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+<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
+<!DOCTYPE book PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.1.2//EN"
+ "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.1.2/docbookx.dtd" []>
+
+<book id="LinuxKernelAPI">
+ <bookinfo>
+ <title>The Linux Kernel API</title>
+
+ <legalnotice>
+ <para>
+ This documentation is free software; you can redistribute
+ it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public
+ License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
+ version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later
+ version.
+ </para>
+
+ <para>
+ This program is distributed in the hope that it will be
+ useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied
+ warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
+ See the GNU General Public License for more details.
+ </para>
+
+ <para>
+ You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public
+ License along with this program; if not, write to the Free
+ Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston,
+ MA 02111-1307 USA
+ </para>
+
+ <para>
+ For more details see the file COPYING in the source
+ distribution of Linux.
+ </para>
+ </legalnotice>
+ </bookinfo>
+
+<toc></toc>
+
+ <chapter id="adt">
+ <title>Data Types</title>
+ <sect1><title>Doubly Linked Lists</title>
+!Iinclude/linux/list.h
+ </sect1>
+ </chapter>
+
+ <chapter id="libc">
+ <title>Basic C Library Functions</title>
+
+ <para>
+ When writing drivers, you cannot in general use routines which are
+ from the C Library. Some of the functions have been found generally
+ useful and they are listed below. The behaviour of these functions
+ may vary slightly from those defined by ANSI, and these deviations
+ are noted in the text.
+ </para>
+
+ <sect1><title>String Conversions</title>
+!Elib/vsprintf.c
+!Finclude/linux/kernel.h kstrtol
+!Finclude/linux/kernel.h kstrtoul
+!Elib/kstrtox.c
+ </sect1>
+ <sect1><title>String Manipulation</title>
+<!-- All functions are exported at now
+X!Ilib/string.c
+ -->
+!Elib/string.c
+ </sect1>
+ <sect1><title>Bit Operations</title>
+!Iarch/x86/include/asm/bitops.h
+ </sect1>
+ </chapter>
+
+ <chapter id="kernel-lib">
+ <title>Basic Kernel Library Functions</title>
+
+ <para>
+ The Linux kernel provides more basic utility functions.
+ </para>
+
+ <sect1><title>Bitmap Operations</title>
+!Elib/bitmap.c
+!Ilib/bitmap.c
+ </sect1>
+
+ <sect1><title>Command-line Parsing</title>
+!Elib/cmdline.c
+ </sect1>
+
+ <sect1 id="crc"><title>CRC Functions</title>
+!Elib/crc7.c
+!Elib/crc16.c
+!Elib/crc-itu-t.c
+!Elib/crc32.c
+!Elib/crc-ccitt.c
+ </sect1>
+
+ <sect1 id="idr"><title>idr/ida Functions</title>
+!Pinclude/linux/idr.h idr sync
+!Plib/idr.c IDA description
+!Elib/idr.c
+ </sect1>
+ </chapter>
+
+ <chapter id="mm">
+ <title>Memory Management in Linux</title>
+ <sect1><title>The Slab Cache</title>
+!Iinclude/linux/slab.h
+!Emm/slab.c
+ </sect1>
+ <sect1><title>User Space Memory Access</title>
+!Iarch/x86/include/asm/uaccess_32.h
+!Earch/x86/lib/usercopy_32.c
+ </sect1>
+ <sect1><title>More Memory Management Functions</title>
+!Emm/readahead.c
+!Emm/filemap.c
+!Emm/memory.c
+!Emm/vmalloc.c
+!Imm/page_alloc.c
+!Emm/mempool.c
+!Emm/dmapool.c
+!Emm/page-writeback.c
+!Emm/truncate.c
+ </sect1>
+ </chapter>
+
+
+ <chapter id="ipc">
+ <title>Kernel IPC facilities</title>
+
+ <sect1><title>IPC utilities</title>
+!Iipc/util.c
+ </sect1>
+ </chapter>
+
+ <chapter id="kfifo">
+ <title>FIFO Buffer</title>
+ <sect1><title>kfifo interface</title>
+!Iinclude/linux/kfifo.h
+ </sect1>
+ </chapter>
+
+ <chapter id="relayfs">
+ <title>relay interface support</title>
+
+ <para>
+ Relay interface support
+ is designed to provide an efficient mechanism for tools and
+ facilities to relay large amounts of data from kernel space to
+ user space.
+ </para>
+
+ <sect1><title>relay interface</title>
+!Ekernel/relay.c
+!Ikernel/relay.c
+ </sect1>
+ </chapter>
+
+ <chapter id="modload">
+ <title>Module Support</title>
+ <sect1><title>Module Loading</title>
+!Ekernel/kmod.c
+ </sect1>
+ <sect1><title>Inter Module support</title>
+ <para>
+ Refer to the file kernel/module.c for more information.
