path: root/Documentation/sysctl
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2014-01-31Merge branch 'core-urgent-for-linus' of ↵Linus Torvalds
git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tip/tip Pull core debug changes from Ingo Molnar: "This contains mostly kernel debugging related updates: - make hung_task detection more configurable to distros - add final bits for x86 UV NMI debugging, with related KGDB changes - update the mailing-list of MAINTAINERS entries I'm involved with" * 'core-urgent-for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tip/tip: hung_task: Display every hung task warning sysctl: Add neg_one as a standard constraint x86/uv/nmi, kgdb/kdb: Fix UV NMI handler when KDB not configured x86/uv/nmi: Fix Sparse warnings kgdb/kdb: Fix no KDB config problem MAINTAINERS: Restore "L: linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org" entries
2014-01-29mm: document improved handling of swappiness==0Aaron Tomlin
Prior to commit fe35004fbf9e ("mm: avoid swapping out with swappiness==0") setting swappiness to 0, reclaim code could still evict recently used user anonymous memory to swap even though there is a significant amount of RAM used for page cache. The behaviour of setting swappiness to 0 has since changed. When set, the reclaim code does not initiate swap until the amount of free pages and file-backed pages, is less than the high water mark in a zone. Let's update the documentation to reflect this. [akpm@linux-foundation.org: remove comma, per Randy] Signed-off-by: Aaron Tomlin <atomlin@redhat.com> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Acked-by: Bryn M. Reeves <bmr@redhat.com> Cc: Satoru Moriya <satoru.moriya@hds.com> Cc: Randy Dunlap <rdunlap@infradead.org> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2014-01-25hung_task: Display every hung task warningAaron Tomlin
When khungtaskd detects hung tasks, it prints out backtraces from a number of those tasks. Limiting the number of backtraces being printed out can result in the user not seeing the information necessary to debug the issue. The hung_task_warnings sysctl controls this feature. This patch makes it possible for hung_task_warnings to accept a special value to print an unlimited number of backtraces when khungtaskd detects hung tasks. The special value is -1. To use this value it is necessary to change types from ulong to int. Signed-off-by: Aaron Tomlin <atomlin@redhat.com> Reviewed-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Acked-by: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Cc: oleg@redhat.com Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1390239253-24030-3-git-send-email-atomlin@redhat.com [ Build warning fix. ] Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
2014-01-23kexec: add sysctl to disable kexec_loadKees Cook
For general-purpose (i.e. distro) kernel builds it makes sense to build with CONFIG_KEXEC to allow end users to choose what kind of things they want to do with kexec. However, in the face of trying to lock down a system with such a kernel, there needs to be a way to disable kexec_load (much like module loading can be disabled). Without this, it is too easy for the root user to modify kernel memory even when CONFIG_STRICT_DEVMEM and modules_disabled are set. With this change, it is still possible to load an image for use later, then disable kexec_load so the image (or lack of image) can't be altered. The intention is for using this in environments where "perfect" enforcement is hard. Without a verified boot, along with verified modules, and along with verified kexec, this is trying to give a system a better chance to defend itself (or at least grow the window of discoverability) against attack in the face of a privilege escalation. In my mind, I consider several boot scenarios: 1) Verified boot of read-only verified root fs loading fd-based verification of kexec images. 2) Secure boot of writable root fs loading signed kexec images. 3) Regular boot loading kexec (e.g. kcrash) image early and locking it. 4) Regular boot with no control of kexec image at all. 1 and 2 don't exist yet, but will soon once the verified kexec series has landed. 4 is the state of things now. The gap between 2 and 4 is too large, so this change creates scenario 3, a middle-ground above 4 when 2 and 1 are not possible for a system. Signed-off-by: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Vivek Goyal <vgoyal@redhat.com> Cc: Eric Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2014-01-21mm: add overcommit_kbytes sysctl variableJerome Marchand
Some applications that run on HPC clusters are designed around the availability of RAM and the overcommit ratio is fine tuned to get the maximum usage of memory without swapping. With growing memory, the 1%-of-all-RAM grain provided by overcommit_ratio has become too coarse for these workload (on a 2TB machine it represents no less than 20GB). This patch adds the new overcommit_kbytes sysctl variable that allow a much finer grain. [akpm@linux-foundation.org: coding-style fixes] [akpm@linux-foundation.org: fix nommu build] Signed-off-by: Jerome Marchand <jmarchan@redhat.com> Cc: Dave Hansen <dave.hansen@linux.intel.com> Cc: Alan Cox <alan@lxorguk.ukuu.org.uk> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2013-12-17sched/numa: Drop sysctl_numa_balancing_settle_count sysctlWanpeng Li
commit 887c290e (sched/numa: Decide whether to favour task or group weights based on swap candidate relationships) drop the check against sysctl_numa_balancing_settle_count, this patch remove the sysctl. Signed-off-by: Wanpeng Li <liwanp@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Acked-by: Mel Gorman <mgorman@suse.de> Reviewed-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Acked-by: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org> Cc: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Cc: Naoya Horiguchi <n-horiguchi@ah.jp.nec.com> Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1386833006-6600-1-git-send-email-liwanp@linux.vnet.ibm.com Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
2013-11-13vsprintf: check real user/group id for %pKRyan Mallon
