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+Explicit volatile write back cache control
+Many storage devices, especially in the consumer market, come with volatile
+write back caches. That means the devices signal I/O completion to the
+operating system before data actually has hit the non-volatile storage. This
+behavior obviously speeds up various workloads, but it means the operating
+system needs to force data out to the non-volatile storage when it performs
+a data integrity operation like fsync, sync or an unmount.
+The Linux block layer provides two simple mechanisms that let filesystems
+control the caching behavior of the storage device. These mechanisms are
+a forced cache flush, and the Force Unit Access (FUA) flag for requests.
+Explicit cache flushes
+The REQ_FLUSH flag can be OR ed into the r/w flags of a bio submitted from
+the filesystem and will make sure the volatile cache of the storage device
+has been flushed before the actual I/O operation is started. This explicitly
+guarantees that previously completed write requests are on non-volatile
+storage before the flagged bio starts. In addition the REQ_FLUSH flag can be
+set on an otherwise empty bio structure, which causes only an explicit cache
+flush without any dependent I/O. It is recommend to use
+the blkdev_issue_flush() helper for a pure cache flush.
+Forced Unit Access
+The REQ_FUA flag can be OR ed into the r/w flags of a bio submitted from the
+filesystem and will make sure that I/O completion for this request is only
+signaled after the data has been committed to non-volatile storage.
+Implementation details for filesystems
+Filesystems can simply set the REQ_FLUSH and REQ_FUA bits and do not have to
+worry if the underlying devices need any explicit cache flushing and how
+the Forced Unit Access is implemented. The REQ_FLUSH and REQ_FUA flags
+may both be set on a single bio.
+Implementation details for make_request_fn based block drivers
+These drivers will always see the REQ_FLUSH and REQ_FUA bits as they sit
+directly below the submit_bio interface. For remapping drivers the REQ_FUA
+bits need to be propagated to underlying devices, and a global flush needs
+to be implemented for bios with the REQ_FLUSH bit set. For real device
+drivers that do not have a volatile cache the REQ_FLUSH and REQ_FUA bits
+on non-empty bios can simply be ignored, and REQ_FLUSH requests without
+data can be completed successfully without doing any work. Drivers for
+devices with volatile caches need to implement the support for these
+flags themselves without any help from the block layer.
+Implementation details for request_fn based block drivers
+For devices that do not support volatile write caches there is no driver
+support required, the block layer completes empty REQ_FLUSH requests before
+entering the driver and strips off the REQ_FLUSH and REQ_FUA bits from
+requests that have a payload. For devices with volatile write caches the
+driver needs to tell the block layer that it supports flushing caches by
+ blk_queue_flush(sdkp->disk->queue, REQ_FLUSH);
+and handle empty REQ_FLUSH requests in its prep_fn/request_fn. Note that
+REQ_FLUSH requests with a payload are automatically turned into a sequence
+of an empty REQ_FLUSH request followed by the actual write by the block
+layer. For devices that also support the FUA bit the block layer needs
+to be told to pass through the REQ_FUA bit using:
+ blk_queue_flush(sdkp->disk->queue, REQ_FLUSH | REQ_FUA);
+and the driver must handle write requests that have the REQ_FUA bit set
+in prep_fn/request_fn. If the FUA bit is not natively supported the block
+layer turns it into an empty REQ_FLUSH request after the actual write.