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-rw-r--r--Documentation/driver-model/binding.txt98
-rw-r--r--Documentation/driver-model/bus.txt143
-rw-r--r--Documentation/driver-model/class.txt147
-rw-r--r--Documentation/driver-model/device.txt106
-rw-r--r--Documentation/driver-model/devres.txt295
-rw-r--r--Documentation/driver-model/driver.txt214
-rw-r--r--Documentation/driver-model/overview.txt123
-rw-r--r--Documentation/driver-model/platform.txt230
-rw-r--r--Documentation/driver-model/porting.txt445
9 files changed, 1801 insertions, 0 deletions
diff --git a/Documentation/driver-model/binding.txt b/Documentation/driver-model/binding.txt
new file mode 100644
index 00000000..abfc8e29
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/driver-model/binding.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,98 @@
+
+Driver Binding
+
+Driver binding is the process of associating a device with a device
+driver that can control it. Bus drivers have typically handled this
+because there have been bus-specific structures to represent the
+devices and the drivers. With generic device and device driver
+structures, most of the binding can take place using common code.
+
+
+Bus
+~~~
+
+The bus type structure contains a list of all devices that are on that bus
+type in the system. When device_register is called for a device, it is
+inserted into the end of this list. The bus object also contains a
+list of all drivers of that bus type. When driver_register is called
+for a driver, it is inserted at the end of this list. These are the
+two events which trigger driver binding.
+
+
+device_register
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+When a new device is added, the bus's list of drivers is iterated over
+to find one that supports it. In order to determine that, the device
+ID of the device must match one of the device IDs that the driver
+supports. The format and semantics for comparing IDs is bus-specific.
+Instead of trying to derive a complex state machine and matching
+algorithm, it is up to the bus driver to provide a callback to compare
+a device against the IDs of a driver. The bus returns 1 if a match was
+found; 0 otherwise.
+
+int match(struct device * dev, struct device_driver * drv);
+
+If a match is found, the device's driver field is set to the driver
+and the driver's probe callback is called. This gives the driver a
+chance to verify that it really does support the hardware, and that
+it's in a working state.
+
+Device Class
+~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+Upon the successful completion of probe, the device is registered with
+the class to which it belongs. Device drivers belong to one and only one
+class, and that is set in the driver's devclass field.
+devclass_add_device is called to enumerate the device within the class
+and actually register it with the class, which happens with the
+class's register_dev callback.
+
+
+Driver
+~~~~~~
+
+When a driver is attached to a device, the device is inserted into the
+driver's list of devices.
+
+
+sysfs
+~~~~~
+
+A symlink is created in the bus's 'devices' directory that points to
+the device's directory in the physical hierarchy.
+
+A symlink is created in the driver's 'devices' directory that points
+to the device's directory in the physical hierarchy.
+
+A directory for the device is created in the class's directory. A
+symlink is created in that directory that points to the device's
+physical location in the sysfs tree.
+
+A symlink can be created (though this isn't done yet) in the device's
+physical directory to either its class directory, or the class's
+top-level directory. One can also be created to point to its driver's
+directory also.
+
+
+driver_register
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+The process is almost identical for when a new driver is added.
+The bus's list of devices is iterated over to find a match. Devices
+that already have a driver are skipped. All the devices are iterated
+over, to bind as many devices as possible to the driver.
+
+
+Removal
+~~~~~~~
+
+When a device is removed, the reference count for it will eventually
+go to 0. When it does, the remove callback of the driver is called. It
+is removed from the driver's list of devices and the reference count
+of the driver is decremented. All symlinks between the two are removed.
+
+When a driver is removed, the list of devices that it supports is
+iterated over, and the driver's remove callback is called for each
+one. The device is removed from that list and the symlinks removed.
+
diff --git a/Documentation/driver-model/bus.txt b/Documentation/driver-model/bus.txt
new file mode 100644
index 00000000..6754b2df
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/driver-model/bus.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,143 @@
+
+Bus Types
+
+Definition
+~~~~~~~~~~
+See the kerneldoc for the struct bus_type.
+
+int bus_register(struct bus_type * bus);
+
+
+Declaration
+~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+Each bus type in the kernel (PCI, USB, etc) should declare one static
+object of this type. They must initialize the name field, and may
+optionally initialize the match callback.
+
+struct bus_type pci_bus_type = {
+ .name = "pci",
+ .match = pci_bus_match,
+};
+
+The structure should be exported to drivers in a header file:
+
+extern struct bus_type pci_bus_type;
+
+
+Registration
+~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+When a bus driver is initialized, it calls bus_register. This
+initializes the rest of the fields in the bus object and inserts it
+into a global list of bus types. Once the bus object is registered,
+the fields in it are usable by the bus driver.
+
+
+Callbacks
+~~~~~~~~~
+
+match(): Attaching Drivers to Devices
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+The format of device ID structures and the semantics for comparing
+them are inherently bus-specific. Drivers typically declare an array
+of device IDs of devices they support that reside in a bus-specific
+driver structure.
+
+The purpose of the match callback is provide the bus an opportunity to
+determine if a particular driver supports a particular device by
+comparing the device IDs the driver supports with the device ID of a
+particular device, without sacrificing bus-specific functionality or
+type-safety.
+
+When a driver is registered with the bus, the bus's list of devices is
+iterated over, and the match callback is called for each device that
+does not have a driver associated with it.
+
+
+
+Device and Driver Lists
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+The lists of devices and drivers are intended to replace the local
+lists that many buses keep. They are lists of struct devices and
+struct device_drivers, respectively. Bus drivers are free to use the
+lists as they please, but conversion to the bus-specific type may be
+necessary.
+
+The LDM core provides helper functions for iterating over each list.
+
+int bus_for_each_dev(struct bus_type * bus, struct device * start, void * data,
+ int (*fn)(struct device *, void *));
+
+int bus_for_each_drv(struct bus_type * bus, struct device_driver * start,
+ void * data, int (*fn)(struct device_driver *, void *));
+
+These helpers iterate over the respective list, and call the callback
+for each device or driver in the list. All list accesses are
+synchronized by taking the bus's lock (read currently). The reference
+count on each object in the list is incremented before the callback is
+called; it is decremented after the next object has been obtained. The
+lock is not held when calling the callback.
+
+
+sysfs
+~~~~~~~~
+There is a top-level directory named 'bus'.