Some setuid binaries will allow reading of files which have read permission by the real user id. This is problematic with files which use %pK because the file access permission is checked at open() time, but the kptr_restrict setting is checked at read() time. If a setuid binary opens a %pK file as an unprivileged user, and then elevates permissions before reading the file, then kernel pointer values may be leaked. This happens for example with the setuid pppd application on Ubuntu 12.04: $ head -1 /proc/kallsyms 00000000 T startup_32 $ pppd file /proc/kallsyms pppd: In file /proc/kallsyms: unrecognized option 'c1000000' This will only leak the pointer value from the first line, but other setuid binaries may leak more information. Fix this by adding a check that in addition to the current process having CAP_SYSLOG, that effective user and group ids are equal to the real ids. If a setuid binary reads the contents of a file which uses %pK then the pointer values will be printed as NULL if the real user is unprivileged. Update the sysctl documentation to reflect the changes, and also correct the documentation to state the kptr_restrict=0 is the default. This is a only temporary solution to the issue. The correct solution is to do the permission check at open() time on files, and to replace %pK with a function which checks the open() time permission. %pK uses in printk should be removed since no sane permission check can be done, and instead protected by using dmesg_restrict. Signed-off-by: Ryan Mallon <rmallon@gmail.com> Cc: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org> Cc: Alexander Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk> Cc: Joe Perches <joe@perches.com> Cc: "Eric W. Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com> Cc: <stable@vger.kernel.org> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2013-11-13mm: improve the description for dirty_background_ratio/dirty_ratio sysctlZheng Liu
Now dirty_background_ratio/dirty_ratio contains a percentage of total avaiable memory, which contains free pages and reclaimable pages. The number of these pages is not equal to the number of total system memory. But they are described as a percentage of total system memory in Documentation/sysctl/vm.txt. So we need to fix them to avoid misunderstanding. Signed-off-by: Zheng Liu <wenqing.lz@taobao.com> Cc: Rob Landley <rob@landley.net> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2013-10-09sched/numa: Skip some page migrations after a shared faultRik van Riel
Shared faults can lead to lots of unnecessary page migrations, slowing down the system, and causing private faults to hit the per-pgdat migration ratelimit. This patch adds sysctl numa_balancing_migrate_deferred, which specifies how many shared page migrations to skip unconditionally, after each page migration that is skipped because it is a shared fault. This reduces the number of page migrations back and forth in shared fault situations. It also gives a strong preference to the tasks that are already running where most of the memory is, and to moving the other tasks to near the memory. Testing this with a much higher scan rate than the default still seems to result in fewer page migrations than before. Memory seems to be somewhat better consolidated than previously, with multi-instance specjbb runs on a 4 node system. Signed-off-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mgorman@suse.de> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Cc: Srikar Dronamraju <srikar@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org> Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1381141781-10992-62-git-send-email-mgorman@suse.de Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
2013-10-09sched/numa: Remove the numa_balancing_scan_period_reset sysctlMel Gorman
With scan rate adaptions based on whether the workload has properly converged or not there should be no need for the scan period reset hammer. Get rid of it. Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mgorman@suse.de> Reviewed-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Cc: Srikar Dronamraju <srikar@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org> Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1381141781-10992-60-git-send-email-mgorman@suse.de Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
2013-10-09sched/numa: Favour moving tasks towards the preferred nodeMel Gorman
This patch favours moving tasks towards NUMA node that recorded a higher number of NUMA faults during active load balancing. Ideally this is self-reinforcing as the longer the task runs on that node, the more faults it should incur causing task_numa_placement to keep the task running on that node. In reality a big weakness is that the nodes CPUs can be overloaded and it would be more efficient to queue tasks on an idle node and migrate to the new node. This would require additional smarts in the balancer so for now the balancer will simply prefer to place the task on the preferred node for a PTE scans which is controlled by the numa_balancing_settle_count sysctl. Once the settle_count number of scans has complete the schedule is free to place the task on an alternative node if the load is imbalanced. [srikar@linux.vnet.ibm.com: Fixed statistics] Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mgorman@suse.de> Reviewed-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Cc: Srikar Dronamraju <srikar@linux.vnet.ibm.com> [ Tunable and use higher faults instead of preferred. ] Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org> Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1381141781-10992-23-git-send-email-mgorman@suse.de Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
2013-10-09sched/numa: Set the scan rate proportional to the memory usage of the task ↵Mel Gorman
