeze(), ->freeze_noirq(), ->thaw(), ->thaw_noirq(),
+->poweroff(), ->poweroff_noirq(), ->restore(), ->restore_noirq() callback
+pointers in the subsystem-level dev_pm_ops structures.
+
+If a subsystem wishes to use all of them at the same time, it can simply assign
+the GENERIC_SUBSYS_PM_OPS macro, defined in include/linux/pm.h, to its
+dev_pm_ops structure pointer.
+
+Device drivers that wish to use the same function as a system suspend, freeze,
+poweroff and runtime suspend callback, and similarly for system resume, thaw,
+restore, and runtime resume, can achieve this with the help of the
+UNIVERSAL_DEV_PM_OPS macro defined in include/linux/pm.h (possibly setting its
+last argument to NULL).
+
+8. "No-Callback" Devices
+
+Some "devices" are only logical sub-devices of their parent and cannot be
+power-managed on their own. (The prototype example is a USB interface. Entire
+USB devices can go into low-power mode or send wake-up requests, but neither is
+possible for individual interfaces.) The drivers for these devices have no
+need of runtime PM callbacks; if the callbacks did exist, ->runtime_suspend()
+and ->runtime_resume() would always return 0 without doing anything else and
+->runtime_idle() would always call pm_runtime_suspend().
+
+Subsystems can tell the PM core about these devices by calling
+pm_runtime_no_callbacks(). This should be done after the device structure is
+initialized and before it is registered (although after device registration is
+also okay). The routine will set the device's power.no_callbacks flag and
+prevent the non-debugging runtime PM sysfs attributes from being created.
+
+When power.no_callbacks is set, the PM core will not invoke the
+->runtime_idle(), ->runtime_suspend(), or ->runtime_resume() callbacks.
+Instead it will assume that suspends and resumes always succeed and that idle
+devices should be suspended.
+
+As a consequence, the PM core will never directly inform the device's subsystem
+or driver about runtime power changes. Instead, the driver for the device's
+parent must take responsibility for telling the device's driver when the
+parent's power state changes.
+
+9. Autosuspend, or automatically-delayed suspends
+
+Changing a device's power state isn't free; it requires both time and energy.
+A device should be put in a low-power state only when there's some reason to
+think it will remain in that state for a substantial time. A common heuristic
+says that a device which hasn't been used for a while is liable to remain
+unused; following this advice, drivers should not allow devices to be suspended
+at runtime until they have been inactive for some minimum period. Even when
+the heuristic ends up being non-optimal, it will still prevent devices from
+"bouncing" too rapidly between low-power and full-power states.
+
+The term "autosuspend" is an historical remnant. It doesn't mean that the
+device is automatically suspended (the subsystem or driver still has to call
+the appropriate PM routines); rather it means that runtime suspends will
+automatically be delayed until the desired period of inactivity has elapsed.
+
+Inactivity is determined based on the power.last_busy field. Drivers should
+call pm_runtime_mark_last_busy() to update this field after carrying out I/O,
+typically just before calling pm_runtime_put_autosuspend(). The desired length
+of the inactivity period is a matter of policy. Subsystems can set this length
+initially by calling pm_runtime_set_autosuspend_delay(), but after device
+registration the length should be controlled by user space, using the
+/sys/devices/.../power/autosuspend_delay_ms attribute.
+
+In order to use autosuspend, subsystems or drivers must call
+pm_runtime_use_autosuspend() (preferably before registering the device), and
+thereafter they should use the various *_autosuspend() helper functions instead
+of the non-autosuspend counterparts:
+
+ Instead of: pm_runtime_suspend use: pm_runtime_autosuspend;
+ Instead of: pm_schedule_suspend use: pm_request_autosuspend;
+ Instead of: pm_runtime_put use: pm_runtime_put_autosuspend;
+ Instead of: pm_runtime_put_sync use: pm_runtime_put_sync_autosuspend.
+
+Drivers may also continue to use the non-autosuspend helper functions; they
+will behave normally, not taking the autosuspend delay into account.
+Similarly, if the power.use_autosuspend field isn't set then the autosuspend
+helper functions will behave just like the non-autosuspend counterparts.
+
+Under some circumstances a driver or subsystem may want to prevent a device
+from autosuspending immediately, even though the usage counter is zero and the
+autosuspend delay time has expired. If the ->runtime_suspend() callback
+returns -EAGAIN or -EBUSY, and if the next autosuspend delay expiration time is
+in the future (as it normally would be if the callback invoked
+pm_runtime_mark_last_busy()), the PM core will automatically reschedule the
+autosuspend. The ->runtime_suspend() callback can't do this rescheduling
+itself because no suspend requests of any kind are accepted while the device is
+suspending (i.e., while the callback is running).
+
+The implementation is well suited for asynchronous use in interrupt contexts.
+However such use inevitably involves races, because the PM core can't
+synchronize ->runtime_suspend() callbacks with the arrival of I/O requests.
+This synchronization must be handled by the driver, using its private lock.
+Here is a schematic pseudo-code example:
+
+ foo_read_or_write(struct foo_priv *foo, void *data)
+ {
+ lock(&foo->private_lock);
+ add_request_to_io_queue(foo, data);
+ if (foo->num_pending_requests++ == 0)
+ pm_runtime_get(&foo->dev);
+ if (!foo->is_suspended)
+ foo_process_next_request(foo);
+ unlock(&foo->private_lock);
+ }
+
+ foo_io_completion(struct foo_priv *foo, void *req)
+ {
+ lock(&foo->private_lock);
+ if (--foo->num_pending_requests == 0) {
+ pm_runtime_mark_last_busy(&foo->dev);
+ pm_runtime_put_autosuspend(&foo->dev);
+ } else {
+ foo_process_next_request(foo);
+ }
+ unlock(&foo->private_lock);
+ /* Send req result back to the user ... */
+ }
+
+ int foo_runtime_suspend(struct device *dev)
+ {
+ struct foo_priv foo = container_of(dev, ...);
+ int ret = 0;
+
+ lock(&foo->private_lock);
+ if (foo->num_pending_requests > 0) {
+ ret = -EBUSY;
+ } else {
+ /* ... suspend the device ... */
+ foo->is_suspended = 1;
+ }
+ unlock(&foo->private_lock);
+ return ret;
+ }
+
+ int foo_runtime_resume(struct device *dev)
+ {
+ struct foo_priv foo = container_of(dev, ...);
+
+ lock(&foo->private_lock);
+ /* ... resume the device ... */
+ foo->is_suspended = 0;
+ pm_runtime_mark_last_busy(&foo->dev);
+ if (foo->num_pending_requests > 0)
+ foo_process_requests(foo);
+ unlock(&foo->private_lock);
+ return 0;
+ }
+
+The important point is that after foo_io_completion() asks for an autosuspend,
+the foo_runtime_suspend() callback may race with foo_read_or_write().
+Therefore foo_runtime_suspend() has to check whether there are any pending I/O
+requests (while holding the private lock) before allowing the suspend to
+proceed.
+
+In addition, the power.autosuspend_delay field can be changed by user space at
+any time. If a driver cares about this, it can call
+pm_runtime_autosuspend_expiration() from within the ->runtime_suspend()
+callback while holding its private lock. If the function returns a nonzero
+value then the delay has not yet expired and the callback should return
+-EAGAIN.