path: root/include/linux/ksm.h
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2013-02-23ksm: remove old stable nodes more thoroughlyHugh Dickins
Switching merge_across_nodes after running KSM is liable to oops on stale nodes still left over from the previous stable tree. It's not something that people will often want to do, but it would be lame to demand a reboot when they're trying to determine which merge_across_nodes setting is best. How can this happen? We only permit switching merge_across_nodes when pages_shared is 0, and usually set run 2 to force that beforehand, which ought to unmerge everything: yet oopses still occur when you then run 1. Three causes: 1. The old stable tree (built according to the inverse merge_across_nodes) has not been fully torn down. A stable node lingers until get_ksm_page() notices that the page it references no longer references it: but the page is not necessarily freed as soon as expected, particularly when swapcache. Fix this with a pass through the old stable tree, applying get_ksm_page() to each of the remaining nodes (most found stale and removed immediately), with forced removal of any left over. Unless the page is still mapped: I've not seen that case, it shouldn't occur, but better to WARN_ON_ONCE and EBUSY than BUG. 2. __ksm_enter() has a nice little optimization, to insert the new mm just behind ksmd's cursor, so there's a full pass for it to stabilize (or be removed) before ksmd addresses it. Nice when ksmd is running, but not so nice when we're trying to unmerge all mms: we were missing those mms forked and inserted behind the unmerge cursor. Easily fixed by inserting at the end when KSM_RUN_UNMERGE. 3. It is possible for a KSM page to be faulted back from swapcache into an mm, just after unmerge_and_remove_all_rmap_items() scanned past it. Fix this by copying on fault when KSM_RUN_UNMERGE: but that is private to ksm.c, so dissolve the distinction between ksm_might_need_to_copy() and ksm_does_need_to_copy(), doing it all in the one call into ksm.c. A long outstanding, unrelated bugfix sneaks in with that third fix: ksm_does_need_to_copy() would copy from a !PageUptodate page (implying I/O error when read in from swap) to a page which it then marks Uptodate. Fix this case by not copying, letting do_swap_page() discover the error. Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hughd@google.com> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Petr Holasek <pholasek@redhat.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Izik Eidus <izik.eidus@ravellosystems.com> Cc: Gerald Schaefer <gerald.schaefer@de.ibm.com> Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@gmail.com> Acked-by: Mel Gorman <mgorman@suse.de> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-09-09mm: fix swapin race conditionAndrea Arcangeli
The pte_same check is reliable only if the swap entry remains pinned (by the page lock on swapcache). We've also to ensure the swapcache isn't removed before we take the lock as try_to_free_swap won't care about the page pin. One of the possible impacts of this patch is that a KSM-shared page can point to the anon_vma of another process, which could exit before the page is freed. This can leave a page with a pointer to a recycled anon_vma object, or worse, a pointer to something that is no longer an anon_vma. [riel@redhat.com: changelog help] Signed-off-by: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Acked-by: Hugh Dickins <hughd@google.com> Reviewed-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: <stable@kernel.org> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-08-09ksm: fix ksm swapin time optimizationAndrea Arcangeli
The new anon-vma code, was suboptimal and it lead to erratic invocation of ksm_does_need_to_copy. That leads to host hangs or guest vnc lockup, or weird behavior. It's unclear why ksm_does_need_to_copy is unstable but the point is that when KSM is not in use, ksm_does_need_to_copy must never run or we bounce pages for no good reason. I suspect the same hangs will happen with KVM swaps. But this at least fixes the regression in the new-anon-vma code and it only let KSM bugs triggers when KSM is in use. The code in do_swap_page likely doesn't cope well with a not-swapcache, especially the memcg code. Signed-off-by: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Izik Eidus <ieidus@yahoo.com> Cc: Avi Kivity <avi@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-12-16fix ksm.h breakage of nommu buildHugh Dickins