being scanned The NUMA PTE scan rate is controlled with a combination of the numa_balancing_scan_period_min, numa_balancing_scan_period_max and numa_balancing_scan_size. This scan rate is independent of the size of the task and as an aside it is further complicated by the fact that numa_balancing_scan_size controls how many pages are marked pte_numa and not how much virtual memory is scanned. In combination, it is almost impossible to meaningfully tune the min and max scan periods and reasoning about performance is complex when the time to complete a full scan is is partially a function of the tasks memory size. This patch alters the semantic of the min and max tunables to be about tuning the length time it takes to complete a scan of a tasks occupied virtual address space. Conceptually this is a lot easier to understand. There is a "sanity" check to ensure the scan rate is never extremely fast based on the amount of virtual memory that should be scanned in a second. The default of 2.5G seems arbitrary but it is to have the maximum scan rate after the patch roughly match the maximum scan rate before the patch was applied. On a similar note, numa_scan_period is in milliseconds and not jiffies. Properly placed pages slow the scanning rate but adding 10 jiffies to numa_scan_period means that the rate scanning slows depends on HZ which is confusing. Get rid of the jiffies_to_msec conversion and treat it as ms. Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mgorman@suse.de> Reviewed-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Cc: Srikar Dronamraju <srikar@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org> Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1381141781-10992-18-git-send-email-mgorman@suse.de Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
2013-10-09mm: numa: Document automatic NUMA balancing sysctlsMel Gorman
Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mgorman@suse.de> Reviewed-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Cc: Srikar Dronamraju <srikar@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org> Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1381141781-10992-3-git-send-email-mgorman@suse.de Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
2013-09-11coredump: add new %P variable in core_patternStéphane Graber
Add a new %P variable to be used in core_pattern. This variable contains the global PID (PID in the init namespace) as %p contains the PID in the current namespace which isn't always what we want. The main use for this is to make it easier to handle crashes that happened within a container. With that new variables it's possible to have the crashes dumped into the container or forwarded to the host with the right PID (from the host's point of view). Signed-off-by: Stéphane Graber <stgraber@ubuntu.com> Reported-by: Hans Feldt <hans.feldt@ericsson.com> Cc: Alexander Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk> Cc: Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com> Cc: Andy Whitcroft <apw@canonical.com> Acked-by: Serge E. Hallyn <serge.hallyn@ubuntu.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2013-09-11mm: prepare to remove /proc/sys/vm/hugepages_treat_as_movableNaoya Horiguchi
Now hugepage migration is enabled, although restricted on pmd-based hugepages for now (due to lack of testing.) So we should allocate migratable hugepages from ZONE_MOVABLE if possible. This patch makes GFP flags in hugepage allocation dependent on migration support, not only the value of hugepages_treat_as_movable. It provides no change on the behavior for architectures which do not support hugepage migration, Signed-off-by: Naoya Horiguchi <n-horiguchi@ah.jp.nec.com> Acked-by: Andi Kleen <ak@linux.intel.com> Reviewed-by: Wanpeng Li <liwanp@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Cc: Hillf Danton <dhillf@gmail.com> Cc: Mel Gorman <mgorman@suse.de> Cc: Hugh Dickins <hughd@google.com> Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Michal Hocko <mhocko@suse.cz> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: "Aneesh Kumar K.V" <aneesh.kumar@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2013-08-31qdisc: allow setting default queuing disciplinestephen hemminger
By default, the pfifo_fast queue discipline has been used by default for all devices. But we have better choices now. This patch allow setting the default queueing discipline with sysctl. This allows easy use of better queueing disciplines on all devices without having to use tc qdisc scripts. It is intended to allow an easy path for distributions to make fq_codel or sfq the default qdisc. This patch also makes pfifo_fast more of a first class qdisc, since it is now possible to manually override the default and explicitly use pfifo_fast. The behavior for systems who do not use the sysctl is unchanged, they still get pfifo_fast Also removes leftover random # in sysctl net core. Signed-off-by: Stephen Hemminger <stephen@networkplumber.org> Acked-by: Eric Dumazet <edumazet@google.com> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
2013-08-01net: rename CONFIG_NET_LL_RX_POLL to CONFIG_NET_RX_BUSY_POLLCong Wang
Eliezer renames several *ll_poll to *busy_poll, but forgets CONFIG_NET_LL_RX_POLL, so in case of confusion, rename it too. Cc: Eliezer Tamir <eliezer.tamir@linux.intel.com> Cc: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net> Signed-off-by: Cong Wang <amwang@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
2013-07-10net: rename busy poll socket op and globalsEliezer Tamir
Rename LL_SO to BUSY_POLL_SO Rename sysctl_net_ll_{read,poll} to sysctl_busy_{read,poll} Fix up users of these variables. Fix documentation for sysctl. a patch for the socket.7 man page will follow separately, because of limitations of my mail setup. Signed-off-by: Eliezer Tamir <eliezer.tamir@linux.intel.com> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
2013-07-09Merge git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/davem/net-nextLinus Torvalds
Pull networking updates from David Miller: "This is a re-do of the net-next pull request for the current merge window. The only difference from the one I made the other day is that this has Eliezer's interface renames and the timeout handling changes made based upon your feedback, as well as a few bug fixes that have trickeled in. Highlights: 1) Low latency device polling, eliminating the cost of interrupt handling and context switches. Allows direct polling of a network device from socket operations, such as recvmsg() and poll(). Currently ixgbe, mlx4, and bnx2x support this feature. Full high level description, performance numbers, and design in commit 0a4db187a999 ("Merge branch 'll_poll'") From Eliezer Tamir. 2) With the routing cache removed, ip_check_mc_rcu() gets exercised more than ever before in the case where we have lots of multicast addresses. Use a hash table instead of a simple linked list, from Eric Dumazet. 