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authorEmilio G. Cota <cota@braap.org>2016-06-08 14:55:32 -0400
committerRichard Henderson <rth@twiddle.net>2016-06-11 17:11:16 -0700
commit909eaac9bbc2ed4f3a82ce38e905b87d478a3e00 (patch)
tree4d0b3661a5244540372da16286e247b5d94e0053
parent896a9ee96720c5cc7e00e63943435ccccec54d23 (diff)
downloadqemu-arm-909eaac9bbc2ed4f3a82ce38e905b87d478a3e00.tar.gz
tb hash: track translated blocks with qht
Having a fixed-size hash table for keeping track of all translation blocks is suboptimal: some workloads are just too big or too small to get maximum performance from the hash table. The MRU promotion policy helps improve performance when the hash table is a little undersized, but it cannot make up for severely undersized hash tables. Furthermore, frequent MRU promotions result in writes that are a scalability bottleneck. For scalability, lookups should only perform reads, not writes. This is not a big deal for now, but it will become one once MTTCG matures. The appended fixes these issues by using qht as the implementation of the TB hash table. This solution is superior to other alternatives considered, namely: - master: implementation in QEMU before this patchset - xxhash: before this patch, i.e. fixed buckets + xxhash hashing + MRU. - xxhash-rcu: fixed buckets + xxhash + RCU list + MRU. MRU is implemented here by adding an intermediate struct that contains the u32 hash and a pointer to the TB; this allows us, on an MRU promotion, to copy said struct (that is not at the head), and put this new copy at the head. After a grace period, the original non-head struct can be eliminated, and after another grace period, freed. - qht-fixed-nomru: fixed buckets + xxhash + qht without auto-resize + no MRU for lookups; MRU for inserts. The appended solution is the following: - qht-dyn-nomru: dynamic number of buckets + xxhash + qht w/ auto-resize + no MRU for lookups; MRU for inserts. The plots below compare the considered solutions. The Y axis shows the boot time (in seconds) of a debian jessie image with arm-softmmu; the X axis sweeps the number of buckets (or initial number of buckets for qht-autoresize). The plots in PNG format (and with errorbars) can be seen here: http://imgur.com/a/Awgnq Each test runs 5 times, and the entire QEMU process is pinned to a single core for repeatability of results. Host: Intel Xeon E5-2690 28 ++------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+------------++ A***** + + + master **A*** + 27 ++ * xxhash ##B###++ | A******A****** xxhash-rcu $$C$$$ | 26 C$$ A******A****** qht-fixed-nomru*%%D%%%++ D%%$$ A******A******A*qht-dyn-mru A*E****A 25 ++ %%$$ qht-dyn-nomru &&F&&&++ B#####% | 24 ++ #C$$$$$ ++ | B### $ | | ## C$$$$$$ | 23 ++ # C$$$$$$ ++ | B###### C$$$$$$ %%%D 22 ++ %B###### C$$$$$$C$$$$$$C$$$$$$C$$$$$$C$$$$$$C | D%%%%%%B###### @E@@@@@@ %%%D%%%@@@E@@@@@@E 21 E@@@@@@E@@@@@@F&&&@@@E@@@&&&D%%%%%%B######B######B######B######B######B + E@@@ F&&& + E@ + F&&& + + 20 ++------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+------------++ 14 16 18 20 22 24 log2 number of buckets Host: Intel i7-4790K 