+
+Each bus gets a directory in the bus directory, along with two default
+directories:
+
+ /sys/bus/pci/
+ |-- devices
+ `-- drivers
+
+Drivers registered with the bus get a directory in the bus's drivers
+directory:
+
+ /sys/bus/pci/
+ |-- devices
+ `-- drivers
+ |-- Intel ICH
+ |-- Intel ICH Joystick
+ |-- agpgart
+ `-- e100
+
+Each device that is discovered on a bus of that type gets a symlink in
+the bus's devices directory to the device's directory in the physical
+hierarchy:
+
+ /sys/bus/pci/
+ |-- devices
+ | |-- 00:00.0 -> ../../../root/pci0/00:00.0
+ | |-- 00:01.0 -> ../../../root/pci0/00:01.0
+ | `-- 00:02.0 -> ../../../root/pci0/00:02.0
+ `-- drivers
+
+
+Exporting Attributes
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+struct bus_attribute {
+ struct attribute attr;
+ ssize_t (*show)(struct bus_type *, char * buf);
+ ssize_t (*store)(struct bus_type *, const char * buf, size_t count);
+};
+
+Bus drivers can export attributes using the BUS_ATTR macro that works
+similarly to the DEVICE_ATTR macro for devices. For example, a definition
+like this:
+
+static BUS_ATTR(debug,0644,show_debug,store_debug);
+
+is equivalent to declaring:
+
+static bus_attribute bus_attr_debug;
+
+This can then be used to add and remove the attribute from the bus's
+sysfs directory using:
+
+int bus_create_file(struct bus_type *, struct bus_attribute *);
+void bus_remove_file(struct bus_type *, struct bus_attribute *);
+
+
diff --git a/Documentation/driver-model/class.txt b/Documentation/driver-model/class.txt
new file mode 100644
index 00000000..1fefc480
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/driver-model/class.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,147 @@
+
+Device Classes
+
+
+Introduction
+~~~~~~~~~~~~
+A device class describes a type of device, like an audio or network
+device. The following device classes have been identified:
+
+<Insert List of Device Classes Here>
+
+
+Each device class defines a set of semantics and a programming interface
+that devices of that class adhere to. Device drivers are the
+implementation of that programming interface for a particular device on
+a particular bus.
+
+Device classes are agnostic with respect to what bus a device resides
+on.
+
+
+Programming Interface
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+The device class structure looks like:
+
+
+typedef int (*devclass_add)(struct device *);
+typedef void (*devclass_remove)(struct device *);
+
+See the kerneldoc for the struct class.
+
+A typical device class definition would look like:
+
+struct device_class input_devclass = {
+ .name = "input",
+ .add_device = input_add_device,
+ .remove_device = input_remove_device,
+};
+
+Each device class structure should be exported in a header file so it
+can be used by drivers, extensions and interfaces.
+
+Device classes are registered and unregistered with the core using:
+
+int devclass_register(struct device_class * cls);
+void devclass_unregister(struct device_class * cls);
+
+
+Devices
+~~~~~~~
+As devices are bound to drivers, they are added to the device class
+that the driver belongs to. Before the driver model core, this would
+typically happen during the driver's probe() callback, once the device
+has been initialized. It now happens after the probe() callback
+finishes from the core.
+
+The device is enumerated in the class. Each time a device is added to
+the class, the class's devnum field is incremented and assigned to the
+device. The field is never decremented, so if the device is removed
+from the class and re-added, it will receive a different enumerated
+value.
+
+The class is allowed to create a class-specific structure for the
+device and store it in the device's class_data pointer.
+
+There is no list of devices in the device class. Each driver has a
+list of devices that it supports. The device class has a list of
+drivers of that particular class. To access all of the devices in the
+class, iterate over the device lists of each driver in the class.
+
+
+Device Drivers
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+Device drivers are added to device classes when they are registered
+with the core. A driver specifies the class it belongs to by setting
+the struct device_driver::devclass field.
+
+
+sysfs directory structure
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+There is a top-level sysfs directory named 'class'.
+
+Each class gets a directory in the class directory, along with two
+default subdirectories:
+
+ class/
+ `-- input
+ |-- devices
+ `-- drivers
+
+
+Drivers registered with the class get a symlink in the drivers/ directory
+that points to the driver's directory (under its bus directory):
+
+ class/
+ `-- input
+ |-- devices
+ `-- drivers
+ `-- usb:usb_mouse -> ../../../bus/drivers/usb_mouse/
+
+
+Each device gets a symlink in the devices/ directory that points to the
+device's directory in the physical hierarchy:
+
+ class/
+ `-- input
+ |-- devices
+ | `-- 1 -> ../../../root/pci0/00:1f.0/usb_bus/00:1f.2-1:0/
+ `-- drivers
+
+
+Exporting Attributes
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+struct devclass_attribute {
+ struct attribute attr;
+ ssize_t (*show)(struct device_class *, char * buf, size_t count, loff_t off);
+ ssize_t (*store)(struct device_class *, const char * buf, size_t count, loff_t off);
+};
+
+Class drivers can export attributes using the DEVCLASS_ATTR macro that works
+similarly to the DEVICE_ATTR macro for devices. For example, a definition
+like this:
+
+static DEVCLASS_ATTR(debug,0644,show_debug,store_debug);
+
+is equivalent to declaring:
+
+static devclass_attribute devclass_attr_debug;
+
+The bus driver can add and remove the attribute from the class's
+sysfs directory using:
+
+int devclass_create_file(struct device_class *, struct devclass_attribute *);
+void devclass_remove_file(struct device_class *, struct devclass_attribute *);
+
+In the example above, the file will be named 'debug' in placed in the
+class's directory in sysfs.
+
+
+Interfaces
+~~~~~~~~~~
+There may exist multiple mechanisms for accessing the same device of a
+particular class type. Device interfaces describe these mechanisms.
+
+When a device is added to a device class, the core attempts to add it
+to every interface that is registered with the device class.
+
diff --git a/Documentation/driver-model/device.txt b/Documentation/driver-model/device.txt
new file mode 100644
index 00000000..1e70220d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/driver-model/device.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,106 @@
+
+The Basic Device Structure
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+See the kerneldoc for the struct device.
+
+
+Programming Interface
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+The bus driver that discovers the device uses this to register the
+device with the core:
+
+int device_register(struct device * dev);
+
+The bus should initialize the following fields:
+
+ - parent
+ - name
+ - bus_id
+ - bus
+
+A device is removed from the core when its reference count goes to
+0. The reference count can be adjusted using:
+
+struct device * get_device(struct device * dev);
+void put_device(struct device * dev);
+
+get_device() will return a pointer to the struct device passed to it
+if the reference is not already 0 (if it's in the process of being
+removed already).
+
+A driver can access the lock in the device structure using:
+
+void lock_device(struct device * dev);
+void unlock_device(struct device * dev);
+
+
+Attributes
+~~~~~~~~~~
+struct device_attribute {
+ struct attribute attr;
+ ssize_t (*show)(struct device *dev, struct device_attribute *attr,
+ char *buf);
+ ssize_t (*store)(struct device *dev, struct device_attribute *attr,
+ const char *buf, size_t count);
+};
+
+Attributes of devices can be exported by a device driver through sysfs.
+
+Please see Documentation/filesystems/sysfs.txt for more information
+on how sysfs works.
+
+As explained in Documentation/kobject.txt, device attributes must be be
+created before the KOBJ_ADD uevent is generated. The only way to realize
+that is by defining an attribute group.
+
+Attributes are declared using a macro called DEVICE_ATTR:
+
+#define DEVICE_ATTR(name,mode,show,store)
+
+Example:
+
+static DEVICE_ATTR(type, 0444, show_type, NULL);
+static DEVICE_ATTR(power, 0644, show_power, store_power);
+
+This declares two structures of type struct device_attribute with respective
+names 'dev_attr_type' and 'dev_attr_power'. These two attributes can be
+organized as follows into a group:
+
+static struct attribute *dev_attrs[] = {
+ &dev_attr_type.attr,
+ &dev_attr_power.attr,
+ NULL,
+};
+
+static struct attribute_group dev_attr_group = {
+ .attrs = dev_attrs,
+};
+
+static const struct attribute_group *dev_attr_groups[] = {
+ &dev_attr_group,
+ NULL,
+};
+
+This array of groups can then be associated with a device by setting the
+group pointer in struct device before device_register() is invoked:
+
+ dev->groups = dev_attr_groups;
+ device_register(dev);
+
+The device_register() function will use the 'groups' pointer to create the
+device attributes and the device_unregister() function will use this pointer
+to remove the device attributes.
