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+INTRODUCTION
+------------
+
+Because not every I2C or SMBus adapter implements everything in the
+I2C specifications, a client can not trust that everything it needs
+is implemented when it is given the option to attach to an adapter:
+the client needs some way to check whether an adapter has the needed
+functionality.
+
+
+FUNCTIONALITY CONSTANTS
+-----------------------
+
+For the most up-to-date list of functionality constants, please check
+<linux/i2c.h>!
+
+ I2C_FUNC_I2C Plain i2c-level commands (Pure SMBus
+ adapters typically can not do these)
+ I2C_FUNC_10BIT_ADDR Handles the 10-bit address extensions
+ I2C_FUNC_PROTOCOL_MANGLING Knows about the I2C_M_IGNORE_NAK,
+ I2C_M_REV_DIR_ADDR and I2C_M_NO_RD_ACK
+ flags (which modify the I2C protocol!)
+ I2C_FUNC_NOSTART Can skip repeated start sequence
+ I2C_FUNC_SMBUS_QUICK Handles the SMBus write_quick command
+ I2C_FUNC_SMBUS_READ_BYTE Handles the SMBus read_byte command
+ I2C_FUNC_SMBUS_WRITE_BYTE Handles the SMBus write_byte command
+ I2C_FUNC_SMBUS_READ_BYTE_DATA Handles the SMBus read_byte_data command
+ I2C_FUNC_SMBUS_WRITE_BYTE_DATA Handles the SMBus write_byte_data command
+ I2C_FUNC_SMBUS_READ_WORD_DATA Handles the SMBus read_word_data command
+ I2C_FUNC_SMBUS_WRITE_WORD_DATA Handles the SMBus write_byte_data command
+ I2C_FUNC_SMBUS_PROC_CALL Handles the SMBus process_call command
+ I2C_FUNC_SMBUS_READ_BLOCK_DATA Handles the SMBus read_block_data command
+ I2C_FUNC_SMBUS_WRITE_BLOCK_DATA Handles the SMBus write_block_data command
+ I2C_FUNC_SMBUS_READ_I2C_BLOCK Handles the SMBus read_i2c_block_data command
+ I2C_FUNC_SMBUS_WRITE_I2C_BLOCK Handles the SMBus write_i2c_block_data command
+
+A few combinations of the above flags are also defined for your convenience:
+
+ I2C_FUNC_SMBUS_BYTE Handles the SMBus read_byte
+ and write_byte commands
+ I2C_FUNC_SMBUS_BYTE_DATA Handles the SMBus read_byte_data
+ and write_byte_data commands
+ I2C_FUNC_SMBUS_WORD_DATA Handles the SMBus read_word_data
+ and write_word_data commands
+ I2C_FUNC_SMBUS_BLOCK_DATA Handles the SMBus read_block_data
+ and write_block_data commands
+ I2C_FUNC_SMBUS_I2C_BLOCK Handles the SMBus read_i2c_block_data
+ and write_i2c_block_data commands
+ I2C_FUNC_SMBUS_EMUL Handles all SMBus commands than can be
+ emulated by a real I2C adapter (using
+ the transparent emulation layer)
+
+In kernel versions prior to 3.5 I2C_FUNC_NOSTART was implemented as
+part of I2C_FUNC_PROTOCOL_MANGLING.
+
+
+ADAPTER IMPLEMENTATION
+----------------------
+
+When you write a new adapter driver, you will have to implement a
+function callback `functionality'. Typical implementations are given
+below.
+
+A typical SMBus-only adapter would list all the SMBus transactions it
+supports. This example comes from the i2c-piix4 driver:
+
+ static u32 piix4_func(struct i2c_adapter *adapter)
+ {
+ return I2C_FUNC_SMBUS_QUICK | I2C_FUNC_SMBUS_BYTE |
+ I2C_FUNC_SMBUS_BYTE_DATA | I2C_FUNC_SMBUS_WORD_DATA |
+ I2C_FUNC_SMBUS_BLOCK_DATA;
+ }
+
+A typical full-I2C adapter would use the following (from the i2c-pxa
+driver):
+
+ static u32 i2c_pxa_functionality(struct i2c_adapter *adap)
+ {
+ return I2C_FUNC_I2C | I2C_FUNC_SMBUS_EMUL;
+ }
+
+I2C_FUNC_SMBUS_EMUL includes all the SMBus transactions (with the
+addition of I2C block transactions) which i2c-core can emulate using
+I2C_FUNC_I2C without any help from the adapter driver. The idea is
+to let the client drivers check for the support of SMBus functions
+without having to care whether the said functions are implemented in
+hardware by the adapter, or emulated in software by i2c-core on top
+of an I2C adapter.
+
+
+CLIENT CHECKING
+---------------
+
+Before a client tries to attach to an adapter, or even do tests to check
+whether one of the devices it supports is present on an adapter, it should
+check whether the needed functionality is present. The typical way to do
+this is (from the lm75 driver):
+
+ static int lm75_detect(...)
+ {
+ (...)
+ if (!i2c_check_functionality(adapter, I2C_FUNC_SMBUS_BYTE_DATA |
+ I2C_FUNC_SMBUS_WORD_DATA))
+ goto exit;
+ (...)
+ }
+
+Here, the lm75 driver checks if the adapter can do both SMBus byte data
+and SMBus word data transactions. If not, then the driver won't work on
+this adapter and there's no point in going on. If the check above is
+successful, then the driver knows that it can call the following
+functions: i2c_smbus_read_byte_data(), i2c_smbus_write_byte_data(),
+i2c_smbus_read_word_data() and i2c_smbus_write_word_data(). As a rule of
+thumb, the functionality constants you test for with
+i2c_check_functionality() should match exactly the i2c_smbus_* functions
+which you driver is calling.
+
+Note that the check above doesn't tell whether the functionalities are
+implemented in hardware by the underlying adapter or emulated in
+software by i2c-core. Client drivers don't have to care about this, as
+i2c-core will transparently implement SMBus transactions on top of I2C
+adapters.
+
+
+CHECKING THROUGH /DEV
+---------------------
+
+If you try to access an adapter from a userspace program, you will have
+to use the /dev interface. You will still have to check whether the
+functionality you need is supported, of course. This is done using
+the I2C_FUNCS ioctl. An example, adapted from the i2cdetect program, is
+below:
+
+ int file;
+ if (file = open("/dev/i2c-0", O_RDWR) < 0) {
+ /* Some kind of error handling */
+ exit(1);
+ }
+ if (ioctl(file, I2C_FUNCS, &funcs) < 0) {
+ /* Some kind of error handling */
+ exit(1);
+ }
+ if (!(funcs & I2C_FUNC_SMBUS_QUICK)) {
+ /* Oops, the needed functionality (SMBus write_quick function) is
+ not available! */
+ exit(1);
+ }
+ /* Now it is safe to use the SMBus write_quick command */