14.5 ++------------+------------+-------------+------------+------------++ A** + + + master **A*** + 14 ++ ** xxhash ##B###++ 13.5 ++ ** xxhash-rcu $$C$$$++ | qht-fixed-nomru %%D%%% | 13 ++ A****** qht-dyn-mru @@E@@@++ | A*****A******A****** qht-dyn-nomru &&F&&& | 12.5 C$$ A******A******A*****A****** ***A 12 ++ $$ A*** ++ D%%% $$ | 11.5 ++ %% ++ B### %C$$$$$$ | 11 ++ ## D%%%%% C$$$$$ ++ | # % C$$$$$$ | 10.5 F&&&&&&B######D%%%%% C$$$$$$C$$$$$$C$$$$$$C$$$$$C$$$$$$ $$$C 10 E@@@@@@E@@@@@@B#####B######B######E@@@@@@E@@@%%%D%%%%%D%%%###B######B + F&& D%%%%%%B######B######B#####B###@@@D%%% + 9.5 ++------------+------------+-------------+------------+------------++ 14 16 18 20 22 24 log2 number of buckets Note that the original point before this patch series is X=15 for "master"; the little sensitivity to the increased number of buckets is due to the poor hashing function in master. xxhash-rcu has significant overhead due to the constant churn of allocating and deallocating intermediate structs for implementing MRU. An alternative would be do consider failed lookups as "maybe not there", and then acquire the external lock (tb_lock in this case) to really confirm that there was indeed a failed lookup. This, however, would not be enough to implement dynamic resizing--this is more complex: see "Resizable, Scalable, Concurrent Hash Tables via Relativistic Programming" by Triplett, McKenney and Walpole. This solution was discarded due to the very coarse RCU read critical sections that we have in MTTCG; resizing requires waiting for readers after every pointer update, and resizes require many pointer updates, so this would quickly become prohibitive. qht-fixed-nomru shows that MRU promotion is advisable for undersized hash tables. However, qht-dyn-mru shows that MRU promotion is not important if the hash table is properly sized: there is virtually no difference in performance between qht-dyn-nomru and qht-dyn-mru. Before this patch, we're at X=15 on "xxhash"; after this patch, we're at X=15 @ qht-dyn-nomru. This patch thus matches the best performance that we can achieve with optimum sizing of the hash table, while keeping the hash table scalable for readers. The improvement we get before and after this patch for booting debian jessie with arm-softmmu is: - Intel Xeon E5-2690: 10.5% less time - Intel i7-4790K: 5.2% less time We could get this same improvement _for this particular workload_ by statically increasing the size of the hash table. But this would hurt workloads that do not need a large hash table. The dynamic (upward) resizing allows us to start small and enlarge the hash table as needed. A quick note on downsizing: the table is resized back to 2**15 buckets on every tb_flush; this makes sense because it is not guaranteed that the table will reach the same number of TBs later on (e.g. most bootup code is thrown away after boot); it makes sense to grow the hash table as more code blocks are translated. This also avoids the complication of having to build downsizing hysteresis logic into qht. Reviewed-by: Sergey Fedorov <serge.fedorov@linaro.org> Reviewed-by: Alex Bennée <alex.bennee@linaro.org> Reviewed-by: Richard Henderson <rth@twiddle.net> Signed-off-by: Emilio G. Cota <cota@braap.org> Message-Id: <1465412133-3029-15-git-send-email-cota@braap.org> Signed-off-by: Richard Henderson <rth@twiddle.net>