+
+Word of warning: While the kernel allows device_create_file() and
+device_remove_file() to be called on a device at any time, userspace has
+strict expectations on when attributes get created. When a new device is
+registered in the kernel, a uevent is generated to notify userspace (like
+udev) that a new device is available. If attributes are added after the
+device is registered, then userspace won't get notified and userspace will
+not know about the new attributes.
+
+This is important for device driver that need to publish additional
+attributes for a device at driver probe time. If the device driver simply
+calls device_create_file() on the device structure passed to it, then
+userspace will never be notified of the new attributes.
diff --git a/Documentation/driver-model/devres.txt b/Documentation/driver-model/devres.txt
new file mode 100644
index 00000000..b4671459
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/driver-model/devres.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,295 @@
+Devres - Managed Device Resource
+================================
+
+Tejun Heo <teheo@suse.de>
+
+First draft 10 January 2007
+
+
+1. Intro : Huh? Devres?
+2. Devres : Devres in a nutshell
+3. Devres Group : Group devres'es and release them together
+4. Details : Life time rules, calling context, ...
+5. Overhead : How much do we have to pay for this?
+6. List of managed interfaces : Currently implemented managed interfaces
+
+
+ 1. Intro
+ --------
+
+devres came up while trying to convert libata to use iomap. Each
+iomapped address should be kept and unmapped on driver detach. For
+example, a plain SFF ATA controller (that is, good old PCI IDE) in
+native mode makes use of 5 PCI BARs and all of them should be
+maintained.
+
+As with many other device drivers, libata low level drivers have
+sufficient bugs in ->remove and ->probe failure path. Well, yes,
+that's probably because libata low level driver developers are lazy
+bunch, but aren't all low level driver developers? After spending a
+day fiddling with braindamaged hardware with no document or
+braindamaged document, if it's finally working, well, it's working.
+
+For one reason or another, low level drivers don't receive as much
+attention or testing as core code, and bugs on driver detach or
+initialization failure don't happen often enough to be noticeable.
+Init failure path is worse because it's much less travelled while
+needs to handle multiple entry points.
+
+So, many low level drivers end up leaking resources on driver detach
+and having half broken failure path implementation in ->probe() which
+would leak resources or even cause oops when failure occurs. iomap
+adds more to this mix. So do msi and msix.
+
+
+ 2. Devres
+ ---------
+
+devres is basically linked list of arbitrarily sized memory areas
+associated with a struct device. Each devres entry is associated with
+a release function. A devres can be released in several ways. No
+matter what, all devres entries are released on driver detach. On
+release, the associated release function is invoked and then the
+devres entry is freed.
+
+Managed interface is created for resources commonly used by device
+drivers using devres. For example, coherent DMA memory is acquired
+using dma_alloc_coherent(). The managed version is called
+dmam_alloc_coherent(). It is identical to dma_alloc_coherent() except
+for the DMA memory allocated using it is managed and will be
+automatically released on driver detach. Implementation looks like
+the following.
+
+ struct dma_devres {
+ size_t size;
+ void *vaddr;
+ dma_addr_t dma_handle;
+ };
+
+ static void dmam_coherent_release(struct device *dev, void *res)
+ {
+ struct dma_devres *this = res;
+
+ dma_free_coherent(dev, this->size, this->vaddr, this->dma_handle);
+ }
+
+ dmam_alloc_coherent(dev, size, dma_handle, gfp)
+ {
+ struct dma_devres *dr;
+ void *vaddr;
+
+ dr = devres_alloc(dmam_coherent_release, sizeof(*dr), gfp);
+ ...
+
+ /* alloc DMA memory as usual */
+ vaddr = dma_alloc_coherent(...);
+ ...
+
+ /* record size, vaddr, dma_handle in dr */
+ dr->vaddr = vaddr;
+ ...
+
+ devres_add(dev, dr);
+
+ return vaddr;
+ }
+
+If a driver uses dmam_alloc_coherent(), the area is guaranteed to be
+freed whether initialization fails half-way or the device gets
+detached. If most resources are acquired using managed interface, a
+driver can have much simpler init and exit code. Init path basically
+looks like the following.
+
+ my_init_one()
+ {
+ struct mydev *d;
+
+ d = devm_kzalloc(dev, sizeof(*d), GFP_KERNEL);
+ if (!d)
+ return -ENOMEM;
+
+ d->ring = dmam_alloc_coherent(...);
+ if (!d->ring)
+ return -ENOMEM;
+
+ if (check something)
+ return -EINVAL;
+ ...
+
+ return register_to_upper_layer(d);
+ }
+
+And exit path,
+
+ my_remove_one()
+ {
+ unregister_from_upper_layer(d);
+ shutdown_my_hardware();
+ }
+
+As shown above, low level drivers can be simplified a lot by using
+devres. Complexity is shifted from less maintained low level drivers
+to better maintained higher layer. Also, as init failure path is
+shared with exit path, both can get more testing.
+
+
+ 3. Devres group
+ ---------------
+
+Devres entries can be grouped using devres group. When a group is
+released, all contained normal devres entries and properly nested
+groups are released. One usage is to rollback series of acquired
+resources on failure. For example,
+
+ if (!devres_open_group(dev, NULL, GFP_KERNEL))
+ return -ENOMEM;
+
+ acquire A;
+ if (failed)
+ goto err;
+
+ acquire B;
+ if (failed)
+ goto err;
+ ...
+
+ devres_remove_group(dev, NULL);
+ return 0;
+
+ err:
+ devres_release_group(dev, NULL);
+ return err_code;
+
+As resource acquisition failure usually means probe failure, constructs
+like above are usually useful in midlayer driver (e.g. libata core
+layer) where interface function shouldn't have side effect on failure.
+For LLDs, just returning error code suffices in most cases.
+
+Each group is identified by void *id. It can either be explicitly
+specified by @id argument to devres_open_group() or automatically
+created by passing NULL as @id as in the above example. In both
+cases, devres_open_group() returns the group's id. The returned id
+can be passed to other devres functions to select the target group.
+If NULL is given to those functions, the latest open group is
+selected.
+
+For example, you can do something like the following.
+
+ int my_midlayer_create_something()
+ {
+ if (!devres_open_group(dev, my_midlayer_create_something, GFP_KERNEL))
+ return -ENOMEM;
+
+ ...
+
+ devres_close_group(dev, my_midlayer_create_something);
+ return 0;
+ }
+
+ void my_midlayer_destroy_something()
+ {
+ devres_release_group(dev, my_midlayer_create_something);
+ }
+
+
+ 4. Details
+ ----------
+
+Lifetime of a devres entry begins on devres allocation and finishes
+when it is released or destroyed (removed and freed) - no reference
+counting.