3) Add driver for Atheros CQA98xx 802.11ac wireless devices, from Bartosz Markowski, Janusz Dziedzic, Kalle Valo, Marek Kwaczynski, Marek Puzyniak, Michal Kazior, and Sujith Manoharan. 4) Support reporting the TUN device persist flag to userspace, from Pavel Emelyanov. 5) Allow controlling network device VF link state using netlink, from Rony Efraim. 6) Support GRE tunneling in openvswitch, from Pravin B Shelar. 7) Adjust SOCK_MIN_RCVBUF and SOCK_MIN_SNDBUF for modern times, from Daniel Borkmann and Eric Dumazet. 8) Allow controlling of TCP quickack behavior on a per-route basis, from Cong Wang. 9) Several bug fixes and improvements to vxlan from Stephen Hemminger, Pravin B Shelar, and Mike Rapoport. In particular, support receiving on multiple UDP ports. 10) Major cleanups, particular in the area of debugging and cookie lifetime handline, to the SCTP protocol code. From Daniel Borkmann. 11) Allow packets to cross network namespaces when traversing tunnel devices. From Nicolas Dichtel. 12) Allow monitoring netlink traffic via AF_PACKET sockets, in a manner akin to how we monitor real network traffic via ptype_all. From Daniel Borkmann. 13) Several bug fixes and improvements for the new alx device driver, from Johannes Berg. 14) Fix scalability issues in the netem packet scheduler's time queue, by using an rbtree. From Eric Dumazet. 15) Several bug fixes in TCP loss recovery handling, from Yuchung Cheng. 16) Add support for GSO segmentation of MPLS packets, from Simon Horman. 17) Make network notifiers have a real data type for the opaque pointer that's passed into them. Use this to properly handle network device flag changes in arp_netdev_event(). From Jiri Pirko and Timo Teräs. 18) Convert several drivers over to module_pci_driver(), from Peter Huewe. 19) tcp_fixup_rcvbuf() can loop 500 times over loopback, just use a O(1) calculation instead. From Eric Dumazet. 20) Support setting of explicit tunnel peer addresses in ipv6, just like ipv4. From Nicolas Dichtel. 21) Protect x86 BPF JIT against spraying attacks, from Eric Dumazet. 22) Prevent a single high rate flow from overruning an individual cpu during RX packet processing via selective flow shedding. From Willem de Bruijn. 23) Don't use spinlocks in TCP md5 signing fast paths, from Eric Dumazet. 24) Don't just drop GSO packets which are above the TBF scheduler's burst limit, chop them up so they are in-bounds instead. Also from Eric Dumazet. 25) VLAN offloads are missed when configured on top of a bridge, fix from Vlad Yasevich. 26) Support IPV6 in ping sockets. From Lorenzo Colitti. 27) Receive flow steering targets should be updated at poll() time too, from David Majnemer. 28) Fix several corner case regressions in PMTU/redirect handling due to the routing cache removal, from Timo Teräs. 29) We have to be mindful of ipv4 mapped ipv6 sockets in upd_v6_push_pending_frames(). From Hannes Frederic Sowa. 30) Fix L2TP sequence number handling bugs, from James Chapman." * git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/davem/net-next: (1214 commits) drivers/net: caif: fix wrong rtnl_is_locked() usage drivers/net: enic: release rtnl_lock on error-path vhost-net: fix use-after-free in vhost_net_flush net: mv643xx_eth: do not use port number as platform device id net: sctp: confirm route during forward progress virtio_net: fix race in RX VQ processing virtio: support unlocked queue poll net/cadence/macb: fix bug/typo in extracting gem_irq_read_clear bit Documentation: Fix references to defunct linux-net@vger.kernel.org net/fs: change busy poll time accounting net: rename low latency sockets functions to busy poll bridge: fix some kernel warning in multicast timer sfc: Fix memory leak when discarding scattered packets sit: fix tunnel update via netlink dt:net:stmmac: Add dt specific phy reset callback support. dt:net:stmmac: Add support to dwmac version 3.610 and 3.710 dt:net:stmmac: Allocate platform data only if its NULL. net:stmmac: fix memleak in the open method ipv6: rt6_check_neigh should successfully verify neigh if no NUD information are available net: ipv6: fix wrong ping_v6_sendmsg return value ...
2013-07-09mm/page_alloc: fix doc for numa_zonelist_orderWanpeng Li
The default zonelist order selecter will select "node" order if any nodes DMA zone comprises greater than 70% of its local memory instead of 60%, according to default_zonelist_order::low_kmem_size > total * 70/100. Signed-off-by: Wanpeng Li <liwanp@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Reviewed-by: Michal Hocko <mhocko@suse.cz> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2013-07-08net: rename low latency sockets functions to busy pollEliezer Tamir
Rename functions in include/net/ll_poll.h to busy wait. Clarify documentation about expected power use increase. Rename POLL_LL to POLL_BUSY_LOOP. Add need_resched() testing to poll/select busy loops. Note, that in select and poll can_busy_poll is dynamic and is updated continuously to reflect the existence of supported sockets with valid queue information. Signed-off-by: Eliezer Tamir <eliezer.tamir@linux.intel.com> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
2013-07-04Merge branch 'for-linus' of ↵Linus Torvalds
git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/jikos/trivial Pull trivial tree updates from Jiri Kosina: "The usual stuff from trivial tree" * 'for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/jikos/trivial: (34 commits) treewide: relase -> release Documentation/cgroups/memory.txt: fix stat file documentation sysctl/net.txt: delete reference to obsolete 2.4.x kernel spinlock_api_smp.h: fix preprocessor comments treewide: Fix typo in printk doc: device tree: clarify stuff in usage-model.txt. open firmware: "/aliasas" -> "/aliases" md: bcache: Fixed a typo with the word 'arithmetic' irq/generic-chip: fix a few kernel-doc entries frv: Convert use of typedef ctl_table to struct ctl_table sgi: xpc: Convert use of typedef ctl_table to struct ctl_table doc: clk: Fix incorrect wording Documentation/arm/IXP4xx fix a typo Documentation/networking/ieee802154 fix a typo Documentation/DocBook/media/v4l fix a typo Documentation/video4linux/si476x.txt fix a typo Documentation/virtual/kvm/api.txt fix a typo Documentation/early-userspace/README fix a typo Documentation/video4linux/soc-camera.txt fix a typo lguest: fix CONFIG_PAE -> CONFIG_x86_PAE in comment ...