-rw-r--r--cpu-exec.c86
-rw-r--r--include/exec/exec-all.h2
-rw-r--r--include/exec/tb-context.h7
-rw-r--r--include/exec/tb-hash.h3
-rw-r--r--translate-all.c85
5 files changed, 86 insertions, 97 deletions
diff --git a/cpu-exec.c b/cpu-exec.c
index b9e294c0e6..b840e1d2dd 100644
--- a/cpu-exec.c
+++ b/cpu-exec.c
@@ -225,57 +225,57 @@ static void cpu_exec_nocache(CPUState *cpu, int max_cycles,
}
#endif
+struct tb_desc {
+ target_ulong pc;
+ target_ulong cs_base;
+ CPUArchState *env;
+ tb_page_addr_t phys_page1;
+ uint32_t flags;
+};
+
+static bool tb_cmp(const void *p, const void *d)
+{
+ const TranslationBlock *tb = p;
+ const struct tb_desc *desc = d;
+
+ if (tb->pc == desc->pc &&
+ tb->page_addr[0] == desc->phys_page1 &&
+ tb->cs_base == desc->cs_base &&
+ tb->flags == desc->flags) {
+ /* check next page if needed */
+ if (tb->page_addr[1] == -1) {
+ return true;
+ } else {
+ tb_page_addr_t phys_page2;
+ target_ulong virt_page2;
+
+ virt_page2 = (desc->pc & TARGET_PAGE_MASK) + TARGET_PAGE_SIZE;
+ phys_page2 = get_page_addr_code(desc->env, virt_page2);
+ if (tb->page_addr[1] == phys_page2) {
+ return true;
+ }
+ }
+ }
+ return false;
+}
+
static TranslationBlock *tb_find_physical(CPUState *cpu,
target_ulong pc,
target_ulong cs_base,
uint32_t flags)
{
- CPUArchState *env = (CPUArchState *)cpu->env_ptr;
- TranslationBlock *tb, **tb_hash_head, **ptb1;
+ tb_page_addr_t phys_pc;
+ struct tb_desc desc;
uint32_t h;
- tb_page_addr_t phys_pc, phys_page1;
- /* find translated block using physical mappings */
- phys_pc = get_page_addr_code(env, pc);
- phys_page1 = phys_pc & TARGET_PAGE_MASK;
+ desc.env = (CPUArchState *)cpu->env_ptr;
+ desc.cs_base = cs_base;
+ desc.flags = flags;
+ desc.pc = pc;
+ phys_pc = get_page_addr_code(desc.env, pc);
+ desc.phys_page1 = phys_pc & TARGET_PAGE_MASK;
h = tb_hash_func(phys_pc, pc, flags);
-
- /* Start at head of the hash entry */
- ptb1 = tb_hash_head = &tcg_ctx.tb_ctx.tb_phys_hash[h];
- tb = *ptb1;
-
- while (tb) {
- if (tb->pc == pc &&
- tb->page_addr[0] == phys_page1 &&
- tb->cs_base == cs_base &&
- tb->flags == flags) {
-
- if (tb->page_addr[1] == -1) {
- /* done, we have a match */
- break;
- } else {
- /* check next page if needed */
- target_ulong virt_page2 = (pc & TARGET_PAGE_MASK) +
- TARGET_PAGE_SIZE;
- tb_page_addr_t phys_page2 = get_page_addr_code(env, virt_page2);
-
- if (tb->page_addr[1] == phys_page2) {
- break;
- }
- }
- }
-
- ptb1 = &tb->phys_hash_next;
- tb = *ptb1;
- }
-
- if (tb) {
- /* Move the TB to the head of the list */
- *ptb1 = tb->phys_hash_next;
- tb->phys_hash_next = *tb_hash_head;
- *tb_hash_head = tb;
- }
- return tb;
+ return qht_lookup(&tcg_ctx.tb_ctx.htable, tb_cmp, &desc, h);
}
static TranslationBlock *tb_find_slow(CPUState *cpu,
diff --git a/include/exec/exec-all.h b/include/exec/exec-all.h
index e076397e2f..c1f59fa59d 100644
--- a/include/exec/exec-all.h
+++ b/include/exec/exec-all.h