+
+devres core guarantees atomicity to all basic devres operations and
+has support for single-instance devres types (atomic
+lookup-and-add-if-not-found). Other than that, synchronizing
+concurrent accesses to allocated devres data is caller's
+responsibility. This is usually non-issue because bus ops and
+resource allocations already do the job.
+
+For an example of single-instance devres type, read pcim_iomap_table()
+in lib/devres.c.
+
+All devres interface functions can be called without context if the
+right gfp mask is given.
+
+
+ 5. Overhead
+ -----------
+
+Each devres bookkeeping info is allocated together with requested data
+area. With debug option turned off, bookkeeping info occupies 16
+bytes on 32bit machines and 24 bytes on 64bit (three pointers rounded
+up to ull alignment). If singly linked list is used, it can be
+reduced to two pointers (8 bytes on 32bit, 16 bytes on 64bit).
+
+Each devres group occupies 8 pointers. It can be reduced to 6 if
+singly linked list is used.
+
+Memory space overhead on ahci controller with two ports is between 300
+and 400 bytes on 32bit machine after naive conversion (we can
+certainly invest a bit more effort into libata core layer).
+
+
+ 6. List of managed interfaces
+ -----------------------------
+
+MEM
+ devm_kzalloc()
+ devm_kfree()
+
+IO region
+ devm_request_region()
+ devm_request_mem_region()
+ devm_release_region()
+ devm_release_mem_region()
+
+IRQ
+ devm_request_irq()
+ devm_free_irq()
+
+DMA
+ dmam_alloc_coherent()
+ dmam_free_coherent()
+ dmam_alloc_noncoherent()
+ dmam_free_noncoherent()
+ dmam_declare_coherent_memory()
+ dmam_pool_create()
+ dmam_pool_destroy()
+
+PCI
+ pcim_enable_device() : after success, all PCI ops become managed
+ pcim_pin_device() : keep PCI device enabled after release
+
+IOMAP
+ devm_ioport_map()
+ devm_ioport_unmap()
+ devm_ioremap()
+ devm_ioremap_nocache()
+ devm_iounmap()
+ devm_ioremap_resource() : checks resource, requests memory region, ioremaps
+ devm_request_and_ioremap() : obsoleted by devm_ioremap_resource()
+ pcim_iomap()
+ pcim_iounmap()
+ pcim_iomap_table() : array of mapped addresses indexed by BAR
+ pcim_iomap_regions() : do request_region() and iomap() on multiple BARs
+
+REGULATOR
+ devm_regulator_get()
+ devm_regulator_put()
+ devm_regulator_bulk_get()
+
+CLOCK
+ devm_clk_get()
+ devm_clk_put()
+
+PINCTRL
+ devm_pinctrl_get()
+ devm_pinctrl_put()
+
+PWM
+ devm_pwm_get()
+ devm_pwm_put()
+
+PHY
+ devm_usb_get_phy()
+ devm_usb_put_phy()
diff --git a/Documentation/driver-model/driver.txt b/Documentation/driver-model/driver.txt
new file mode 100644
index 00000000..44211358
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/driver-model/driver.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,214 @@
+
+Device Drivers
+
+See the kerneldoc for the struct device_driver.
+
+
+Allocation
+~~~~~~~~~~
+
+Device drivers are statically allocated structures. Though there may
+be multiple devices in a system that a driver supports, struct
+device_driver represents the driver as a whole (not a particular
+device instance).
+
+Initialization
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+The driver must initialize at least the name and bus fields. It should
+also initialize the devclass field (when it arrives), so it may obtain
+the proper linkage internally. It should also initialize as many of
+the callbacks as possible, though each is optional.
+
+Declaration
+~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+As stated above, struct device_driver objects are statically
+allocated. Below is an example declaration of the eepro100
+driver. This declaration is hypothetical only; it relies on the driver
+being converted completely to the new model.
+
+static struct device_driver eepro100_driver = {
+ .name = "eepro100",
+ .bus = &pci_bus_type,
+
+ .probe = eepro100_probe,
+ .remove = eepro100_remove,
+ .suspend = eepro100_suspend,
+ .resume = eepro100_resume,
+};
+
+Most drivers will not be able to be converted completely to the new
+model because the bus they belong to has a bus-specific structure with
+bus-specific fields that cannot be generalized.
+
+The most common example of this are device ID structures. A driver
+typically defines an array of device IDs that it supports. The format
+of these structures and the semantics for comparing device IDs are
+completely bus-specific. Defining them as bus-specific entities would
+sacrifice type-safety, so we keep bus-specific structures around.
+
+Bus-specific drivers should include a generic struct device_driver in
+the definition of the bus-specific driver. Like this:
+
+struct pci_driver {
+ const struct pci_device_id *id_table;
+ struct device_driver driver;
+};
+
+A definition that included bus-specific fields would look like
+(using the eepro100 driver again):
+
+static struct pci_driver eepro100_driver = {
+ .id_table = eepro100_pci_tbl,
+ .driver = {
+ .name = "eepro100",
+ .bus = &pci_bus_type,
+ .probe = eepro100_probe,
+ .remove = eepro100_remove,
+ .suspend = eepro100_suspend,
+ .resume = eepro100_resume,
+ },
+};
+
+Some may find the syntax of embedded struct initialization awkward or
+even a bit ugly. So far, it's the best way we've found to do what we want...
+
+Registration
+~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+int driver_register(struct device_driver * drv);
+
+The driver registers the structure on startup. For drivers that have
+no bus-specific fields (i.e. don't have a bus-specific driver
+structure), they would use driver_register and pass a pointer to their
+struct device_driver object.
+
+Most drivers, however, will have a bus-specific structure and will
+need to register with the bus using something like pci_driver_register.
+
+It is important that drivers register their driver structure as early as
+possible. Registration with the core initializes several fields in the
+struct device_driver object, including the reference count and the
+lock. These fields are assumed to be valid at all times and may be
+used by the device model core or the bus driver.
+
+
+Transition Bus Drivers
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+By defining wrapper functions, the transition to the new model can be
+made easier. Drivers can ignore the generic structure altogether and
+let the bus wrapper fill in the fields. For the callbacks, the bus can
+define generic callbacks that forward the call to the bus-specific
+callbacks of the drivers.
+
+This solution is intended to be only temporary. In order to get class
+information in the driver, the drivers must be modified anyway. Since
+converting drivers to the new model should reduce some infrastructural
+complexity and code size, it is recommended that they are converted as
+class information is added.
+
+Access
+~~~~~~
+
+Once the object has been registered, it may access the common fields of
+the object, like the lock and the list of devices.
+
+int driver_for_each_dev(struct device_driver * drv, void * data,
+ int (*callback)(struct device * dev, void * data));
+
+The devices field is a list of all the devices that have been bound to
+the driver. The LDM core provides a helper function to operate on all
+the devices a driver controls. This helper locks the driver on each
+node access, and does proper reference counting on each device as it
+accesses it.
+
+
+sysfs
+~~~~~
+
+When a driver is registered, a sysfs directory is created in its
+bus's directory. In this directory, the driver can export an interface
+to userspace to control operation of the driver on a global basis;
+e.g. toggling debugging output in the driver.
