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authorDaniel Thompson <daniel.thompson@linaro.org>2015-01-12 15:42:24 +0000
committerDaniel Thompson <daniel.thompson@linaro.org>2015-03-18 14:17:54 +0000
commitd9e2a965e0abfe9a4a91f595a368aaa1698445b2 (patch)
treed06c5591ef7b93cb7a23b7fee71c8846691ce5d4
parent565c9e700544547c024ffde25732037455a17bba (diff)
downloadlinux-d9e2a965e0abfe9a4a91f595a368aaa1698445b2.tar.gz
printk: Simple implementation for NMI backtracing
Currently there is a quite a pile of code sitting in arch/x86/kernel/apic/hw_nmi.c to support safe all-cpu backtracing from NMI. The code is inaccessible to backtrace implementations for other architectures, which is a shame because they would probably like to be safe too. Copy this code into printk, reworking it a little as we do so to make it easier to exploit as library code. We'll port the x86 NMI backtrace logic to it in a later patch. Signed-off-by: Daniel Thompson <daniel.thompson@linaro.org>
-rw-r--r--include/linux/printk.h20
-rw-r--r--init/Kconfig3
-rw-r--r--kernel/printk/Makefile1
-rw-r--r--kernel/printk/nmi_backtrace.c148
4 files changed, 172 insertions, 0 deletions
diff --git a/include/linux/printk.h b/include/linux/printk.h
index baa3f97d8ce8..44bb85ad1f62 100644
--- a/include/linux/printk.h
+++ b/include/linux/printk.h
@@ -228,6 +228,26 @@ static inline void show_regs_print_info(const char *log_lvl)
}
#endif
+#ifdef CONFIG_PRINTK_NMI_BACKTRACE
+/*
+ * printk_nmi_backtrace_prepare/complete are called to prepare the
+ * system for some or all cores to issue trace from NMI.
+ * printk_nmi_backtrace_complete will print buffered output and cannot
+ * (safely) be called from NMI.
+ */
+extern int printk_nmi_backtrace_prepare(void);
+extern void printk_nmi_backtrace_complete(void);
+
+/*
+ * printk_nmi_backtrace_this_cpu_begin/end are used divert/restore printk
+ * on this cpu. The result is the output of printk() (by this CPU) will be
+ * stored in temporary buffers for later printing by
+ * printk_nmi_backtrace_complete.
+ */
+extern void printk_nmi_backtrace_this_cpu_begin(void);
+extern void printk_nmi_backtrace_this_cpu_end(void);
+#endif
+
extern asmlinkage void dump_stack(void) __cold;
#ifndef pr_fmt
diff --git a/init/Kconfig b/init/Kconfig
index f5dbc6d4261b..0107e9b4d2cf 100644
--- a/init/Kconfig
+++ b/init/Kconfig
@@ -1421,6 +1421,9 @@ config PRINTK
very difficult to diagnose system problems, saying N here is
strongly discouraged.
+config PRINTK_NMI_BACKTRACE
+ bool
+
config BUG
bool "BUG() support" if EXPERT
default y
diff --git a/kernel/printk/Makefile b/kernel/printk/Makefile
index 85405bdcf2b3..1849b001384a 100644
--- a/kernel/printk/Makefile
+++ b/kernel/printk/Makefile
@@ -1,2 +1,3 @@
obj-y = printk.o
+obj-$(CONFIG_PRINTK_NMI_BACKTRACE) += nmi_backtrace.o
obj-$(CONFIG_A11Y_BRAILLE_CONSOLE) += braille.o
diff --git a/kernel/printk/nmi_backtrace.c b/kernel/printk/nmi_backtrace.c
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..e9a06929c4f3
--- /dev/null
+++ b/kernel/printk/nmi_backtrace.c
@@ -0,0 +1,148 @@
+#include <linux/kernel.h>
+#include <linux/seq_buf.h>
+
+#define NMI_BUF_SIZE 4096
+
+struct nmi_seq_buf {
+ unsigned char buffer[NMI_BUF_SIZE];
+ struct seq_buf seq;
+};
+
+/* Safe printing in NMI context */
+static DEFINE_PER_CPU(struct nmi_seq_buf, nmi_print_seq);
+
+static DEFINE_PER_CPU(printk_func_t, nmi_print_saved_print_func);
+
+/* "in progress" flag of NMI printing */
+static unsigned long nmi_print_flag;
+
+static int __init printk_nmi_backtrace_init(void)
+{
+ struct nmi_seq_buf *s;
+ int cpu;
+
+ for_each_possible_cpu(cpu) {
+ s = &per_cpu(nmi_print_seq, cpu);
+ seq_buf_init(&s->seq, s->buffer, NMI_BUF_SIZE);
+ }
+
+ return 0;
+}
+pure_initcall(printk_nmi_backtrace_init);
+
+/*
+ * It is not safe to call printk() directly from NMI handlers.
