path: root/Documentation/i2c/fault-codes
diff options
Diffstat (limited to 'Documentation/i2c/fault-codes')
1 files changed, 127 insertions, 0 deletions
diff --git a/Documentation/i2c/fault-codes b/Documentation/i2c/fault-codes
new file mode 100644
index 00000000..045765c0
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/i2c/fault-codes
@@ -0,0 +1,127 @@
+This is a summary of the most important conventions for use of fault
+codes in the I2C/SMBus stack.
+A "Fault" is not always an "Error"
+Not all fault reports imply errors; "page faults" should be a familiar
+example. Software often retries idempotent operations after transient
+faults. There may be fancier recovery schemes that are appropriate in
+some cases, such as re-initializing (and maybe resetting). After such
+recovery, triggered by a fault report, there is no error.
+In a similar way, sometimes a "fault" code just reports one defined
+result for an operation ... it doesn't indicate that anything is wrong
+at all, just that the outcome wasn't on the "golden path".
+In short, your I2C driver code may need to know these codes in order
+to respond correctly. Other code may need to rely on YOUR code reporting
+the right fault code, so that it can (in turn) behave correctly.
+I2C and SMBus fault codes
+These are returned as negative numbers from most calls, with zero or
+some positive number indicating a non-fault return. The specific
+numbers associated with these symbols differ between architectures,
+though most Linux systems use <asm-generic/errno*.h> numbering.
+Note that the descriptions here are not exhaustive. There are other
+codes that may be returned, and other cases where these codes should
+be returned. However, drivers should not return other codes for these
+cases (unless the hardware doesn't provide unique fault reports).
+Also, codes returned by adapter probe methods follow rules which are
+specific to their host bus (such as PCI, or the platform bus).
+ Returned by I2C adapters when they lose arbitration in master
+ transmit mode: some other master was transmitting different
+ data at the same time.
+ Also returned when trying to invoke an I2C operation in an
+ atomic context, when some task is already using that I2C bus
+ to execute some other operation.
+ Returned by SMBus logic when an invalid Packet Error Code byte
+ is received. This code is a CRC covering all bytes in the
+ transaction, and is sent before the terminating STOP. This
+ fault is only reported on read transactions; the SMBus slave
+ may have a way to report PEC mismatches on writes from the
+ host. Note that even if PECs are in use, you should not rely
+ on these as the only way to detect incorrect data transfers.
+ Returned by SMBus adapters when the bus was busy for longer
+ than allowed. This usually indicates some device (maybe the
+ SMBus adapter) needs some fault recovery (such as resetting),
+ or that the reset was attempted but failed.
+ This rather vague error means an invalid parameter has been
+ detected before any I/O operation was started. Use a more
+ specific fault code when you can.
+ One example would be a driver trying an SMBus Block Write
+ with block size outside the range of 1-32 bytes.
+ This rather vague error means something went wrong when
+ performing an I/O operation. Use a more specific fault
+ code when you can.
+ Returned by driver probe() methods. This is a bit more
+ specific than ENXIO, implying the problem isn't with the
+ address, but with the device found there. Driver probes
+ may verify the device returns *correct* responses, and
+ return this as appropriate. (The driver core will warn
+ about probe faults other than ENXIO and ENODEV.)
+ Returned by any component that can't allocate memory when
+ it needs to do so.
+ Returned by I2C adapters to indicate that the address phase
+ of a transfer didn't get an ACK. While it might just mean
+ an I2C device was temporarily not responding, usually it
+ means there's nothing listening at that address.
+ Returned by driver probe() methods to indicate that they
+ found no device to bind to. (ENODEV may also be used.)
+ Returned by an adapter when asked to perform an operation
+ that it doesn't, or can't, support.
+ For example, this would be returned when an adapter that
+ doesn't support SMBus block transfers is asked to execute
+ one. In that case, the driver making that request should
+ have verified that functionality was supported before it
+ made that block transfer request.
+ Similarly, if an I2C adapter can't execute all legal I2C
+ messages, it should return this when asked to perform a
+ transaction it can't. (These limitations can't be seen in
+ the adapter's functionality mask, since the assumption is
+ that if an adapter supports I2C it supports all of I2C.)
+ Returned when slave does not conform to the relevant I2C
+ or SMBus (or chip-specific) protocol specifications. One
+ case is when the length of an SMBus block data response
+ (from the SMBus slave) is outside the range 1-32 bytes.
+ This is returned by drivers when an operation took too much
+ time, and was aborted before it completed.
+ SMBus adapters may return it when an operation took more
+ time than allowed by the SMBus specification; for example,
+ when a slave stretches clocks too far. I2C has no such
+ timeouts, but it's normal for I2C adapters to impose some
+ arbitrary limits (much longer than SMBus!) too.