+
+A future feature of this directory will be a 'devices' directory. This
+directory will contain symlinks to the directories of devices it
+supports.
+
+
+
+Callbacks
+~~~~~~~~~
+
+ int (*probe) (struct device * dev);
+
+The probe() entry is called in task context, with the bus's rwsem locked
+and the driver partially bound to the device. Drivers commonly use
+container_of() to convert "dev" to a bus-specific type, both in probe()
+and other routines. That type often provides device resource data, such
+as pci_dev.resource[] or platform_device.resources, which is used in
+addition to dev->platform_data to initialize the driver.
+
+This callback holds the driver-specific logic to bind the driver to a
+given device. That includes verifying that the device is present, that
+it's a version the driver can handle, that driver data structures can
+be allocated and initialized, and that any hardware can be initialized.
+Drivers often store a pointer to their state with dev_set_drvdata().
+When the driver has successfully bound itself to that device, then probe()
+returns zero and the driver model code will finish its part of binding
+the driver to that device.
+
+A driver's probe() may return a negative errno value to indicate that
+the driver did not bind to this device, in which case it should have
+released all resources it allocated.
+
+ int (*remove) (struct device * dev);
+
+remove is called to unbind a driver from a device. This may be
+called if a device is physically removed from the system, if the
+driver module is being unloaded, during a reboot sequence, or
+in other cases.
+
+It is up to the driver to determine if the device is present or
+not. It should free any resources allocated specifically for the
+device; i.e. anything in the device's driver_data field.
+
+If the device is still present, it should quiesce the device and place
+it into a supported low-power state.
+
+ int (*suspend) (struct device * dev, pm_message_t state);
+
+suspend is called to put the device in a low power state.
+
+ int (*resume) (struct device * dev);
+
+Resume is used to bring a device back from a low power state.
+
+
+Attributes
+~~~~~~~~~~
+struct driver_attribute {
+ struct attribute attr;
+ ssize_t (*show)(struct device_driver *driver, char *buf);
+ ssize_t (*store)(struct device_driver *, const char * buf, size_t count);
+};
+
+Device drivers can export attributes via their sysfs directories.
+Drivers can declare attributes using a DRIVER_ATTR macro that works
+identically to the DEVICE_ATTR macro.
+
+Example:
+
+DRIVER_ATTR(debug,0644,show_debug,store_debug);
+
+This is equivalent to declaring:
+
+struct driver_attribute driver_attr_debug;
+
+This can then be used to add and remove the attribute from the
+driver's directory using:
+
+int driver_create_file(struct device_driver *, const struct driver_attribute *);
+void driver_remove_file(struct device_driver *, const struct driver_attribute *);
diff --git a/Documentation/driver-model/overview.txt b/Documentation/driver-model/overview.txt
new file mode 100644
index 00000000..6a8f9a80
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/driver-model/overview.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,123 @@
+The Linux Kernel Device Model
+
+Patrick Mochel <mochel@digitalimplant.org>
+
+Drafted 26 August 2002
+Updated 31 January 2006
+
+
+Overview
+~~~~~~~~
+
+The Linux Kernel Driver Model is a unification of all the disparate driver
+models that were previously used in the kernel. It is intended to augment the
+bus-specific drivers for bridges and devices by consolidating a set of data
+and operations into globally accessible data structures.
+
+Traditional driver models implemented some sort of tree-like structure
+(sometimes just a list) for the devices they control. There wasn't any
+uniformity across the different bus types.
+
+The current driver model provides a common, uniform data model for describing
+a bus and the devices that can appear under the bus. The unified bus
+model includes a set of common attributes which all busses carry, and a set
+of common callbacks, such as device discovery during bus probing, bus
+shutdown, bus power management, etc.
+
+The common device and bridge interface reflects the goals of the modern
+computer: namely the ability to do seamless device "plug and play", power
+management, and hot plug. In particular, the model dictated by Intel and
+Microsoft (namely ACPI) ensures that almost every device on almost any bus
+on an x86-compatible system can work within this paradigm. Of course,
+not every bus is able to support all such operations, although most
+buses support most of those operations.
+
+
+Downstream Access
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+Common data fields have been moved out of individual bus layers into a common
+data structure. These fields must still be accessed by the bus layers,
+and sometimes by the device-specific drivers.
+
+Other bus layers are encouraged to do what has been done for the PCI layer.
+struct pci_dev now looks like this:
+
+struct pci_dev {
+ ...
+
+ struct device dev; /* Generic device interface */
+ ...
+};
+
+Note first that the struct device dev within the struct pci_dev is
+statically allocated. This means only one allocation on device discovery.
+
+Note also that that struct device dev is not necessarily defined at the
+front of the pci_dev structure. This is to make people think about what
+they're doing when switching between the bus driver and the global driver,
+and to discourage meaningless and incorrect casts between the two.
+
+The PCI bus layer freely accesses the fields of struct device. It knows about
+the structure of struct pci_dev, and it should know the structure of struct
+device. Individual PCI device drivers that have been converted to the current
+driver model generally do not and should not touch the fields of struct device,
+unless there is a compelling reason to do so.
+
+The above abstraction prevents unnecessary pain during transitional phases.
+If it were not done this way, then when a field was renamed or removed, every
+downstream driver would break. On the other hand, if only the bus layer
+(and not the device layer) accesses the struct device, it is only the bus
+layer that needs to change.
+
+
+User Interface
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+By virtue of having a complete hierarchical view of all the devices in the
+system, exporting a complete hierarchical view to userspace becomes relatively
+easy. This has been accomplished by implementing a special purpose virtual
+file system named sysfs.
+
+Almost all mainstream Linux distros mount this filesystem automatically; you
+can see some variation of the following in the output of the "mount" command:
+
+$ mount
+...
+none on /sys type sysfs (rw,noexec,nosuid,nodev)
+...
+$
+
+The auto-mounting of sysfs is typically accomplished by an entry similar to
+the following in the /etc/fstab file:
+
+none /sys sysfs defaults 0 0
+
+or something similar in the /lib/init/fstab file on Debian-based systems:
+
+none /sys sysfs nodev,noexec,nosuid 0 0
+
+If sysfs is not automatically mounted, you can always do it manually with:
+
+# mount -t sysfs sysfs /sys
+
+Whenever a device is inserted into the tree, a directory is created for it.
+This directory may be populated at each layer of discovery - the global layer,
+the bus layer, or the device layer.
+
+The global layer currently creates two files - 'name' and 'power'. The
+former only reports the name of the device. The latter reports the
+current power state of the device. It will also be used to set the current
+power state.
+
+The bus layer may also create files for the devices it finds while probing the
+bus. For example, the PCI layer currently creates 'irq' and 'resource' files
+for each PCI device.
+
+A device-specific driver may also export files in its directory to expose
+device-specific data or tunable interfaces.
+
+More information about the sysfs directory layout can be found in
+the other documents in this directory and in the file
+Documentation/filesystems/sysfs.txt.
+
diff --git a/Documentation/driver-model/platform.txt b/Documentation/driver-model/platform.txt
new file mode 100644
index 00000000..41f41632
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/driver-model/platform.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,230 @@
+Platform Devices and Drivers
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+See <linux/platform_device.h> for the driver model interface to the
+platform bus: platform_device, and platform_driver. This pseudo-bus
+is used to connect devices on busses with minimal infrastructure,
+like those used to integrate peripherals on many system-on-chip
+processors, or some "legacy" PC interconnects; as opposed to large
+formally specified ones like PCI or USB.