Commit 5ad6468801d28c4d4ac9f48ec19297817c915f6a "ksm: let shared pages be swappable" breaks the build on m68knommu and I suspect on any nommu: In file included from kernel/fork.c:52: include/linux/ksm.h:129: warning: 'enum ttu_flags' declared inside parameter list include/linux/ksm.h:129: warning: its scope is only this definition or declaration, which is probably not what you want include/linux/ksm.h:129: error: parameter 2 ('flags') has incomplete type make[1]: *** [kernel/fork.o] Error 1 make[1]: *** Waiting for unfinished jobs.... Let's fix that with CONFIG_MMU around most of the !CONFIG_KSM declarations. Reported-by: Steven King <sfking@fdwdc.com> Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk> Tested-by: Steven King <sfking@fdwdc.com> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-12-15ksm: rmap_walk to remove_migation_ptesHugh Dickins
A side-effect of making ksm pages swappable is that they have to be placed on the LRUs: which then exposes them to isolate_lru_page() and hence to page migration. Add rmap_walk() for remove_migration_ptes() to use: rmap_walk_anon() and rmap_walk_file() in rmap.c, but rmap_walk_ksm() in ksm.c. Perhaps some consolidation with existing code is possible, but don't attempt that yet (try_to_unmap needs to handle nonlinears, but migration pte removal does not). rmap_walk() is sadly less general than it appears: rmap_walk_anon(), like remove_anon_migration_ptes() which it replaces, avoids calling page_lock_anon_vma(), because that includes a page_mapped() test which fails when all migration ptes are in place. That was valid when NUMA page migration was introduced (holding mmap_sem provided the missing guarantee that anon_vma's slab had not already been destroyed), but I believe not valid in the memory hotremove case added since. For now do the same as before, and consider the best way to fix that unlikely race later on. When fixed, we can probably use rmap_walk() on hwpoisoned ksm pages too: for now, they remain among hwpoison's various exceptions (its PageKsm test comes before the page is locked, but its page_lock_anon_vma fails safely if an anon gets upgraded). Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk> Cc: Izik Eidus <ieidus@redhat.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Chris Wright <chrisw@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-12-15ksm: let shared pages be swappableHugh Dickins
Initial implementation for swapping out KSM's shared pages: add page_referenced_ksm() and try_to_unmap_ksm(), which rmap.c calls when faced with a PageKsm page. Most of what's needed can be got from the rmap_items listed from the stable_node of the ksm page, without discovering the actual vma: so in this patch just fake up a struct vma for page_referenced_one() or try_to_unmap_one(), then refine that in the next patch. Add VM_NONLINEAR to ksm_madvise()'s list of exclusions: it has always been implicit there (being only set with VM_SHARED, already excluded), but let's make it explicit, to help justify the lack of nonlinear unmap. Rely on the page lock to protect against concurrent modifications to that page's node of the stable tree. The awkward part is not swapout but swapin: do_swap_page() and page_add_anon_rmap() now have to allow for new possibilities - perhaps a ksm page still in swapcache, perhaps a swapcache page associated with one location in one anon_vma now needed for another location or anon_vma. (And the vma might even be no longer VM_MERGEABLE when that happens.) ksm_might_need_to_copy() checks for that case, and supplies a duplicate page when necessary, simply leaving it to a subsequent pass of ksmd to rediscover the identity and merge them back into one ksm page. Disappointingly primitive: but the alternative would have to accumulate unswappable info about the swapped out ksm pages, limiting swappability. Remove page_add_ksm_rmap(): page_add_anon_rmap() now has to allow for the particular case it was handling, so just use it instead. Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk> Cc: Izik Eidus <ieidus@redhat.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Chris Wright <chrisw@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-12-15ksm: stable_node point to page and backHugh Dickins
Add a pointer to the ksm page into struct stable_node, holding a reference to the page while the node exists. Put a pointer to the stable_node into the ksm page's ->mapping. Then we don't need get_ksm_page() while traversing the stable tree: the page to compare against is sure to be present and correct, even if it's no longer visible through any of its existing rmap_items. And we can handle the forked ksm page case more efficiently: no need to memcmp our way through the tree to find its match. Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk> Cc: Izik Eidus <ieidus@redhat.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-12-15mm: define PAGE_MAPPING_FLAGSHugh Dickins
