Diffstat (limited to 'Documentation/networking/ieee802154.txt')
1 files changed, 150 insertions, 0 deletions
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/ieee802154.txt b/Documentation/networking/ieee802154.txt
new file mode 100644
@@ -0,0 +1,150 @@
+ Linux IEEE 802.15.4 implementation
+The IEEE 802.15.4 working group focuses on standartization of bottom
+two layers: Medium Accsess Control (MAC) and Physical (PHY). And there
+are mainly two options available for upper layers:
+ - ZigBee - proprietary protocol from ZigBee Alliance
+ - 6LowPAN - IPv6 networking over low rate personal area networks
+The Linux-ZigBee project goal is to provide complete implementation
+of IEEE 802.15.4 and 6LoWPAN protocols. IEEE 802.15.4 is a stack
+of protocols for organizing Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks.
+The stack is composed of three main parts:
+ - IEEE 802.15.4 layer; We have chosen to use plain Berkeley socket API,
+ the generic Linux networking stack to transfer IEEE 802.15.4 messages
+ and a special protocol over genetlink for configuration/management
+ - MAC - provides access to shared channel and reliable data delivery
+ - PHY - represents device drivers
+int sd = socket(PF_IEEE802154, SOCK_DGRAM, 0);
+The address family, socket addresses etc. are defined in the
+include/net/af_ieee802154.h header or in the special header
+in our userspace package (see either linux-zigbee sourceforge download page
+or git tree at git://linux-zigbee.git.sourceforge.net/gitroot/linux-zigbee).
+One can use SOCK_RAW for passing raw data towards device xmit function. YMMV.
+Like with WiFi, there are several types of devices implementing IEEE 802.15.4.
+1) 'HardMAC'. The MAC layer is implemented in the device itself, the device
+ exports MLME and data API.
+2) 'SoftMAC' or just radio. These types of devices are just radio transceivers
+ possibly with some kinds of acceleration like automatic CRC computation and
+ comparation, automagic ACK handling, address matching, etc.
+Those types of devices require different approach to be hooked into Linux kernel.
+MLME - MAC Level Management
+Most of IEEE 802.15.4 MLME interfaces are directly mapped on netlink commands.
+See the include/net/nl802154.h header. Our userspace tools package
+(see above) provides CLI configuration utility for radio interfaces and simple
+coordinator for IEEE 802.15.4 networks as an example users of MLME protocol.
+See the header include/net/ieee802154_netdev.h. You have to implement Linux
+net_device, with .type = ARPHRD_IEEE802154. Data is exchanged with socket family
+code via plain sk_buffs. On skb reception skb->cb must contain additional
+info as described in the struct ieee802154_mac_cb. During packet transmission
+the skb->cb is used to provide additional data to device's header_ops->create
+function. Be aware, that this data can be overriden later (when socket code
+submits skb to qdisc), so if you need something from that cb later, you should
+store info in the skb->data on your own.
+To hook the MLME interface you have to populate the ml_priv field of your
+net_device with a pointer to struct ieee802154_mlme_ops instance. All fields are
+We provide an example of simple HardMAC driver at drivers/ieee802154/fakehard.c
+The MAC is the middle layer in the IEEE 802.15.4 Linux stack. This moment it
+provides interface for drivers registration and management of slave interfaces.
+NOTE: Currently the only monitor device type is supported - it's IEEE 802.15.4
+stack interface for network sniffers (e.g. WireShark).
+This layer is going to be extended soon.
+See header include/net/mac802154.h and several drivers in drivers/ieee802154/.
+Device drivers API
+The include/net/mac802154.h defines following functions:
+ - struct ieee802154_dev *ieee802154_alloc_device
+ (size_t priv_size, struct ieee802154_ops *ops):
+ allocation of IEEE 802.15.4 compatible device
+ - void ieee802154_free_device(struct ieee802154_dev *dev):
+ freeing allocated device
+ - int ieee802154_register_device(struct ieee802154_dev *dev):
+ register PHY in the system
+ - void ieee802154_unregister_device(struct ieee802154_dev *dev):
+ freeing registered PHY
+Moreover IEEE 802.15.4 device operations structure should be filled.
+In addition there are two drivers available which simulate real devices with
+HardMAC (fakehard) and SoftMAC (fakelb - IEEE 802.15.4 loopback driver)
+interfaces. This option provides possibility to test and debug stack without
+usage of real hardware.
+See sources in drivers/ieee802154 folder for more details.
+6LoWPAN Linux implementation
+The IEEE 802.15.4 standard specifies an MTU of 128 bytes, yielding about 80
+octets of actual MAC payload once security is turned on, on a wireless link
+with a link throughput of 250 kbps or less. The 6LoWPAN adaptation format
+[RFC4944] was specified to carry IPv6 datagrams over such constrained links,
+taking into account limited bandwidth, memory, or energy resources that are
+expected in applications such as wireless Sensor Networks. [RFC4944] defines
+a Mesh Addressing header to support sub-IP forwarding, a Fragmentation header
+to support the IPv6 minimum MTU requirement [RFC2460], and stateless header
+compression for IPv6 datagrams (LOWPAN_HC1 and LOWPAN_HC2) to reduce the
+relatively large IPv6 and UDP headers down to (in the best case) several bytes.
+In Semptember 2011 the standard update was published - [RFC6282].
+It deprecates HC1 and HC2 compression and defines IPHC encoding format which is
+used in this Linux implementation.
+All the code related to 6lowpan you may find in files: net/ieee802154/6lowpan.*
+To setup 6lowpan interface you need (busybox release > 1.17.0):
+1. Add IEEE802.15.4 interface and initialize PANid;
+2. Add 6lowpan interface by command like:
+ # ip link add link wpan0 name lowpan0 type lowpan
+3. Set MAC (if needs):
+ # ip link set lowpan0 address de:ad:be:ef:ca:fe:ba:be
+4. Bring up 'lowpan0' interface