+
+
+Platform devices
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+Platform devices are devices that typically appear as autonomous
+entities in the system. This includes legacy port-based devices and
+host bridges to peripheral buses, and most controllers integrated
+into system-on-chip platforms. What they usually have in common
+is direct addressing from a CPU bus. Rarely, a platform_device will
+be connected through a segment of some other kind of bus; but its
+registers will still be directly addressable.
+
+Platform devices are given a name, used in driver binding, and a
+list of resources such as addresses and IRQs.
+
+struct platform_device {
+ const char *name;
+ u32 id;
+ struct device dev;
+ u32 num_resources;
+ struct resource *resource;
+};
+
+
+Platform drivers
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+Platform drivers follow the standard driver model convention, where
+discovery/enumeration is handled outside the drivers, and drivers
+provide probe() and remove() methods. They support power management
+and shutdown notifications using the standard conventions.
+
+struct platform_driver {
+ int (*probe)(struct platform_device *);
+ int (*remove)(struct platform_device *);
+ void (*shutdown)(struct platform_device *);
+ int (*suspend)(struct platform_device *, pm_message_t state);
+ int (*suspend_late)(struct platform_device *, pm_message_t state);
+ int (*resume_early)(struct platform_device *);
+ int (*resume)(struct platform_device *);
+ struct device_driver driver;
+};
+
+Note that probe() should general verify that the specified device hardware
+actually exists; sometimes platform setup code can't be sure. The probing
+can use device resources, including clocks, and device platform_data.
+
+Platform drivers register themselves the normal way:
+
+ int platform_driver_register(struct platform_driver *drv);
+
+Or, in common situations where the device is known not to be hot-pluggable,
+the probe() routine can live in an init section to reduce the driver's
+runtime memory footprint:
+
+ int platform_driver_probe(struct platform_driver *drv,
+ int (*probe)(struct platform_device *))
+
+
+Device Enumeration
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+As a rule, platform specific (and often board-specific) setup code will
+register platform devices:
+
+ int platform_device_register(struct platform_device *pdev);
+
+ int platform_add_devices(struct platform_device **pdevs, int ndev);
+
+The general rule is to register only those devices that actually exist,
+but in some cases extra devices might be registered. For example, a kernel
+might be configured to work with an external network adapter that might not
+be populated on all boards, or likewise to work with an integrated controller
+that some boards might not hook up to any peripherals.
+
+In some cases, boot firmware will export tables describing the devices
+that are populated on a given board. Without such tables, often the
+only way for system setup code to set up the correct devices is to build
+a kernel for a specific target board. Such board-specific kernels are
+common with embedded and custom systems development.
+
+In many cases, the memory and IRQ resources associated with the platform
+device are not enough to let the device's driver work. Board setup code
+will often provide additional information using the device's platform_data
+field to hold additional information.
+
+Embedded systems frequently need one or more clocks for platform devices,
+which are normally kept off until they're actively needed (to save power).
+System setup also associates those clocks with the device, so that that
+calls to clk_get(&pdev->dev, clock_name) return them as needed.
+
+
+Legacy Drivers: Device Probing
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+Some drivers are not fully converted to the driver model, because they take
+on a non-driver role: the driver registers its platform device, rather than
+leaving that for system infrastructure. Such drivers can't be hotplugged
+or coldplugged, since those mechanisms require device creation to be in a
+different system component than the driver.
+
+The only "good" reason for this is to handle older system designs which, like
+original IBM PCs, rely on error-prone "probe-the-hardware" models for hardware
+configuration. Newer systems have largely abandoned that model, in favor of
+bus-level support for dynamic configuration (PCI, USB), or device tables
+provided by the boot firmware (e.g. PNPACPI on x86). There are too many
+conflicting options about what might be where, and even educated guesses by
+an operating system will be wrong often enough to make trouble.
+
+This style of driver is discouraged. If you're updating such a driver,
+please try to move the device enumeration to a more appropriate location,
+outside the driver. This will usually be cleanup, since such drivers
+tend to already have "normal" modes, such as ones using device nodes that
+were created by PNP or by platform device setup.
+
+None the less, there are some APIs to support such legacy drivers. Avoid
+using these calls except with such hotplug-deficient drivers.
+
+ struct platform_device *platform_device_alloc(
+ const char *name, int id);
+
+You can use platform_device_alloc() to dynamically allocate a device, which
+you will then initialize with resources and platform_device_register().
+A better solution is usually:
+
+ struct platform_device *platform_device_register_simple(
+ const char *name, int id,
+ struct resource *res, unsigned int nres);
+
+You can use platform_device_register_simple() as a one-step call to allocate
+and register a device.
+
+
+Device Naming and Driver Binding
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+The platform_device.dev.bus_id is the canonical name for the devices.
+It's built from two components:
+
+ * platform_device.name ... which is also used to for driver matching.
+
+ * platform_device.id ... the device instance number, or else "-1"
+ to indicate there's only one.
+
+These are concatenated, so name/id "serial"/0 indicates bus_id "serial.0", and
+"serial/3" indicates bus_id "serial.3"; both would use the platform_driver
+named "serial". While "my_rtc"/-1 would be bus_id "my_rtc" (no instance id)
+and use the platform_driver called "my_rtc".
+
+Driver binding is performed automatically by the driver core, invoking
+driver probe() after finding a match between device and driver. If the
+probe() succeeds, the driver and device are bound as usual. There are
+three different ways to find such a match:
+
+ - Whenever a device is registered, the drivers for that bus are
+ checked for matches. Platform devices should be registered very
+ early during system boot.
+
+ - When a driver is registered using platform_driver_register(), all
+ unbound devices on that bus are checked for matches. Drivers
+ usually register later during booting, or by module loading.
+
+ - Registering a driver using platform_driver_probe() works just like
+ using platform_driver_register(), except that the driver won't
+ be probed later if another device registers. (Which is OK, since
+ this interface is only for use with non-hotpluggable devices.)
+
+
+Early Platform Devices and Drivers
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+The early platform interfaces provide platform data to platform device
+drivers early on during the system boot. The code is built on top of the
+early_param() command line parsing and can be executed very early on.
+
+Example: "earlyprintk" class early serial console in 6 steps
+
+1. Registering early platform device data
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+The architecture code registers platform device data using the function
+early_platform_add_devices(). In the case of early serial console this
+should be hardware configuration for the serial port. Devices registered
+at this point will later on be matched against early platform drivers.
+
+2. Parsing kernel command line
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+The architecture code calls parse_early_param() to parse the kernel
+command line. This will execute all matching early_param() callbacks.
+User specified early platform devices will be registered at this point.
+For the early serial console case the user can specify port on the
+kernel command line as "earlyprintk=serial.0" where "earlyprintk" is
+the class string, "serial" is the name of the platform driver and
+0 is the platform device id. If the id is -1 then the dot and the
+id can be omitted.