2013-06-25net: poll/select low latency socket supportEliezer Tamir
select/poll busy-poll support. Split sysctl value into two separate ones, one for read and one for poll. updated Documentation/sysctl/net.txt Add a new poll flag POLL_LL. When this flag is set, sock_poll will call sk_poll_ll if possible. sock_poll sets this flag in its return value to indicate to select/poll when a socket that can busy poll is found. When poll/select have nothing to report, call the low-level sock_poll again until we are out of time or we find something. Once the system call finds something, it stops setting POLL_LL, so it can return the result to the user ASAP. Signed-off-by: Eliezer Tamir <eliezer.tamir@linux.intel.com> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
2013-06-24sysctl/net.txt: delete reference to obsolete 2.4.x kernelPaul Gortmaker
This random old kernel version has no bearing on the actual file contents, and has not had for a long time. Delete it. Signed-off-by: Paul Gortmaker <paul.gortmaker@windriver.com> Signed-off-by: Jiri Kosina <jkosina@suse.cz>
2013-06-23perf: Drop sample rate when sampling is too slowDave Hansen
This patch keeps track of how long perf's NMI handler is taking, and also calculates how many samples perf can take a second. If the sample length times the expected max number of samples exceeds a configurable threshold, it drops the sample rate. This way, we don't have a runaway sampling process eating up the CPU. This patch can tend to drop the sample rate down to level where perf doesn't work very well. *BUT* the alternative is that my system hangs because it spends all of its time handling NMIs. I'll take a busted performance tool over an entire system that's busted and undebuggable any day. BTW, my suspicion is that there's still an underlying bug here. Using the HPET instead of the TSC is definitely a contributing factor, but I suspect there are some other things going on. But, I can't go dig down on a bug like that with my machine hanging all the time. Signed-off-by: Dave Hansen <dave.hansen@linux.intel.com> Acked-by: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl> Cc: paulus@samba.org Cc: acme@ghostprotocols.net Cc: Dave Hansen <dave@sr71.net> [ Prettified it a bit. ] Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
2013-06-17tipc: change socket buffer overflow control to respect sk_rcvbufYing Xue
As per feedback from the netdev community, we change the buffer overflow protection algorithm in receiving sockets so that it always respects the nominal upper limit set in sk_rcvbuf. Instead of scaling up from a small sk_rcvbuf value, which leads to violation of the configured sk_rcvbuf limit, we now calculate the weighted per-message limit by scaling down from a much bigger value, still in the same field, according to the importance priority of the received message. To allow for administrative tunability of the socket receive buffer size, we create a tipc_rmem sysctl variable to allow the user to configure an even bigger value via sysctl command. It is a size of three (min/default/max) to be consistent with things like tcp_rmem. By default, the value initialized in tipc_rmem[1] is equal to the receive socket size needed by a TIPC_CRITICAL_IMPORTANCE message. This value is also set as the default value of sk_rcvbuf. Originally-by: Jon Maloy <jon.maloy@ericsson.com> Cc: Neil Horman <nhorman@tuxdriver.com> Cc: Jon Maloy <jon.maloy@ericsson.com> [Ying: added sysctl variation to Jon's original patch] Signed-off-by: Ying Xue <ying.xue@windriver.com> [PG: don't compile sysctl.c if not config'd; add Documentation] Signed-off-by: Paul Gortmaker <paul.gortmaker@windriver.com> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
2013-06-10net: add low latency socket pollEliezer Tamir
Adds an ndo_ll_poll method and the code that supports it. This method can be used by low latency applications to busy-poll Ethernet device queues directly from the socket code. sysctl_net_ll_poll controls how many microseconds to poll. Default is zero (disabled). Individual protocol support will be added by subsequent patches. Signed-off-by: Alexander Duyck <alexander.h.duyck@intel.com> Signed-off-by: Jesse Brandeburg <jesse.brandeburg@intel.com> Signed-off-by: Eliezer Tamir <eliezer.tamir@linux.intel.com> Acked-by: Eric Dumazet <edumazet@google.com> Tested-by: Willem de Bruijn <willemb@google.com> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
2013-05-28watchdog: Remove softlockup_thresh from DocumentationLi Zefan
The old softlockup detector has been replaced with new lockup detector long ago. Signed-off-by: Li Zefan <lizefan@huawei.com> Acked-by: Don Zickus <dzickus@redhat.com> Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/51959687.9090305@huawei.com Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
2013-05-28watchdog: Document watchdog_thresh sysctlLi Zefan
Signed-off-by: Li Zefan <lizefan@huawei.com> Acked-by: Don Zickus <dzickus@redhat.com> Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/51959678.6000802@huawei.com Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
2013-05-19Documentation/sysctl/net.txt: fix (attribute removal).Rami Rosen
This patch removes mentioning the sysfsf net_device weight attribute (class/net/<device>/weight) in Documentation/sysctl/net.txt, since the net sysfs weight attribute was removed by the following patch: [NET]: Make NAPI polling independent of struct net_device objects bea3348eef27e6044b6161fd04c3152215f96411 Signed-off-by: Rami Rosen <ramirose@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
2013-04-29mm: replace hardcoded 3% with admin_reserve_pages knobAndrew Shewmaker
Add an admin_reserve_kbytes knob to allow admins to change the hardcoded memory reserve to something other than 3%, which may be multiple gigabytes on large memory systems. Only about 8MB is necessary to enable recovery in the default mode, and only a few hundred MB are required even when overcommit is disabled. This affects OVERCOMMIT_GUESS and OVERCOMMIT_NEVER. admin_reserve_kbytes is initialized to min(3% free pages, 8MB) I arrived at 8MB by summing the RSS of sshd or login, bash, and top. Please see first patch in this series for full background, motivation, testing, and full changelog. [akpm@linux-foundation.org: coding-style fixes] [akpm@linux-foundation.org: make init_admin_reserve() static] Signed-off-by: Andrew Shewmaker <agshew@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2013-04-29mm: limit growth of 3% hardcoded other user reserveAndrew Shewmaker