+ * It may be fine if the NMI detected a lock up and we have no choice
+ * but to do so, but doing a NMI on all other CPUs to get a back trace
+ * can be done with a sysrq-l. We don't want that to lock up, which
+ * can happen if the NMI interrupts a printk in progress.
+ *
+ * Instead, we redirect the vprintk() to this nmi_vprintk() that writes
+ * the content into a per cpu seq_buf buffer. Then when the NMIs are
+ * all done, we can safely dump the contents of the seq_buf to a printk()
+ * from a non NMI context.
+ *
+ * This is not a generic printk() implementation and must be used with
+ * great care. In particular there is a static limit on the quantity of
+ * data that may be emitted during NMI, only one client can be active at
+ * one time (arbitrated by the return value of printk_nmi_begin() and
+ * it is required that something at task or interrupt context be scheduled
+ * to issue the output.
+ */
+static int nmi_vprintk(const char *fmt, va_list args)
+{
+ struct nmi_seq_buf *s = this_cpu_ptr(&nmi_print_seq);
+ unsigned int len = seq_buf_used(&s->seq);
+
+ seq_buf_vprintf(&s->seq, fmt, args);
+ return seq_buf_used(&s->seq) - len;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Reserve the NMI printk mechanism. Return an error if some other component
+ * is already using it.
+ */
+int printk_nmi_backtrace_prepare(void)
+{
+ if (test_and_set_bit(0, &nmi_print_flag)) {
+ /*
+ * If something is already using the NMI print facility we
+ * can't allow a second one...
+ */
+ return -EBUSY;
+ }
+
+ return 0;
+}
+
+static void print_seq_line(struct nmi_seq_buf *s, int start, int end)
+{
+ const char *buf = s->buffer + start;
+
+ printk("%.*s", (end - start) + 1, buf);
+}
+
+void printk_nmi_backtrace_complete(void)
+{
+ struct nmi_seq_buf *s;
+ int len, cpu, i, last_i;
+
+ /*
+ * Now that all the NMIs have triggered, we can dump out their
+ * back traces safely to the console.
+ */
+ for_each_possible_cpu(cpu) {
+ s = &per_cpu(nmi_print_seq, cpu);
+ last_i = 0;
+
+ len = seq_buf_used(&s->seq);
+ if (!len)
+ continue;
+
+ /* Print line by line. */
+ for (i = 0; i < len; i++) {
+ if (s->buffer[i] == '\n') {
+ print_seq_line(s, last_i, i);
+ last_i = i + 1;
+ }
+ }
+ /* Check if there was a partial line. */
+ if (last_i < len) {
+ print_seq_line(s, last_i, len - 1);
+ pr_cont("\n");
+ }
+
+ /* Wipe out the buffer ready for the next time around. */
+ seq_buf_clear(&s->seq);
+ }
+
+ clear_bit(0, &nmi_print_flag);
+ smp_mb__after_atomic();
+}
+
+void printk_nmi_backtrace_this_cpu_begin(void)
+{
+ /*
+ * Detect double-begins and report them. This code is unsafe (because
+ * it will print from NMI) but things are pretty badly damaged if the
+ * NMI re-enters and is somehow granted permission to use NMI printk,
+ * so how much worse can it get? Also since this code interferes with
+ * the operation of printk it is unlikely that any consequential
+ * failures will be able to log anything making this our last
+ * opportunity to tell anyone that something is wrong.
+ */
+ if (this_cpu_read(nmi_print_saved_print_func)) {
+ this_cpu_write(printk_func,
+ this_cpu_read(nmi_print_saved_print_func));
+ BUG();
+ }
+
+ this_cpu_write(nmi_print_saved_print_func, this_cpu_read(printk_func));
+ this_cpu_write(printk_func, nmi_vprintk);
+}
+
+void printk_nmi_backtrace_this_cpu_end(void)
+{
+ this_cpu_write(printk_func, this_cpu_read(nmi_print_saved_print_func));
+ this_cpu_write(nmi_print_saved_print_func, NULL);
+}