Previous code was using optimizations which were developed to work well
even on narrow-word CPUs (by today's standards). But Linux runs only on
32-bit and wider CPUs. We can use that.
First: using 32x32->64 multiply and trivial 32-bit shift, we can correctly
divide by 10 much larger numbers, and thus we can print groups of 9 digits
instead of groups of 5 digits.
Next: there are two algorithms to print larger numbers. One is generic:
divide by 1000000000 and repeatedly print groups of (up to) 9 digits.
It's conceptually simple, but requires an (unsigned long long) /
Second algorithm splits 64-bit unsigned long long into 16-bit chunks,
manipulates them cleverly and generates groups of 4 decimal digits. It so
happens that it does NOT require long long division.
If long is > 32 bits, division of 64-bit values is relatively easy, and we
will use the first algorithm. If long long is > 64 bits (strange
architecture with VERY large long long), second algorithm can't be used,
and we again use the first one.
Else (if long is 32 bits and long long is 64 bits) we use second one.
And third: there is a simple optimization which takes fast path not only
for zero as was done before, but for all one-digit numbers.
In all tested cases new code is faster than old one, in many cases by 30%,
in few cases by more than 50% (for example, on x86-32, conversion of
12345678). Code growth is ~0 in 32-bit case and ~130 bytes in 64-bit
This patch is based upon an original from Michal Nazarewicz.
[email@example.com: checkpatch fixes]
Signed-off-by: Michal Nazarewicz <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Signed-off-by: Denys Vlasenko <email@example.com>
Cc: Douglas W Jones <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <email@example.com>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <firstname.lastname@example.org>