Add user_reserve_kbytes knob. Limit the growth of the memory reserved for other user processes to min(3% current process size, user_reserve_pages). Only about 8MB is necessary to enable recovery in the default mode, and only a few hundred MB are required even when overcommit is disabled. user_reserve_pages defaults to min(3% free pages, 128MB) I arrived at 128MB by taking the max VSZ of sshd, login, bash, and top ... then adding the RSS of each. This only affects OVERCOMMIT_NEVER mode. Background 1. user reserve __vm_enough_memory reserves a hardcoded 3% of the current process size for other applications when overcommit is disabled. This was done so that a user could recover if they launched a memory hogging process. Without the reserve, a user would easily run into a message such as: bash: fork: Cannot allocate memory 2. admin reserve Additionally, a hardcoded 3% of free memory is reserved for root in both overcommit 'guess' and 'never' modes. This was intended to prevent a scenario where root-cant-log-in and perform recovery operations. Note that this reserve shrinks, and doesn't guarantee a useful reserve. Motivation The two hardcoded memory reserves should be updated to account for current memory sizes. Also, the admin reserve would be more useful if it didn't shrink too much. When the current code was originally written, 1GB was considered "enterprise". Now the 3% reserve can grow to multiple GB on large memory systems, and it only needs to be a few hundred MB at most to enable a user or admin to recover a system with an unwanted memory hogging process. I've found that reducing these reserves is especially beneficial for a specific type of application load: * single application system * one or few processes (e.g. one per core) * allocating all available memory * not initializing every page immediately * long running I've run scientific clusters with this sort of load. A long running job sometimes failed many hours (weeks of CPU time) into a calculation. They weren't initializing all of their memory immediately, and they weren't using calloc, so I put systems into overcommit 'never' mode. These clusters run diskless and have no swap. However, with the current reserves, a user wishing to allocate as much memory as possible to one process may be prevented from using, for example, almost 2GB out of 32GB. The effect is less, but still significant when a user starts a job with one process per core. I have repeatedly seen a set of processes requesting the same amount of memory fail because one of them could not allocate the amount of memory a user would expect to be able to allocate. For example, Message Passing Interfce (MPI) processes, one per core. And it is similar for other parallel programming frameworks. Changing this reserve code will make the overcommit never mode more useful by allowing applications to allocate nearly all of the available memory. Also, the new admin_reserve_kbytes will be safer than the current behavior since the hardcoded 3% of available memory reserve can shrink to something useless in the case where applications have grabbed all available memory. Risks * "bash: fork: Cannot allocate memory" The downside of the first patch-- which creates a tunable user reserve that is only used in overcommit 'never' mode--is that an admin can set it so low that a user may not be able to kill their process, even if they already have a shell prompt. Of course, a user can get in the same predicament with the current 3% reserve--they just have to launch processes until 3% becomes negligible. * root-cant-log-in problem The second patch, adding the tunable rootuser_reserve_pages, allows the admin to shoot themselves in the foot by setting it too small. They can easily get the system into a state where root-can't-log-in. However, the new admin_reserve_kbytes will be safer than the current behavior since the hardcoded 3% of available memory reserve can shrink to something useless in the case where applications have grabbed all available memory. Alternatives * Memory cgroups provide a more flexible way to limit application memory. Not everyone wants to set up cgroups or deal with their overhead. * We could create a fourth overcommit mode which provides smaller reserves. The size of useful reserves may be drastically different depending on the whether the system is embedded or enterprise. * Force users to initialize all of their memory or use calloc. Some users don't want/expect the system to overcommit when they malloc. Overcommit 'never' mode is for this scenario, and it should work well. The new user and admin reserve tunables are simple to use, with low overhead compared to cgroups. The patches preserve current behavior where 3% of memory is less than 128MB, except that the admin reserve doesn't shrink to an unusable size under pressure. The code allows admins to tune for embedded and enterprise usage. FAQ * How is the root-cant-login problem addressed? What happens if admin_reserve_pages is set to 0? Root is free to shoot themselves in the foot by setting admin_reserve_kbytes too low. On x86_64, the minimum useful reserve is: 8MB for overcommit 'guess' 128MB for overcommit 'never' admin_reserve_pages defaults to min(3% free memory, 8MB) So, anyone switching to 'never' mode needs to adjust admin_reserve_pages. * How do you calculate a minimum useful reserve? A user or the admin needs enough memory to login and perform recovery operations, which includes, at a minimum: sshd or login + bash (or some other shell) + top (or ps, kill, etc.) For overcommit 'guess', we can sum resident set sizes (RSS) because we only need enough memory to handle what the recovery programs will typically use. On x86_64 this is about 8MB. For overcommit 'never', we can take the max of their virtual sizes (VSZ) and add the sum of their RSS. We use VSZ instead of RSS because mode forces us to ensure we can fulfill all of the requested memory allocations-- even if the programs only use a fraction of what they ask for. On x86_64 this is about 128MB. When swap is enabled, reserves are useful even when they are as small as 10MB, regardless of overcommit mode. When both swap and overcommit are disabled, then the admin should tune the reserves higher to be absolutley safe. Over 230MB each was safest in my testing. * What happens if user_reserve_pages is set to 0? Note, this only affects overcomitt 'never' mode. Then a user will be able to allocate all available memory minus admin_reserve_kbytes. However, they will easily see a message such as: "bash: fork: Cannot allocate memory" And they won't be able to recover/kill their application. The admin should be able to recover the system if admin_reserve_kbytes is set appropriately. * What's the difference between overcommit 'guess' and 'never'? "Guess" allows an allocation if there are enough free + reclaimable pages. It has a hardcoded 3% of free pages reserved for root. "Never" allows an allocation if there is enough swap + a configurable percentage (default is 50) of physical RAM. It has a hardcoded 3% of free pages reserved for root, like "Guess" mode. It also has a hardcoded 3% of the current process size reserved for additional applications. * Why is overcommit 'guess' not suitable even when an app eventually writes to every page? It takes free pages, file pages, available swap pages, reclaimable slab pages into consideration. In other words, these are all pages available, then why isn't overcommit suitable? Because it only looks at the present state of the system. It does not take into account the memory that other applications have malloced, but haven't initialized yet. It overcommits the system. Test Summary There was little change in behavior in the default overcommit 'guess' mode with swap enabled before and after the patch. This was expected. Systems run most predictably (i.e. no oom kills) in overcommit 'never' mode with swap enabled. This also allowed the most memory to be allocated to a user application. Overcommit 'guess' mode without swap is a bad idea. It is easy to crash the system. None of the other tested combinations crashed. This matches my experience on the Roadrunner supercomputer. Without the tunable user reserve, a system in overcommit 'never' mode and without swap does not allow the admin to recover, although the