+ </para>
+<!-- FIXME: Removed for now since no structured comments in source
+X!Ekernel/module.c
+-->
+ </sect1>
+ </chapter>
+
+ <chapter id="hardware">
+ <title>Hardware Interfaces</title>
+ <sect1><title>Interrupt Handling</title>
+!Ekernel/irq/manage.c
+ </sect1>
+
+ <sect1><title>DMA Channels</title>
+!Ekernel/dma.c
+ </sect1>
+
+ <sect1><title>Resources Management</title>
+!Ikernel/resource.c
+!Ekernel/resource.c
+ </sect1>
+
+ <sect1><title>MTRR Handling</title>
+!Earch/x86/kernel/cpu/mtrr/main.c
+ </sect1>
+
+ <sect1><title>PCI Support Library</title>
+!Edrivers/pci/pci.c
+!Edrivers/pci/pci-driver.c
+!Edrivers/pci/remove.c
+!Edrivers/pci/search.c
+!Edrivers/pci/msi.c
+!Edrivers/pci/bus.c
+!Edrivers/pci/access.c
+!Edrivers/pci/irq.c
+!Edrivers/pci/htirq.c
+<!-- FIXME: Removed for now since no structured comments in source
+X!Edrivers/pci/hotplug.c
+-->
+!Edrivers/pci/probe.c
+!Edrivers/pci/slot.c
+!Edrivers/pci/rom.c
+!Edrivers/pci/iov.c
+!Idrivers/pci/pci-sysfs.c
+ </sect1>
+ <sect1><title>PCI Hotplug Support Library</title>
+!Edrivers/pci/hotplug/pci_hotplug_core.c
+ </sect1>
+ </chapter>
+
+ <chapter id="firmware">
+ <title>Firmware Interfaces</title>
+ <sect1><title>DMI Interfaces</title>
+!Edrivers/firmware/dmi_scan.c
+ </sect1>
+ <sect1><title>EDD Interfaces</title>
+!Idrivers/firmware/edd.c
+ </sect1>
+ </chapter>
+
+ <chapter id="security">
+ <title>Security Framework</title>
+!Isecurity/security.c
+!Esecurity/inode.c
+ </chapter>
+
+ <chapter id="audit">
+ <title>Audit Interfaces</title>
+!Ekernel/audit.c
+!Ikernel/auditsc.c
+!Ikernel/auditfilter.c
+ </chapter>
+
+ <chapter id="accounting">
+ <title>Accounting Framework</title>
+!Ikernel/acct.c
+ </chapter>
+
+ <chapter id="blkdev">
+ <title>Block Devices</title>
+!Eblock/blk-core.c
+!Iblock/blk-core.c
+!Eblock/blk-map.c
+!Iblock/blk-sysfs.c
+!Eblock/blk-settings.c
+!Eblock/blk-exec.c
+!Eblock/blk-flush.c
+!Eblock/blk-lib.c
+!Eblock/blk-tag.c
+!Iblock/blk-tag.c
+!Eblock/blk-integrity.c
+!Ikernel/trace/blktrace.c
+!Iblock/genhd.c
+!Eblock/genhd.c
+ </chapter>
+
+ <chapter id="chrdev">
+ <title>Char devices</title>
+!Efs/char_dev.c
+ </chapter>
+
+ <chapter id="miscdev">
+ <title>Miscellaneous Devices</title>
+!Edrivers/char/misc.c
+ </chapter>
+
+ <chapter id="clk">
+ <title>Clock Framework</title>
+
+ <para>
+ The clock framework defines programming interfaces to support
+ software management of the system clock tree.
+ This framework is widely used with System-On-Chip (SOC) platforms
+ to support power management and various devices which may need
+ custom clock rates.
+ Note that these "clocks" don't relate to timekeeping or real
+ time clocks (RTCs), each of which have separate frameworks.
+ These <structname>struct clk</structname> instances may be used
+ to manage for example a 96 MHz signal that is used to shift bits
+ into and out of peripherals or busses, or otherwise trigger
+ synchronous state machine transitions in system hardware.
+ </para>
+
+ <para>
+ Power management is supported by explicit software clock gating:
+ unused clocks are disabled, so the system doesn't waste power
+ changing the state of transistors that aren't in active use.
+ On some systems this may be backed by hardware clock gating,
+ where clocks are gated without being disabled in software.
+ Sections of chips that are powered but not clocked may be able
+ to retain their last state.
+ This low power state is often called a <emphasis>retention
+ mode</emphasis>.
+ This mode still incurs leakage currents, especially with finer
+ circuit geometries, but for CMOS circuits power is mostly used
+ by clocked state changes.
+ </para>
+
+ <para>
+ Power-aware drivers only enable their clocks when the device
+ they manage is in active use. Also, system sleep states often
+ differ according to which clock domains are active: while a
+ "standby" state may allow wakeup from several active domains, a
+ "mem" (suspend-to-RAM) state may require a more wholesale shutdown
+ of clocks derived from higher speed PLLs and oscillators, limiting
+ the number of possible wakeup event sources. A driver's suspend
+ method may need to be aware of system-specific clock constraints
+ on the target sleep state.
+ </para>
+
+ <para>
+ Some platforms support programmable clock generators. These
+ can be used by external chips of various kinds, such as other
+ CPUs, multimedia codecs, and devices with strict requirements
+ for interface clocking.
+ </para>
+
+!Iinclude/linux/clk.h
+ </chapter>
+
+</book>