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+/*
+ * pcc-cpufreq.txt - PCC interface documentation
+ *
+ * Copyright (C) 2009 Red Hat, Matthew Garrett <mjg@redhat.com>
+ * Copyright (C) 2009 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.
+ * Nagananda Chumbalkar <nagananda.chumbalkar@hp.com>
+ *
+ * ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+ *
+ * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; version 2 of the License.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
+ * WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, GOOD TITLE or NON
+ * INFRINGEMENT. See the GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
+ * with this program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
+ * 675 Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.
+ *
+ * ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+ */
+
+
+ Processor Clocking Control Driver
+ ---------------------------------
+
+Contents:
+---------
+1. Introduction
+1.1 PCC interface
+1.1.1 Get Average Frequency
+1.1.2 Set Desired Frequency
+1.2 Platforms affected
+2. Driver and /sys details
+2.1 scaling_available_frequencies
+2.2 cpuinfo_transition_latency
+2.3 cpuinfo_cur_freq
+2.4 related_cpus
+3. Caveats
+
+1. Introduction:
+----------------
+Processor Clocking Control (PCC) is an interface between the platform
+firmware and OSPM. It is a mechanism for coordinating processor
+performance (ie: frequency) between the platform firmware and the OS.
+
+The PCC driver (pcc-cpufreq) allows OSPM to take advantage of the PCC
+interface.
+
+OS utilizes the PCC interface to inform platform firmware what frequency the
+OS wants for a logical processor. The platform firmware attempts to achieve
+the requested frequency. If the request for the target frequency could not be
+satisfied by platform firmware, then it usually means that power budget
+conditions are in place, and "power capping" is taking place.
+
+1.1 PCC interface:
+------------------
+The complete PCC specification is available here:
+http://www.acpica.org/download/Processor-Clocking-Control-v1p0.pdf
+
+PCC relies on a shared memory region that provides a channel for communication
+between the OS and platform firmware. PCC also implements a "doorbell" that
+is used by the OS to inform the platform firmware that a command has been
+sent.
+
+The ACPI PCCH() method is used to discover the location of the PCC shared
+memory region. The shared memory region header contains the "command" and
+"status" interface. PCCH() also contains details on how to access the platform
+doorbell.
+
+The following commands are supported by the PCC interface:
+* Get Average Frequency
+* Set Desired Frequency
+
+The ACPI PCCP() method is implemented for each logical processor and is
+used to discover the offsets for the input and output buffers in the shared
+memory region.
+
+When PCC mode is enabled, the platform will not expose processor performance
+or throttle states (_PSS, _TSS and related ACPI objects) to OSPM. Therefore,
+the native P-state driver (such as acpi-cpufreq for Intel, powernow-k8 for
+AMD) will not load.
+
+However, OSPM remains in control of policy. The governor (eg: "ondemand")
+computes the required performance for each processor based on server workload.
+The PCC driver fills in the command interface, and the input buffer and
+communicates the request to the platform firmware. The platform firmware is
+responsible for delivering the requested performance.
+
+Each PCC command is "global" in scope and can affect all the logical CPUs in
+the system. Therefore, PCC is capable of performing "group" updates. With PCC
+the OS is capable of getting/setting the frequency of all the logical CPUs in
+the system with a single call to the BIOS.
+
+1.1.1 Get Average Frequency:
+----------------------------
+This command is used by the OSPM to query the running frequency of the
+processor since the last time this command was completed. The output buffer
+indicates the average unhalted frequency of the logical processor expressed as
+a percentage of the nominal (ie: maximum) CPU frequency. The output buffer
+also signifies if the CPU frequency is limited by a power budget condition.
+
+1.1.2 Set Desired Frequency:
+----------------------------
+This command is used by the OSPM to communicate to the platform firmware the
+desired frequency for a logical processor. The output buffer is currently
+ignored by OSPM. The next invocation of "Get Average Frequency" will inform
+OSPM if the desired frequency was achieved or not.
