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authorKevin Wolf <kwolf@redhat.com>2011-01-17 16:08:14 +0000
committerKevin Wolf <kwolf@redhat.com>2011-08-01 12:14:09 +0200
commit00dccaf1f848290d979a4b1e6248281ce1b32aaa (patch)
treeacc1d17a272a1a3494125d96ff22bb638566f076 /coroutine-ucontext.c
parentf6e8ffc22fe153ba981f2747e4c52ea7e55f6ecc (diff)
downloadqemu-arm-00dccaf1f848290d979a4b1e6248281ce1b32aaa.tar.gz
coroutine: introduce coroutines
Asynchronous code is becoming very complex. At the same time synchronous code is growing because it is convenient to write. Sometimes duplicate code paths are even added, one synchronous and the other asynchronous. This patch introduces coroutines which allow code that looks synchronous but is asynchronous under the covers. A coroutine has its own stack and is therefore able to preserve state across blocking operations, which traditionally require callback functions and manual marshalling of parameters. Creating and starting a coroutine is easy: coroutine = qemu_coroutine_create(my_coroutine); qemu_coroutine_enter(coroutine, my_data); The coroutine then executes until it returns or yields: void coroutine_fn my_coroutine(void *opaque) { MyData *my_data = opaque; /* do some work */ qemu_coroutine_yield(); /* do some more work */ } Yielding switches control back to the caller of qemu_coroutine_enter(). This is typically used to switch back to the main thread's event loop after issuing an asynchronous I/O request. The request callback will then invoke qemu_coroutine_enter() once more to switch back to the coroutine. Note that if coroutines are used only from threads which hold the global mutex they will never execute concurrently. This makes programming with coroutines easier than with threads. Race conditions cannot occur since only one coroutine may be active at any time. Other coroutines can only run across yield. This coroutines implementation is based on the gtk-vnc implementation written by Anthony Liguori <anthony@codemonkey.ws> but it has been significantly rewritten by Kevin Wolf <kwolf@redhat.com> to use setjmp()/longjmp() instead of the more expensive swapcontext() and by Paolo Bonzini <pbonzini@redhat.com> for Windows Fibers support. Signed-off-by: Kevin Wolf <kwolf@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Stefan Hajnoczi <stefanha@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Diffstat (limited to 'coroutine-ucontext.c')
-rw-r--r--coroutine-ucontext.c230
1 files changed, 230 insertions, 0 deletions
diff --git a/coroutine-ucontext.c b/coroutine-ucontext.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000000..41c2379a2a
--- /dev/null
+++ b/coroutine-ucontext.c
@@ -0,0 +1,230 @@
+/*
+ * ucontext coroutine initialization code
+ *
+ * Copyright (C) 2006 Anthony Liguori <anthony@codemonkey.ws>
+ * Copyright (C) 2011 Kevin Wolf <kwolf@redhat.com>
+ *
+ * This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
+ * modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public
+ * License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
+ * version 2.0 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU
+ * Lesser General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public
+ * License along with this library; if not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+/* XXX Is there a nicer way to disable glibc's stack check for longjmp? */
+#ifdef _FORTIFY_SOURCE
+#undef _FORTIFY_SOURCE
+#endif
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <setjmp.h>
+#include <stdint.h>
+#include <pthread.h>
+#include <ucontext.h>
+#include "qemu-common.h"
+#include "qemu-coroutine-int.h"
+
+enum {
+ /* Maximum free pool size prevents holding too many freed coroutines */
+ POOL_MAX_SIZE = 64,
+};
+
+typedef struct {
+ Coroutine base;
+ void *stack;
+ jmp_buf env;
+} CoroutineUContext;
+
+/**
+ * Per-thread coroutine bookkeeping
+ */
+typedef struct {
+ /** Currently executing coroutine */
+ Coroutine *current;
+
+ /** Free list to speed up creation */
+ QLIST_HEAD(, Coroutine) pool;
