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+PHY Abstraction Layer
+(Updated 2008-04-08)
+ Most network devices consist of set of registers which provide an interface
+ to a MAC layer, which communicates with the physical connection through a
+ PHY. The PHY concerns itself with negotiating link parameters with the link
+ partner on the other side of the network connection (typically, an ethernet
+ cable), and provides a register interface to allow drivers to determine what
+ settings were chosen, and to configure what settings are allowed.
+ While these devices are distinct from the network devices, and conform to a
+ standard layout for the registers, it has been common practice to integrate
+ the PHY management code with the network driver. This has resulted in large
+ amounts of redundant code. Also, on embedded systems with multiple (and
+ sometimes quite different) ethernet controllers connected to the same
+ management bus, it is difficult to ensure safe use of the bus.
+ Since the PHYs are devices, and the management busses through which they are
+ accessed are, in fact, busses, the PHY Abstraction Layer treats them as such.
+ In doing so, it has these goals:
+ 1) Increase code-reuse
+ 2) Increase overall code-maintainability
+ 3) Speed development time for new network drivers, and for new systems
+ Basically, this layer is meant to provide an interface to PHY devices which
+ allows network driver writers to write as little code as possible, while
+ still providing a full feature set.
+The MDIO bus
+ Most network devices are connected to a PHY by means of a management bus.
+ Different devices use different busses (though some share common interfaces).
+ In order to take advantage of the PAL, each bus interface needs to be
+ registered as a distinct device.
+ 1) read and write functions must be implemented. Their prototypes are:
+ int write(struct mii_bus *bus, int mii_id, int regnum, u16 value);
+ int read(struct mii_bus *bus, int mii_id, int regnum);
+ mii_id is the address on the bus for the PHY, and regnum is the register
+ number. These functions are guaranteed not to be called from interrupt
+ time, so it is safe for them to block, waiting for an interrupt to signal
+ the operation is complete
+ 2) A reset function is necessary. This is used to return the bus to an
+ initialized state.
+ 3) A probe function is needed. This function should set up anything the bus
+ driver needs, setup the mii_bus structure, and register with the PAL using
+ mdiobus_register. Similarly, there's a remove function to undo all of
+ that (use mdiobus_unregister).
+ 4) Like any driver, the device_driver structure must be configured, and init
+ exit functions are used to register the driver.
+ 5) The bus must also be declared somewhere as a device, and registered.
+ As an example for how one driver implemented an mdio bus driver, see
+ drivers/net/ethernet/freescale/fsl_pq_mdio.c and an associated DTS file
+ for one of the users. (e.g. "git grep fsl,.*-mdio arch/powerpc/boot/dts/")
+Connecting to a PHY
+ Sometime during startup, the network driver needs to establish a connection
+ between the PHY device, and the network device. At this time, the PHY's bus
+ and drivers need to all have been loaded, so it is ready for the connection.
+ At this point, there are several ways to connect to the PHY:
+ 1) The PAL handles everything, and only calls the network driver when
+ the link state changes, so it can react.
+ 2) The PAL handles everything except interrupts (usually because the
+ controller has the interrupt registers).
+ 3) The PAL handles everything, but checks in with the driver every second,
+ allowing the network driver to react first to any changes before the PAL
+ does.
+ 4) The PAL serves only as a library of functions, with the network device
+ manually calling functions to update status, and configure the PHY
+Letting the PHY Abstraction Layer do Everything
+ If you choose option 1 (The hope is that every driver can, but to still be
+ useful to drivers that can't), connecting to the PHY is simple:
+ First, you need a function to react to changes in the link state. This
+ function follows this protocol:
+ static void adjust_link(struct net_device *dev);
+ Next, you need to know the device name of the PHY connected to this device.
+ The name will look something like, "0:00", where the first number is the
+ bus id, and the second is the PHY's address on that bus. Typically,
+ the bus is responsible for making its ID unique.
+ Now, to connect, just call this function:
+ phydev = phy_connect(dev, phy_name, &adjust_link, interface);
+ phydev is a pointer to the phy_device structure which represents the PHY. If
+ phy_connect is successful, it will return the pointer. dev, here, is the
+ pointer to your net_device. Once done, this function will have started the
+ PHY's software state machine, and registered for the PHY's interrupt, if it
+ has one. The phydev structure will be populated with information about the
+ current state, though the PHY will not yet be truly operational at this
+ point.