+
+1.2 Platforms affected:
+-----------------------
+The PCC driver will load on any system where the platform firmware:
+* supports the PCC interface, and the associated PCCH() and PCCP() methods
+* assumes responsibility for managing the hardware clocking controls in order
+to deliver the requested processor performance
+
+Currently, certain HP ProLiant platforms implement the PCC interface. On those
+platforms PCC is the "default" choice.
+
+However, it is possible to disable this interface via a BIOS setting. In
+such an instance, as is also the case on platforms where the PCC interface
+is not implemented, the PCC driver will fail to load silently.
+
+2. Driver and /sys details:
+---------------------------
+When the driver loads, it merely prints the lowest and the highest CPU
+frequencies supported by the platform firmware.
+
+The PCC driver loads with a message such as:
+pcc-cpufreq: (v1.00.00) driver loaded with frequency limits: 1600 MHz, 2933
+MHz
+
+This means that the OPSM can request the CPU to run at any frequency in
+between the limits (1600 MHz, and 2933 MHz) specified in the message.
+
+Internally, there is no need for the driver to convert the "target" frequency
+to a corresponding P-state.
+
+The VERSION number for the driver will be of the format v.xy.ab.
+eg: 1.00.02
+ ----- --
+ | |
+ | -- this will increase with bug fixes/enhancements to the driver
+ |-- this is the version of the PCC specification the driver adheres to
+
+
+The following is a brief discussion on some of the fields exported via the
+/sys filesystem and how their values are affected by the PCC driver:
+
+2.1 scaling_available_frequencies:
+----------------------------------
+scaling_available_frequencies is not created in /sys. No intermediate
+frequencies need to be listed because the BIOS will try to achieve any
+frequency, within limits, requested by the governor. A frequency does not have
+to be strictly associated with a P-state.
+
+2.2 cpuinfo_transition_latency:
+-------------------------------
+The cpuinfo_transition_latency field is 0. The PCC specification does
+not include a field to expose this value currently.
+
+2.3 cpuinfo_cur_freq:
+---------------------
+A) Often cpuinfo_cur_freq will show a value different than what is declared
+in the scaling_available_frequencies or scaling_cur_freq, or scaling_max_freq.
+This is due to "turbo boost" available on recent Intel processors. If certain
+conditions are met the BIOS can achieve a slightly higher speed than requested
+by OSPM. An example:
+
+scaling_cur_freq : 2933000
+cpuinfo_cur_freq : 3196000
+
+B) There is a round-off error associated with the cpuinfo_cur_freq value.
+Since the driver obtains the current frequency as a "percentage" (%) of the
+nominal frequency from the BIOS, sometimes, the values displayed by
+scaling_cur_freq and cpuinfo_cur_freq may not match. An example:
+
+scaling_cur_freq : 1600000
+cpuinfo_cur_freq : 1583000
+
+In this example, the nominal frequency is 2933 MHz. The driver obtains the
+current frequency, cpuinfo_cur_freq, as 54% of the nominal frequency:
+
+ 54% of 2933 MHz = 1583 MHz
+
+Nominal frequency is the maximum frequency of the processor, and it usually
+corresponds to the frequency of the P0 P-state.
+
+2.4 related_cpus:
+-----------------
+The related_cpus field is identical to affected_cpus.
+
+affected_cpus : 4
+related_cpus : 4
+
+Currently, the PCC driver does not evaluate _PSD. The platforms that support
+PCC do not implement SW_ALL. So OSPM doesn't need to perform any coordination
+to ensure that the same frequency is requested of all dependent CPUs.
+
+3. Caveats:
+-----------
+The "cpufreq_stats" module in its present form cannot be loaded and
+expected to work with the PCC driver. Since the "cpufreq_stats" module
+provides information wrt each P-state, it is not applicable to the PCC driver.