@@ -215,8 +215,6 @@ struct TranslationBlock {
void *tc_ptr; /* pointer to the translated code */
uint8_t *tc_search; /* pointer to search data */
- /* next matching tb for physical address. */
- struct TranslationBlock *phys_hash_next;
/* original tb when cflags has CF_NOCACHE */
struct TranslationBlock *orig_tb;
/* first and second physical page containing code. The lower bit
diff --git a/include/exec/tb-context.h b/include/exec/tb-context.h
index 5efe3d9087..e209c1c28c 100644
--- a/include/exec/tb-context.h
+++ b/include/exec/tb-context.h
@@ -21,9 +21,10 @@
#define QEMU_TB_CONTEXT_H_
#include "qemu/thread.h"
+#include "qemu/qht.h"
-#define CODE_GEN_PHYS_HASH_BITS 15
-#define CODE_GEN_PHYS_HASH_SIZE (1 << CODE_GEN_PHYS_HASH_BITS)
+#define CODE_GEN_HTABLE_BITS 15
+#define CODE_GEN_HTABLE_SIZE (1 << CODE_GEN_HTABLE_BITS)
typedef struct TranslationBlock TranslationBlock;
typedef struct TBContext TBContext;
@@ -31,7 +32,7 @@ typedef struct TBContext TBContext;
struct TBContext {
TranslationBlock *tbs;
- TranslationBlock *tb_phys_hash[CODE_GEN_PHYS_HASH_SIZE];
+ struct qht htable;
int nb_tbs;
/* any access to the tbs or the page table must use this lock */
QemuMutex tb_lock;
diff --git a/include/exec/tb-hash.h b/include/exec/tb-hash.h
index 88ccfd1730..1d0200bc91 100644
--- a/include/exec/tb-hash.h
+++ b/include/exec/tb-hash.h
@@ -20,7 +20,6 @@
#ifndef EXEC_TB_HASH
#define EXEC_TB_HASH
-#include "exec/exec-all.h"
#include "exec/tb-hash-xx.h"
/* Only the bottom TB_JMP_PAGE_BITS of the jump cache hash bits vary for
@@ -49,7 +48,7 @@ static inline unsigned int tb_jmp_cache_hash_func(target_ulong pc)
static inline
uint32_t tb_hash_func(tb_page_addr_t phys_pc, target_ulong pc, uint32_t flags)
{
- return tb_hash_func5(phys_pc, pc, flags) & (CODE_GEN_PHYS_HASH_SIZE - 1);
+ return tb_hash_func5(phys_pc, pc, flags);
}
#endif
diff --git a/translate-all.c b/translate-all.c
index d75737c3aa..b620fccfc2 100644
--- a/translate-all.c
+++ b/translate-all.c
@@ -735,6 +735,13 @@ static inline void code_gen_alloc(size_t tb_size)
qemu_mutex_init(&tcg_ctx.tb_ctx.tb_lock);
}
+static void tb_htable_init(void)
+{
+ unsigned int mode = QHT_MODE_AUTO_RESIZE;
+
+ qht_init(&tcg_ctx.tb_ctx.htable, CODE_GEN_HTABLE_SIZE, mode);
+}
+
/* Must be called before using the QEMU cpus. 'tb_size' is the size
(in bytes) allocated to the translation buffer. Zero means default
size. */
@@ -742,6 +749,7 @@ void tcg_exec_init(unsigned long tb_size)
{
cpu_gen_init();
page_init();
+ tb_htable_init();
code_gen_alloc(tb_size);
#if defined(CONFIG_SOFTMMU)
/* There's no guest base to take into account, so go ahead and
@@ -846,7 +854,7 @@ void tb_flush(CPUState *cpu)
cpu->tb_flushed = true;
}
- memset(tcg_ctx.tb_ctx.tb_phys_hash, 0, sizeof(tcg_ctx.tb_ctx.tb_phys_hash));
+ qht_reset_size(&tcg_ctx.tb_ctx.htable, CODE_GEN_HTABLE_SIZE);
page_flush_tb();
tcg_ctx.code_gen_ptr = tcg_ctx.code_gen_buffer;
@@ -857,60 +865,46 @@ void tb_flush(CPUState *cpu)
#ifdef DEBUG_TB_CHECK
-static void tb_invalidate_check(target_ulong address)
+static void
+do_tb_invalidate_check(struct qht *ht, void *p, uint32_t hash, void *userp)