+ PHY-specific flags should be set in phydev->dev_flags prior to the call
+ to phy_connect() such that the underlying PHY driver can check for flags
+ and perform specific operations based on them.
+ This is useful if the system has put hardware restrictions on
+ the PHY/controller, of which the PHY needs to be aware.
+ interface is a u32 which specifies the connection type used
+ between the controller and the PHY. Examples are GMII, MII,
+ RGMII, and SGMII. For a full list, see include/linux/phy.h
+ Now just make sure that phydev->supported and phydev->advertising have any
+ values pruned from them which don't make sense for your controller (a 10/100
+ controller may be connected to a gigabit capable PHY, so you would need to
+ mask off SUPPORTED_1000baseT*). See include/linux/ethtool.h for definitions
+ for these bitfields. Note that you should not SET any bits, or the PHY may
+ get put into an unsupported state.
+ Lastly, once the controller is ready to handle network traffic, you call
+ phy_start(phydev). This tells the PAL that you are ready, and configures the
+ PHY to connect to the network. If you want to handle your own interrupts,
+ just set phydev->irq to PHY_IGNORE_INTERRUPT before you call phy_start.
+ Similarly, if you don't want to use interrupts, set phydev->irq to PHY_POLL.
+ When you want to disconnect from the network (even if just briefly), you call
+ phy_stop(phydev).
+Keeping Close Tabs on the PAL
+ It is possible that the PAL's built-in state machine needs a little help to
+ keep your network device and the PHY properly in sync. If so, you can
+ register a helper function when connecting to the PHY, which will be called
+ every second before the state machine reacts to any changes. To do this, you
+ need to manually call phy_attach() and phy_prepare_link(), and then call
+ phy_start_machine() with the second argument set to point to your special
+ handler.
+ Currently there are no examples of how to use this functionality, and testing
+ on it has been limited because the author does not have any drivers which use
+ it (they all use option 1). So Caveat Emptor.
+Doing it all yourself
+ There's a remote chance that the PAL's built-in state machine cannot track
+ the complex interactions between the PHY and your network device. If this is
+ so, you can simply call phy_attach(), and not call phy_start_machine or
+ phy_prepare_link(). This will mean that phydev->state is entirely yours to
+ handle (phy_start and phy_stop toggle between some of the states, so you
+ might need to avoid them).
+ An effort has been made to make sure that useful functionality can be
+ accessed without the state-machine running, and most of these functions are
+ descended from functions which did not interact with a complex state-machine.
+ However, again, no effort has been made so far to test running without the
+ state machine, so tryer beware.
+ Here is a brief rundown of the functions:
+ int phy_read(struct phy_device *phydev, u16 regnum);
+ int phy_write(struct phy_device *phydev, u16 regnum, u16 val);
+ Simple read/write primitives. They invoke the bus's read/write function
+ pointers.
+ void phy_print_status(struct phy_device *phydev);
+ A convenience function to print out the PHY status neatly.
+ int phy_start_interrupts(struct phy_device *phydev);
+ int phy_stop_interrupts(struct phy_device *phydev);
+ Requests the IRQ for the PHY interrupts, then enables them for
+ start, or disables then frees them for stop.
+ struct phy_device * phy_attach(struct net_device *dev, const char *phy_id,
+ phy_interface_t interface);
+ Attaches a network device to a particular PHY, binding the PHY to a generic
+ driver if none was found during bus initialization.
+ int phy_start_aneg(struct phy_device *phydev);
+ Using variables inside the phydev structure, either configures advertising
+ and resets autonegotiation, or disables autonegotiation, and configures
+ forced settings.
+ static inline int phy_read_status(struct phy_device *phydev);
+ Fills the phydev structure with up-to-date information about the current
+ settings in the PHY.
+ int phy_ethtool_sset(struct phy_device *phydev, struct ethtool_cmd *cmd);
+ int phy_ethtool_gset(struct phy_device *phydev, struct ethtool_cmd *cmd);
+ Ethtool convenience functions.