+ unsigned int pool_size;
+
+ /** The default coroutine */
+ CoroutineUContext leader;
+} CoroutineThreadState;
+
+static pthread_key_t thread_state_key;
+
+/*
+ * va_args to makecontext() must be type 'int', so passing
+ * the pointer we need may require several int args. This
+ * union is a quick hack to let us do that
+ */
+union cc_arg {
+ void *p;
+ int i[2];
+};
+
+static CoroutineThreadState *coroutine_get_thread_state(void)
+{
+ CoroutineThreadState *s = pthread_getspecific(thread_state_key);
+
+ if (!s) {
+ s = qemu_mallocz(sizeof(*s));
+ s->current = &s->leader.base;
+ QLIST_INIT(&s->pool);
+ pthread_setspecific(thread_state_key, s);
+ }
+ return s;
+}
+
+static void qemu_coroutine_thread_cleanup(void *opaque)
+{
+ CoroutineThreadState *s = opaque;
+ Coroutine *co;
+ Coroutine *tmp;
+
+ QLIST_FOREACH_SAFE(co, &s->pool, pool_next, tmp) {
+ qemu_free(DO_UPCAST(CoroutineUContext, base, co)->stack);
+ qemu_free(co);
+ }
+ qemu_free(s);
+}
+
+static void __attribute__((constructor)) coroutine_init(void)
+{
+ int ret;
+
+ ret = pthread_key_create(&thread_state_key, qemu_coroutine_thread_cleanup);
+ if (ret != 0) {
+ fprintf(stderr, "unable to create leader key: %s\n", strerror(errno));
+ abort();
+ }
+}
+
+static void coroutine_trampoline(int i0, int i1)
+{
+ union cc_arg arg;
+ CoroutineUContext *self;
+ Coroutine *co;
+
+ arg.i[0] = i0;
+ arg.i[1] = i1;
+ self = arg.p;
+ co = &self->base;
+
+ /* Initialize longjmp environment and switch back the caller */
+ if (!setjmp(self->env)) {
+ longjmp(*(jmp_buf *)co->entry_arg, 1);
+ }
+
+ while (true) {
+ co->entry(co->entry_arg);
+ qemu_coroutine_switch(co, co->caller, COROUTINE_TERMINATE);
+ }
+}
+
+static Coroutine *coroutine_new(void)
+{
+ const size_t stack_size = 1 << 20;
+ CoroutineUContext *co;
+ ucontext_t old_uc, uc;
+ jmp_buf old_env;
+ union cc_arg arg;
+
+ /* The ucontext functions preserve signal masks which incurs a system call
+ * overhead. setjmp()/longjmp() does not preserve signal masks but only
+ * works on the current stack. Since we need a way to create and switch to
+ * a new stack, use the ucontext functions for that but setjmp()/longjmp()
+ * for everything else.
+ */
+
+ if (getcontext(&uc) == -1) {
+ abort();
+ }
+
+ co = qemu_mallocz(sizeof(*co));
+ co->stack = qemu_malloc(stack_size);
+ co->base.entry_arg = &old_env; /* stash away our jmp_buf */
+
+ uc.uc_link = &old_uc;
+ uc.uc_stack.ss_sp = co->stack;
+ uc.uc_stack.ss_size = stack_size;
+ uc.uc_stack.ss_flags = 0;
+
+ arg.p = co;
+
+ makecontext(&uc, (void (*)(void))coroutine_trampoline,
+ 2, arg.i[0], arg.i[1]);
+
+ /* swapcontext() in, longjmp() back out */
+ if (!setjmp(old_env)) {
+ swapcontext(&old_uc, &uc);
+ }
+ return &co->base;
+}
+
+Coroutine *qemu_coroutine_new(void)
+{
+ CoroutineThreadState *s = coroutine_get_thread_state();
+ Coroutine *co;
+
+ co = QLIST_FIRST(&s->pool);
+ if (co) {
+ QLIST_REMOVE(co, pool_next);
+ s->pool_size--;
+ } else {
+ co = coroutine_new();
+ }
+ return co;
+}
+
+void qemu_coroutine_delete(Coroutine *co_)
+{
+ CoroutineThreadState *s = coroutine_get_thread_state();
+ CoroutineUContext *co = DO_UPCAST(CoroutineUContext, base, co_);
+
+ if (s->pool_size < POOL_MAX_SIZE) {
+ QLIST_INSERT_HEAD(&s->pool, &co->base, pool_next);
+ co->base.caller = NULL;
+ s->pool_size++;
+ return;
+ }
+
+ qemu_free(co->stack);
+ qemu_free(co);
+}
+
+CoroutineAction qemu_coroutine_switch(Coroutine *from_, Coroutine *to_,
+ CoroutineAction action)
+{
+ CoroutineUContext *from = DO_UPCAST(CoroutineUContext, base, from_);
+ CoroutineUContext *to = DO_UPCAST(CoroutineUContext, base, to_);
+ CoroutineThreadState *s = coroutine_get_thread_state();
+ int ret;
+
+ s->current = to_;
+
+ ret = setjmp(from->env);
+ if (ret == 0) {
+ longjmp(to->env, action);
+ }
+ return ret;
+}
+
+Coroutine *qemu_coroutine_self(void)
+{
+ CoroutineThreadState *s = coroutine_get_thread_state();
+
+ return s->current;
+}
+
+bool qemu_in_coroutine(void)
+{
+ CoroutineThreadState *s = pthread_getspecific(thread_state_key);
+
+ return s && s->current->caller;
+}