{
- TranslationBlock *tb;
- int i;
+ TranslationBlock *tb = p;
+ target_ulong addr = *(target_ulong *)userp;
- address &= TARGET_PAGE_MASK;
- for (i = 0; i < CODE_GEN_PHYS_HASH_SIZE; i++) {
- for (tb = tcg_ctx.tb_ctx.tb_phys_hash[i]; tb != NULL;
- tb = tb->phys_hash_next) {
- if (!(address + TARGET_PAGE_SIZE <= tb->pc ||
- address >= tb->pc + tb->size)) {
- printf("ERROR invalidate: address=" TARGET_FMT_lx
- " PC=%08lx size=%04x\n",
- address, (long)tb->pc, tb->size);
- }
- }
+ if (!(addr + TARGET_PAGE_SIZE <= tb->pc || addr >= tb->pc + tb->size)) {
+ printf("ERROR invalidate: address=" TARGET_FMT_lx
+ " PC=%08lx size=%04x\n", addr, (long)tb->pc, tb->size);
}
}
-/* verify that all the pages have correct rights for code */
-static void tb_page_check(void)
+static void tb_invalidate_check(target_ulong address)
{
- TranslationBlock *tb;
- int i, flags1, flags2;
-
- for (i = 0; i < CODE_GEN_PHYS_HASH_SIZE; i++) {
- for (tb = tcg_ctx.tb_ctx.tb_phys_hash[i]; tb != NULL;
- tb = tb->phys_hash_next) {
- flags1 = page_get_flags(tb->pc);
- flags2 = page_get_flags(tb->pc + tb->size - 1);
- if ((flags1 & PAGE_WRITE) || (flags2 & PAGE_WRITE)) {
- printf("ERROR page flags: PC=%08lx size=%04x f1=%x f2=%x\n",
- (long)tb->pc, tb->size, flags1, flags2);
- }
- }
- }
+ address &= TARGET_PAGE_MASK;
+ qht_iter(&tcg_ctx.tb_ctx.htable, do_tb_invalidate_check, &address);
}
-#endif
-
-static inline void tb_hash_remove(TranslationBlock **ptb, TranslationBlock *tb)
+static void
+do_tb_page_check(struct qht *ht, void *p, uint32_t hash, void *userp)
{
- TranslationBlock *tb1;
+ TranslationBlock *tb = p;
+ int flags1, flags2;
- for (;;) {
- tb1 = *ptb;
- if (tb1 == tb) {
- *ptb = tb1->phys_hash_next;
- break;
- }
- ptb = &tb1->phys_hash_next;
+ flags1 = page_get_flags(tb->pc);
+ flags2 = page_get_flags(tb->pc + tb->size - 1);
+ if ((flags1 & PAGE_WRITE) || (flags2 & PAGE_WRITE)) {
+ printf("ERROR page flags: PC=%08lx size=%04x f1=%x f2=%x\n",
+ (long)tb->pc, tb->size, flags1, flags2);
}
}
+/* verify that all the pages have correct rights for code */
+static void tb_page_check(void)
+{
+ qht_iter(&tcg_ctx.tb_ctx.htable, do_tb_page_check, NULL);
+}
+
+#endif
+
static inline void tb_page_remove(TranslationBlock **ptb, TranslationBlock *tb)
{
TranslationBlock *tb1;
@@ -998,7 +992,7 @@ void tb_phys_invalidate(TranslationBlock *tb, tb_page_addr_t page_addr)
/* remove the TB from the hash list */
phys_pc = tb->page_addr[0] + (tb->pc & ~TARGET_PAGE_MASK);
h = tb_hash_func(phys_pc, tb->pc, tb->flags);
- tb_hash_remove(&tcg_ctx.tb_ctx.tb_phys_hash[h], tb);
+ qht_remove(&tcg_ctx.tb_ctx.htable, tb, h);
/* remove the TB from the page list */
if (tb->page_addr[0] != page_addr) {
@@ -1128,13 +1122,10 @@ static void tb_link_page(TranslationBlock *tb, tb_page_addr_t phys_pc,
tb_page_addr_t phys_page2)
{
uint32_t h;
- TranslationBlock **ptb;
/* add in the hash table */
h = tb_hash_func(phys_pc, tb->pc, tb->flags);
- ptb = &tcg_ctx.tb_ctx.tb_phys_hash[h];
- tb->phys_hash_next = *ptb;
- *ptb = tb;
+ qht_insert(&tcg_ctx.tb_ctx.htable, tb, h);
/* add in the page list */
tb_alloc_page(tb, 0, phys_pc & TARGET_PAGE_MASK);