At present we define PageAnon(page) by the low PAGE_MAPPING_ANON bit set in page->mapping, with the higher bits a pointer to the anon_vma; and have defined PageKsm(page) as that with NULL anon_vma. But KSM swapping will need to store a pointer there: so in preparation for that, now define PAGE_MAPPING_FLAGS as the low two bits, including PAGE_MAPPING_KSM (always set along with PAGE_MAPPING_ANON, until some other use for the bit emerges). Declare page_rmapping(page) to return the pointer part of page->mapping, and page_anon_vma(page) to return the anon_vma pointer when that's what it is. Use these in a few appropriate places: notably, unuse_vma() has been testing page->mapping, but is better to be testing page_anon_vma() (cases may be added in which flag bits are set without any pointer). Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk> Cc: Izik Eidus <ieidus@redhat.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Nick Piggin <npiggin@suse.de> Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Reviewed-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Lee Schermerhorn <Lee.Schermerhorn@hp.com> Cc: Andi Kleen <andi@firstfloor.org> Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com> Cc: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-09-22ksm: clean up obsolete referencesHugh Dickins
A few cleanups, given the munlock fix: the comment on ksm_test_exit() no longer applies, and it can be made private to ksm.c; there's no more reference to mmu_gather or tlb.h, and mmap.c doesn't need ksm.h. Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk> Acked-by: Izik Eidus <ieidus@redhat.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-09-22ksm: fix deadlock with munlock in exit_mmapAndrea Arcangeli
Rawhide users have reported hang at startup when cryptsetup is run: the same problem can be simply reproduced by running a program int main() { mlockall(MCL_CURRENT | MCL_FUTURE); return 0; } The problem is that exit_mmap() applies munlock_vma_pages_all() to clean up VM_LOCKED areas, and its current implementation (stupidly) tries to fault in absent pages, for example where PROT_NONE prevented them being faulted in when mlocking. Whereas the "ksm: fix oom deadlock" patch, knowing there's a race by which KSM might try to fault in pages after exit_mmap() had finally zapped the range, backs out of such faults doing nothing when its ksm_test_exit() notices mm_users 0. So revert that part of "ksm: fix oom deadlock" which moved the ksm_exit() call from before exit_mmap() to the middle of exit_mmap(); and remove those ksm_test_exit() checks from the page fault paths, so allowing the munlocking to proceed without interference. ksm_exit, if there are rmap_items still chained on this mm slot, takes mmap_sem write side: so preventing KSM from working on an mm while exit_mmap runs. And KSM will bail out as soon as it notices that mm_users is already zero, thanks to its internal ksm_test_exit checks. So that when a task is killed by OOM killer or the user, KSM will not indefinitely prevent it from running exit_mmap to release its memory. This does break a part of what "ksm: fix oom deadlock" was trying to achieve. When unmerging KSM (echo 2 >/sys/kernel/mm/ksm), and even when ksmd itself has to cancel a KSM page, it is possible that the first OOM-kill victim would be the KSM process being faulted: then its memory won't be freed until a second victim has been selected (freeing memory for the unmerging fault to complete). But the OOM killer is already liable to kill a second victim once the intended victim's p->mm goes to NULL: so there's not much point in rejecting this KSM patch before fixing that OOM behaviour. It is very much more important to allow KSM users to boot up, than to haggle over an unlikely and poorly supported OOM case. We also intend to fix munlocking to not fault pages: at which point this patch _could_ be reverted; though that would be controversial, so we hope to find a better solution. Signed-off-by: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Acked-by: Justin M. Forbes <jforbes@redhat.com> Acked-for-now-by: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk> Cc: Izik Eidus <ieidus@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-09-22ksm: fix oom deadlockHugh Dickins