admin can. With the new tunable reserves, a system in overcommit 'never' mode and without swap can be configured to: 1. maximize user-allocatable memory, running close to the edge of recoverability 2. maximize recoverability, sacrificing allocatable memory to ensure that a user cannot take down a system Test Description Fedora 18 VM - 4 x86_64 cores, 5725MB RAM, 4GB Swap System is booted into multiuser console mode, with unnecessary services turned off. Caches were dropped before each test. Hogs are user memtester processes that attempt to allocate all free memory as reported by /proc/meminfo In overcommit 'never' mode, memory_ratio=100 Test Results 3.9.0-rc1-mm1 Overcommit | Swap | Hogs | MB Got/Wanted | OOMs | User Recovery | Admin Recovery ---------- ---- ---- ------------- ---- ------------- -------------- guess yes 1 5432/5432 no yes yes guess yes 4 5444/5444 1 yes yes guess no 1 5302/5449 no yes yes guess no 4 - crash no no never yes 1 5460/5460 1 yes yes never yes 4 5460/5460 1 yes yes never no 1 5218/5432 no no yes never no 4 5203/5448 no no yes 3.9.0-rc1-mm1-tunablereserves User and Admin Recovery show their respective reserves, if applicable. Overcommit | Swap | Hogs | MB Got/Wanted | OOMs | User Recovery | Admin Recovery ---------- ---- ---- ------------- ---- ------------- -------------- guess yes 1 5419/5419 no - yes 8MB yes guess yes 4 5436/5436 1 - yes 8MB yes guess no 1 5440/5440 * - yes 8MB yes guess no 4 - crash - no 8MB no * process would successfully mlock, then the oom killer would pick it never yes 1 5446/5446 no 10MB yes 20MB yes never yes 4 5456/5456 no 10MB yes 20MB yes never no 1 5387/5429 no 128MB no 8MB barely never no 1 5323/5428 no 226MB barely 8MB barely never no 1 5323/5428 no 226MB barely 8MB barely never no 1 5359/5448 no 10MB no 10MB barely never no 1 5323/5428 no 0MB no 10MB barely never no 1 5332/5428 no 0MB no 50MB yes never no 1 5293/5429 no 0MB no 90MB yes never no 1 5001/5427 no 230MB yes 338MB yes never no 4* 4998/5424 no 230MB yes 338MB yes * more memtesters were launched, able to allocate approximately another 100MB Future Work - Test larger memory systems. - Test an embedded image. - Test other architectures. - Time malloc microbenchmarks. - Would it be useful to be able to set overcommit policy for each memory cgroup? - Some lines are slightly above 80 chars. Perhaps define a macro to convert between pages and kb? Other places in the kernel do this. [akpm@linux-foundation.org: coding-style fixes] [akpm@linux-foundation.org: make init_user_reserve() static] Signed-off-by: Andrew Shewmaker <agshew@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2013-01-04Documentation/sysctl/kernel.txt: document /proc/sys/shmallCarlos Alberto Lopez Perez
Signed-off-by: Carlos Alberto Lopez Perez <clopez@igalia.com> Cc: Rob Landley <rob@landley.net> Cc: Larry Finger <Larry.Finger@lwfinger.net> Cc: Neil Horman <nhorman@tuxdriver.com> Cc: Mitsuo Hayasaka <mitsuo.hayasaka.hu@hitachi.com> Cc: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2013-01-04ipc: add sysctl to specify desired next object idStanislav Kinsbursky
Add 3 new variables and sysctls to tune them (by one "next_id" variable for messages, semaphores and shared memory respectively). This variable can be used to set desired id for next allocated IPC object. By default it's equal to -1 and old behaviour is preserved. If this variable is non-negative, then desired idr will be extracted from it and used as a start value to search for free IDR slot. Notes: 1) this patch doesn't guarantee that the new object will have desired id. So it's up to user space how to handle new object with wrong id. 2) After a sucessful id allocation attempt, "next_id" will be set back to -1 (if it was non-negative). [akpm@linux-foundation.org: checkpatch fixes] Signed-off-by: Stanislav Kinsbursky <skinsbursky@parallels.com> Cc: Serge Hallyn <serge.hallyn@canonical.com> Cc: "Eric W. Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com> Cc: Pavel Emelyanov <xemul@parallels.com> Cc: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk> Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Michael Kerrisk <mtk.manpages@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-10-06coredump: add support for %d=__get_dumpable() in core nameOleg Nesterov
Some coredump handlers want to create a core file in a way compatible with standard behavior. Standard behavior with fs.suid_dumpable = 2 is to create core file with uid=gid=0. However, there was no way for coredump handler to know that the process being dumped was suid'ed. This patch adds the new %d specifier for format_corename() which simply reports __get_dumpable(mm->flags), this is compatible with /proc/sys/fs/suid_dumpable we already have. Addresses https://bugzilla.redhat.com/show_bug.cgi?id=787135 Developed during a discussion with Denys Vlasenko. Signed-off-by: Oleg Nesterov <oleg@redhat.com> Cc: Denys Vlasenko <vda.linux@googlemail.com> Cc: Alex Kelly <alex.page.kelly@gmail.com> Cc: Andi Kleen <andi@firstfloor.org> Cc: Cong Wang <amwang@redhat.com> Cc: Jiri Moskovcak <jmoskovc@redhat.com> Acked-by: Neil Horman <nhorman@tuxdriver.com> Cc: Alan Cox <alan@lxorguk.ukuu.org.uk> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-08-04Documentation: fix the VM knobs descritpion WRT pdflushArtem Bityutskiy
The pdflush thread is long gone, however we still mention it incorrectly in the kernel documentation. This patch fixes the situation. Cc: Randy Dunlap <rdunlap@xenotime.net> Signed-off-by: Artem Bityutskiy <artem.bityutskiy@linux.intel.com> Signed-off-by: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
2012-08-01Merge branch 'for-linus' of ↵Linus Torvalds
git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/viro/vfs Pull second vfs pile from Al Viro: "The stuff in there: fsfreeze deadlock fixes by Jan (essentially, the deadlock reproduced by xfstests 068), symlink and hardlink restriction patches, plus assorted cleanups and fixes. Note that another fsfreeze deadlock (emergency thaw one) is *not* dealt with - the series by Fernando conflicts a lot with Jan's, breaks userland ABI (FIFREEZE semantics gets changed) and trades the deadlock for massive vfsmount leak; this is going to be handled next cycle. There probably will be another pull request, but that stuff won't be in it." Fix up trivial conflicts due to unrelated changes next to each other in drivers/{staging/gdm72xx/usb_boot.c, usb/gadget/storage_common.c} * 'for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/viro/vfs: (54 commits) delousing target_core_file a bit Documentation: Correct s_umount state for freeze_fs/unfreeze_fs fs: Remove old freezing mechanism ext2: Implement freezing btrfs: Convert to new freezing mechanism nilfs2: Convert to new freezing mechanism ntfs: Convert to new freezing mechanism fuse: Convert to new freezing mechanism gfs2: Convert to new freezing mechanism ocfs2: Convert to new freezing mechanism xfs: Convert to new freezing code ext4: Convert to new freezing mechanism fs: Protect write paths by sb_start_write - sb_end_write fs: Skip atime update on frozen filesystem fs: Add freezing handling to mnt_want_write() / mnt_drop_write() fs: Improve filesystem freezing handling switch the protection of percpu_counter list to spinlock nfsd: Push mnt_want_write() outside of i_mutex btrfs: Push mnt_want_write() outside of i_mutex fat: Push mnt_want_write() outside of i_mutex ...