+
+3. Installing early platform drivers belonging to a certain class
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+The architecture code may optionally force registration of all early
+platform drivers belonging to a certain class using the function
+early_platform_driver_register_all(). User specified devices from
+step 2 have priority over these. This step is omitted by the serial
+driver example since the early serial driver code should be disabled
+unless the user has specified port on the kernel command line.
+
+4. Early platform driver registration
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+Compiled-in platform drivers making use of early_platform_init() are
+automatically registered during step 2 or 3. The serial driver example
+should use early_platform_init("earlyprintk", &platform_driver).
+
+5. Probing of early platform drivers belonging to a certain class
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+The architecture code calls early_platform_driver_probe() to match
+registered early platform devices associated with a certain class with
+registered early platform drivers. Matched devices will get probed().
+This step can be executed at any point during the early boot. As soon
+as possible may be good for the serial port case.
+
+6. Inside the early platform driver probe()
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+The driver code needs to take special care during early boot, especially
+when it comes to memory allocation and interrupt registration. The code
+in the probe() function can use is_early_platform_device() to check if
+it is called at early platform device or at the regular platform device
+time. The early serial driver performs register_console() at this point.
+
+For further information, see <linux/platform_device.h>.
diff --git a/Documentation/driver-model/porting.txt b/Documentation/driver-model/porting.txt
new file mode 100644
index 00000000..92d86f72
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/driver-model/porting.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,445 @@
+
+Porting Drivers to the New Driver Model
+
+Patrick Mochel
+
+7 January 2003
+
+
+Overview
+
+Please refer to Documentation/driver-model/*.txt for definitions of
+various driver types and concepts.
+
+Most of the work of porting devices drivers to the new model happens
+at the bus driver layer. This was intentional, to minimize the
+negative effect on kernel drivers, and to allow a gradual transition
+of bus drivers.
+
+In a nutshell, the driver model consists of a set of objects that can
+be embedded in larger, bus-specific objects. Fields in these generic
+objects can replace fields in the bus-specific objects.
+
+The generic objects must be registered with the driver model core. By
+doing so, they will exported via the sysfs filesystem. sysfs can be
+mounted by doing
+
+ # mount -t sysfs sysfs /sys
+
+
+
+The Process
+
+Step 0: Read include/linux/device.h for object and function definitions.
+
+Step 1: Registering the bus driver.
+
+
+- Define a struct bus_type for the bus driver.
+
+struct bus_type pci_bus_type = {
+ .name = "pci",
+};
+
+
+- Register the bus type.
+ This should be done in the initialization function for the bus type,
+ which is usually the module_init(), or equivalent, function.
+
+static int __init pci_driver_init(void)
+{
+ return bus_register(&pci_bus_type);
+}
+
+subsys_initcall(pci_driver_init);
+
+
+ The bus type may be unregistered (if the bus driver may be compiled
+ as a module) by doing:
+
+ bus_unregister(&pci_bus_type);
+
+
+- Export the bus type for others to use.
+
+ Other code may wish to reference the bus type, so declare it in a
+ shared header file and export the symbol.
+
+From include/linux/pci.h:
+
+extern struct bus_type pci_bus_type;
+
+
+From file the above code appears in:
+
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(pci_bus_type);
+
+
+
+- This will cause the bus to show up in /sys/bus/pci/ with two
+ subdirectories: 'devices' and 'drivers'.
+
+# tree -d /sys/bus/pci/
+/sys/bus/pci/
+|-- devices
+`-- drivers
+
+
+
+Step 2: Registering Devices.
+
+struct device represents a single device. It mainly contains metadata
+describing the relationship the device has to other entities.
+
+
+- Embed a struct device in the bus-specific device type.
+
+
+struct pci_dev {
+ ...
+ struct device dev; /* Generic device interface */
+ ...
+};
+
+ It is recommended that the generic device not be the first item in
+ the struct to discourage programmers from doing mindless casts
+ between the object types. Instead macros, or inline functions,
+ should be created to convert from the generic object type.
+
+
+#define to_pci_dev(n) container_of(n, struct pci_dev, dev)
+
+or
+
+static inline struct pci_dev * to_pci_dev(struct kobject * kobj)
+{
+ return container_of(n, struct pci_dev, dev);
+}
+
+ This allows the compiler to verify type-safety of the operations
+ that are performed (which is Good).
+
+
+- Initialize the device on registration.
+
+ When devices are discovered or registered with the bus type, the
+ bus driver should initialize the generic device. The most important
+ things to initialize are the bus_id, parent, and bus fields.
+
+ The bus_id is an ASCII string that contains the device's address on
+ the bus. The format of this string is bus-specific. This is
+ necessary for representing devices in sysfs.
+
+ parent is the physical parent of the device. It is important that
+ the bus driver sets this field correctly.
+
+ The driver model maintains an ordered list of devices that it uses
+ for power management. This list must be in order to guarantee that
+ devices are shutdown before their physical parents, and vice versa.
+ The order of this list is determined by the parent of registered
+ devices.
+
+ Also, the location of the device's sysfs directory depends on a
+ device's parent. sysfs exports a directory structure that mirrors
+ the device hierarchy. Accurately setting the parent guarantees that
+ sysfs will accurately represent the hierarchy.
+
+ The device's bus field is a pointer to the bus type the device
+ belongs to. This should be set to the bus_type that was declared
+ and initialized before.
+
+ Optionally, the bus driver may set the device's name and release
+ fields.
+
+ The name field is an ASCII string describing the device, like
+
+ "ATI Technologies Inc Radeon QD"
+
+ The release field is a callback that the driver model core calls
+ when the device has been removed, and all references to it have
+ been released. More on this in a moment.
+
+
+- Register the device.
+
+ Once the generic device has been initialized, it can be registered
+ with the driver model core by doing:
+
+ device_register(&dev->dev);
+
+ It can later be unregistered by doing:
+
+ device_unregister(&dev->dev);
+
+ This should happen on buses that support hotpluggable devices.
+ If a bus driver unregisters a device, it should not immediately free
+ it. It should instead wait for the driver model core to call the
+ device's release method, then free the bus-specific object.
+ (There may be other code that is currently referencing the device
+ structure, and it would be rude to free the device while that is
+ happening).
+
+
+ When the device is registered, a directory in sysfs is created.
+ The PCI tree in sysfs looks like:
+
+/sys/devices/pci0/
+|-- 00:00.0
+|-- 00:01.0
+| `-- 01:00.0
+|-- 00:02.0
+| `-- 02:1f.0
+| `-- 03:00.0
+|-- 00:1e.0
+| `-- 04:04.0
+|-- 00:1f.0
+|-- 00:1f.1
+| |-- ide0
+| | |-- 0.0
+| | `-- 0.1
+| `-- ide1
+| `-- 1.0
+|-- 00:1f.2
+|-- 00:1f.3
+`-- 00:1f.5
+
+ Also, symlinks are created in the bus's 'devices' directory
+ that point to the device's directory in the physical hierarchy.