+ int phy_mii_ioctl(struct phy_device *phydev,
+ struct mii_ioctl_data *mii_data, int cmd);
+ The MII ioctl. Note that this function will completely screw up the state
+ machine if you write registers like BMCR, BMSR, ADVERTISE, etc. Best to
+ use this only to write registers which are not standard, and don't set off
+ a renegotiation.
+PHY Device Drivers
+ With the PHY Abstraction Layer, adding support for new PHYs is
+ quite easy. In some cases, no work is required at all! However,
+ many PHYs require a little hand-holding to get up-and-running.
+Generic PHY driver
+ If the desired PHY doesn't have any errata, quirks, or special
+ features you want to support, then it may be best to not add
+ support, and let the PHY Abstraction Layer's Generic PHY Driver
+ do all of the work.
+Writing a PHY driver
+ If you do need to write a PHY driver, the first thing to do is
+ make sure it can be matched with an appropriate PHY device.
+ This is done during bus initialization by reading the device's
+ UID (stored in registers 2 and 3), then comparing it to each
+ driver's phy_id field by ANDing it with each driver's
+ phy_id_mask field. Also, it needs a name. Here's an example:
+ static struct phy_driver dm9161_driver = {
+ .phy_id = 0x0181b880,
+ .name = "Davicom DM9161E",
+ .phy_id_mask = 0x0ffffff0,
+ ...
+ }
+ Next, you need to specify what features (speed, duplex, autoneg,
+ etc) your PHY device and driver support. Most PHYs support
+ PHY_BASIC_FEATURES, but you can look in include/mii.h for other
+ features.
+ Each driver consists of a number of function pointers:
+ config_init: configures PHY into a sane state after a reset.
+ For instance, a Davicom PHY requires descrambling disabled.
+ probe: Does any setup needed by the driver
+ suspend/resume: power management
+ config_aneg: Changes the speed/duplex/negotiation settings
+ read_status: Reads the current speed/duplex/negotiation settings
+ ack_interrupt: Clear a pending interrupt
+ config_intr: Enable or disable interrupts
+ remove: Does any driver take-down
+ Of these, only config_aneg and read_status are required to be
+ assigned by the driver code. The rest are optional. Also, it is
+ preferred to use the generic phy driver's versions of these two
+ functions if at all possible: genphy_read_status and
+ genphy_config_aneg. If this is not possible, it is likely that
+ you only need to perform some actions before and after invoking
+ these functions, and so your functions will wrap the generic
+ ones.
+ Feel free to look at the Marvell, Cicada, and Davicom drivers in
+ drivers/net/phy/ for examples (the lxt and qsemi drivers have
+ not been tested as of this writing)
+Board Fixups
+ Sometimes the specific interaction between the platform and the PHY requires
+ special handling. For instance, to change where the PHY's clock input is,
+ or to add a delay to account for latency issues in the data path. In order
+ to support such contingencies, the PHY Layer allows platform code to register
+ fixups to be run when the PHY is brought up (or subsequently reset).
+ When the PHY Layer brings up a PHY it checks to see if there are any fixups
+ registered for it, matching based on UID (contained in the PHY device's phy_id
+ field) and the bus identifier (contained in phydev->dev.bus_id). Both must
+ match, however two constants, PHY_ANY_ID and PHY_ANY_UID, are provided as
+ wildcards for the bus ID and UID, respectively.
+ When a match is found, the PHY layer will invoke the run function associated
+ with the fixup. This function is passed a pointer to the phy_device of
+ interest. It should therefore only operate on that PHY.
+ The platform code can either register the fixup using phy_register_fixup():
+ int phy_register_fixup(const char *phy_id,
+ u32 phy_uid, u32 phy_uid_mask,
+ int (*run)(struct phy_device *));
+ Or using one of the two stubs, phy_register_fixup_for_uid() and
+ phy_register_fixup_for_id():
+ int phy_register_fixup_for_uid(u32 phy_uid, u32 phy_uid_mask,
+ int (*run)(struct phy_device *));
+ int phy_register_fixup_for_id(const char *phy_id,
+ int (*run)(struct phy_device *));
+ The stubs set one of the two matching criteria, and set the other one to
+ match anything.