There's a now-obvious deadlock in KSM's out-of-memory handling: imagine ksmd or KSM_RUN_UNMERGE handling, holding ksm_thread_mutex, trying to allocate a page to break KSM in an mm which becomes the OOM victim (quite likely in the unmerge case): it's killed and goes to exit, and hangs there waiting to acquire ksm_thread_mutex. Clearly we must not require ksm_thread_mutex in __ksm_exit, simple though that made everything else: perhaps use mmap_sem somehow? And part of the answer lies in the comments on unmerge_ksm_pages: __ksm_exit should also leave all the rmap_item removal to ksmd. But there's a fundamental problem, that KSM relies upon mmap_sem to guarantee the consistency of the mm it's dealing with, yet exit_mmap tears down an mm without taking mmap_sem. And bumping mm_users won't help at all, that just ensures that the pages the OOM killer assumes are on their way to being freed will not be freed. The best answer seems to be, to move the ksm_exit callout from just before exit_mmap, to the middle of exit_mmap: after the mm's pages have been freed (if the mmu_gather is flushed), but before its page tables and vma structures have been freed; and down_write,up_write mmap_sem there to serialize with KSM's own reliance on mmap_sem. But KSM then needs to be careful, whenever it downs mmap_sem, to check that the mm is not already exiting: there's a danger of using find_vma on a layout that's being torn apart, or writing into page tables which have been freed for reuse; and even do_anonymous_page and __do_fault need to check they're not being called by break_ksm to reinstate a pte after zap_pte_range has zapped that page table. Though it might be clearer to add an exiting flag, set while holding mmap_sem in __ksm_exit, that wouldn't cover the issue of reinstating a zapped pte. All we need is to check whether mm_users is 0 - but must remember that ksmd may detect that before __ksm_exit is reached. So, ksm_test_exit(mm) added to comment such checks on mm->mm_users. __ksm_exit now has to leave clearing up the rmap_items to ksmd, that needs ksm_thread_mutex; but shift the exiting mm just after the ksm_scan cursor so that it will soon be dealt with. __ksm_enter raise mm_count to hold the mm_struct, ksmd's exit processing (exactly like its processing when it finds all VM_MERGEABLEs unmapped) mmdrop it, similar procedure for KSM_RUN_UNMERGE (which has stopped ksmd). But also give __ksm_exit a fast path: when there's no complication (no rmap_items attached to mm and it's not at the ksm_scan cursor), it can safely do all the exiting work itself. This is not just an optimization: when ksmd is not running, the raised mm_count would otherwise leak mm_structs. Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk> Acked-by: Izik Eidus <ieidus@redhat.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-09-22ksm: identify PageKsm pagesHugh Dickins
KSM will need to identify its kernel merged pages unambiguously, and /proc/kpageflags will probably like to do so too. Since KSM will only be substituting anonymous pages, statistics are best preserved by making a PageKsm page a special PageAnon page: one with no anon_vma. But KSM then needs its own page_add_ksm_rmap() - keep it in ksm.h near PageKsm; and do_wp_page() must COW them, unlike singly mapped PageAnons. Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk> Signed-off-by: Chris Wright <chrisw@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Izik Eidus <ieidus@redhat.com> Cc: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com> Cc: Balbir Singh <balbir@in.ibm.com> Cc: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk> Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Lee Schermerhorn <lee.schermerhorn@hp.com> Cc: Avi Kivity <avi@redhat.com> Cc: Nick Piggin <nickpiggin@yahoo.com.au> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-09-22ksm: the mm interface to ksmHugh Dickins
This patch presents the mm interface to a dummy version of ksm.c, for better scrutiny of that interface: the real ksm.c follows later. When CONFIG_KSM is not set, madvise(2) reject MADV_MERGEABLE and MADV_UNMERGEABLE with EINVAL, since that seems more helpful than pretending that they can be serviced. But when CONFIG_KSM=y, accept them even if KSM is not currently running, and even on areas which KSM will not touch (e.g. hugetlb or shared file or special driver mappings). Like other madvices, report ENOMEM despite success if any area in the range is unmapped, and use EAGAIN to report out of memory. Define vma flag VM_MERGEABLE to identify an area on which KSM may try merging pages: leave it to ksm_madvise() to decide whether to set it. Define mm flag MMF_VM_MERGEABLE to identify an mm which might contain VM_MERGEABLE areas, to minimize callouts when forking or exiting. Based upon earlier patches by Chris Wright and Izik Eidus. Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk> Signed-off-by: Chris Wright <chrisw@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Izik Eidus <ieidus@redhat.com> Cc: Michael Kerrisk <mtk.manpages@gmail.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com> Cc: Balbir Singh <balbir@in.ibm.com> Cc: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk> Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Lee Schermerhorn <lee.schermerhorn@hp.com> Cc: Avi Kivity <avi@redhat.com> Cc: Nick Piggin <nickpiggin@yahoo.com.au> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>