+
+/sys/bus/pci/devices/
+|-- 00:00.0 -> ../../../devices/pci0/00:00.0
+|-- 00:01.0 -> ../../../devices/pci0/00:01.0
+|-- 00:02.0 -> ../../../devices/pci0/00:02.0
+|-- 00:1e.0 -> ../../../devices/pci0/00:1e.0
+|-- 00:1f.0 -> ../../../devices/pci0/00:1f.0
+|-- 00:1f.1 -> ../../../devices/pci0/00:1f.1
+|-- 00:1f.2 -> ../../../devices/pci0/00:1f.2
+|-- 00:1f.3 -> ../../../devices/pci0/00:1f.3
+|-- 00:1f.5 -> ../../../devices/pci0/00:1f.5
+|-- 01:00.0 -> ../../../devices/pci0/00:01.0/01:00.0
+|-- 02:1f.0 -> ../../../devices/pci0/00:02.0/02:1f.0
+|-- 03:00.0 -> ../../../devices/pci0/00:02.0/02:1f.0/03:00.0
+`-- 04:04.0 -> ../../../devices/pci0/00:1e.0/04:04.0
+
+
+
+Step 3: Registering Drivers.
+
+struct device_driver is a simple driver structure that contains a set
+of operations that the driver model core may call.
+
+
+- Embed a struct device_driver in the bus-specific driver.
+
+ Just like with devices, do something like:
+
+struct pci_driver {
+ ...
+ struct device_driver driver;
+};
+
+
+- Initialize the generic driver structure.
+
+ When the driver registers with the bus (e.g. doing pci_register_driver()),
+ initialize the necessary fields of the driver: the name and bus
+ fields.
+
+
+- Register the driver.
+
+ After the generic driver has been initialized, call
+
+ driver_register(&drv->driver);
+
+ to register the driver with the core.
+
+ When the driver is unregistered from the bus, unregister it from the
+ core by doing:
+
+ driver_unregister(&drv->driver);
+
+ Note that this will block until all references to the driver have
+ gone away. Normally, there will not be any.
+
+
+- Sysfs representation.
+
+ Drivers are exported via sysfs in their bus's 'driver's directory.
+ For example:
+
+/sys/bus/pci/drivers/
+|-- 3c59x
+|-- Ensoniq AudioPCI
+|-- agpgart-amdk7
+|-- e100
+`-- serial
+
+
+Step 4: Define Generic Methods for Drivers.
+
+struct device_driver defines a set of operations that the driver model
+core calls. Most of these operations are probably similar to
+operations the bus already defines for drivers, but taking different
+parameters.
+
+It would be difficult and tedious to force every driver on a bus to
+simultaneously convert their drivers to generic format. Instead, the
+bus driver should define single instances of the generic methods that
+forward call to the bus-specific drivers. For instance:
+
+
+static int pci_device_remove(struct device * dev)
+{
+ struct pci_dev * pci_dev = to_pci_dev(dev);
+ struct pci_driver * drv = pci_dev->driver;
+
+ if (drv) {
+ if (drv->remove)
+ drv->remove(pci_dev);
+ pci_dev->driver = NULL;
+ }
+ return 0;
+}
+
+
+The generic driver should be initialized with these methods before it
+is registered.
+
+ /* initialize common driver fields */
+ drv->driver.name = drv->name;
+ drv->driver.bus = &pci_bus_type;
+ drv->driver.probe = pci_device_probe;
+ drv->driver.resume = pci_device_resume;
+ drv->driver.suspend = pci_device_suspend;
+ drv->driver.remove = pci_device_remove;
+
+ /* register with core */
+ driver_register(&drv->driver);
+
+
+Ideally, the bus should only initialize the fields if they are not
+already set. This allows the drivers to implement their own generic
+methods.
+
+
+Step 5: Support generic driver binding.
+
+The model assumes that a device or driver can be dynamically
+registered with the bus at any time. When registration happens,
+devices must be bound to a driver, or drivers must be bound to all
+devices that it supports.
+
+A driver typically contains a list of device IDs that it supports. The
+bus driver compares these IDs to the IDs of devices registered with it.
+The format of the device IDs, and the semantics for comparing them are
+bus-specific, so the generic model does attempt to generalize them.
+
+Instead, a bus may supply a method in struct bus_type that does the
+comparison:
+
+ int (*match)(struct device * dev, struct device_driver * drv);
+
+match should return '1' if the driver supports the device, and '0'
+otherwise.
+
+When a device is registered, the bus's list of drivers is iterated
+over. bus->match() is called for each one until a match is found.
+
+When a driver is registered, the bus's list of devices is iterated
+over. bus->match() is called for each device that is not already
+claimed by a driver.
+
+When a device is successfully bound to a driver, device->driver is
+set, the device is added to a per-driver list of devices, and a
+symlink is created in the driver's sysfs directory that points to the
+device's physical directory:
+
+/sys/bus/pci/drivers/
+|-- 3c59x
+| `-- 00:0b.0 -> ../../../../devices/pci0/00:0b.0
+|-- Ensoniq AudioPCI
+|-- agpgart-amdk7
+| `-- 00:00.0 -> ../../../../devices/pci0/00:00.0
+|-- e100
+| `-- 00:0c.0 -> ../../../../devices/pci0/00:0c.0
+`-- serial
+
+
+This driver binding should replace the existing driver binding
+mechanism the bus currently uses.
+
+
+Step 6: Supply a hotplug callback.
+
+Whenever a device is registered with the driver model core, the
+userspace program /sbin/hotplug is called to notify userspace.
+Users can define actions to perform when a device is inserted or
+removed.
+
+The driver model core passes several arguments to userspace via
+environment variables, including
+
+- ACTION: set to 'add' or 'remove'
+- DEVPATH: set to the device's physical path in sysfs.
+
+A bus driver may also supply additional parameters for userspace to
+consume. To do this, a bus must implement the 'hotplug' method in
+struct bus_type:
+
+ int (*hotplug) (struct device *dev, char **envp,
+ int num_envp, char *buffer, int buffer_size);
+
+This is called immediately before /sbin/hotplug is executed.
+
+
+Step 7: Cleaning up the bus driver.
+
+The generic bus, device, and driver structures provide several fields
+that can replace those defined privately to the bus driver.
+
+- Device list.
+
+struct bus_type contains a list of all devices registered with the bus
+type. This includes all devices on all instances of that bus type.
+An internal list that the bus uses may be removed, in favor of using
+this one.
+
+The core provides an iterator to access these devices.
+
+int bus_for_each_dev(struct bus_type * bus, struct device * start,
+ void * data, int (*fn)(struct device *, void *));
+
+
+- Driver list.
+
+struct bus_type also contains a list of all drivers registered with
+it. An internal list of drivers that the bus driver maintains may
+be removed in favor of using the generic one.
+
+The drivers may be iterated over, like devices:
+
+int bus_for_each_drv(struct bus_type * bus, struct device_driver * start,
+ void * data, int (*fn)(struct device_driver *, void *));
+
+
+Please see drivers/base/bus.c for more information.
+
+
+- rwsem
+
+struct bus_type contains an rwsem that protects all core accesses to
+the device and driver lists. This can be used by the bus driver
+internally, and should be used when accessing the device or driver
+lists the bus maintains.
+
+
+- Device and driver fields.
+
+Some of the fields in struct device and struct device_driver duplicate
+fields in the bus-specific representations of these objects. Feel free
+to remove the bus-specific ones and favor the generic ones. Note
+though, that this will likely mean fixing up all the drivers that
+reference the bus-specific fields (though those should all be 1-line
+changes).
+