2012-07-31mm, oom: replace some information in tasklist dumpDavid Rientjes
The number of ptes and swap entries are used in the oom killer's badness heuristic, so they should be shown in the tasklist dump. This patch adds those fields and replaces cpu and oom_adj values that are currently emitted. Cpu isn't interesting and oom_adj is deprecated and will be removed later this year, the same information is already displayed as oom_score_adj which is used internally. At the same time, make the documentation a little more clear to state this information is helpful to determine why the oom killer chose the task it did to kill. Signed-off-by: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-07-31mm: prepare for removal of obsolete /proc/sys/vm/nr_pdflush_threadsWanpeng Li
Since per-BDI flusher threads were introduced in 2.6, the pdflush mechanism is not used any more. But the old interface exported through /proc/sys/vm/nr_pdflush_threads still exists and is obviously useless. For back-compatibility, printk warning information and return 2 to notify the users that the interface is removed. Signed-off-by: Wanpeng Li <liwp@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Cc: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-07-31documentation: update how page-cluster affects swap I/OChristian Ehrhardt
Fix of the documentation of /proc/sys/vm/page-cluster to match the behavior of the code and add some comments about what the tunable will change in that behavior. Signed-off-by: Christian Ehrhardt <ehrhardt@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Acked-by: Jens Axboe <axboe@kernel.dk> Reviewed-by: Minchan Kim <minchan@kernel.org> Cc: Hugh Dickins <hughd@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-07-30fs: make dumpable=2 require fully qualified pathKees Cook
When the suid_dumpable sysctl is set to "2", and there is no core dump pipe defined in the core_pattern sysctl, a local user can cause core files to be written to root-writable directories, potentially with user-controlled content. This means an admin can unknowningly reintroduce a variation of CVE-2006-2451, allowing local users to gain root privileges. $ cat /proc/sys/fs/suid_dumpable 2 $ cat /proc/sys/kernel/core_pattern core $ ulimit -c unlimited $ cd / $ ls -l core ls: cannot access core: No such file or directory $ touch core touch: cannot touch `core': Permission denied $ OHAI="evil-string-here" ping localhost >/dev/null 2>&1 & $ pid=$! $ sleep 1 $ kill -SEGV $pid $ ls -l core -rw------- 1 root kees 458752 Jun 21 11:35 core $ sudo strings core | grep evil OHAI=evil-string-here While cron has been fixed to abort reading a file when there is any parse error, there are still other sensitive directories that will read any file present and skip unparsable lines. Instead of introducing a suid_dumpable=3 mode and breaking all users of mode 2, this only disables the unsafe portion of mode 2 (writing to disk via relative path). Most users of mode 2 (e.g. Chrome OS) already use a core dump pipe handler, so this change will not break them. For the situations where a pipe handler is not defined but mode 2 is still active, crash dumps will only be written to fully qualified paths. If a relative path is defined (e.g. the default "core" pattern), dump attempts will trigger a printk yelling about the lack of a fully qualified path. Signed-off-by: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org> Cc: Alexander Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk> Cc: Alan Cox <alan@linux.intel.com> Cc: "Eric W. Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com> Cc: Doug Ledford <dledford@redhat.com> Cc: Serge Hallyn <serge.hallyn@canonical.com> Cc: James Morris <james.l.morris@oracle.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-07-29fs: add link restrictionsKees Cook
This adds symlink and hardlink restrictions to the Linux VFS. Symlinks: A long-standing class of security issues is the symlink-based time-of-check-time-of-use race, most commonly seen in world-writable directories like /tmp. The common method of exploitation of this flaw is to cross privilege boundaries when following a given symlink (i.e. a root process follows a symlink belonging to another user). For a likely incomplete list of hundreds of examples across the years, please see: http://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvekey.cgi?keyword=/tmp The solution is to permit symlinks to only be followed when outside a sticky world-writable directory, or when the uid of the symlink and follower match, or when the directory owner matches the symlink's owner. Some pointers to the history of earlier discussion that I could find: 1996 Aug, Zygo Blaxell http://marc.info/?l=bugtraq&m=87602167419830&w=2 1996 Oct, Andrew Tridgell http://lkml.indiana.edu/hypermail/linux/kernel/9610.2/0086.html 1997 Dec, Albert D Cahalan http://lkml.org/lkml/1997/12/16/4 2005 Feb, Lorenzo Hernández García-Hierro http://lkml.indiana.edu/hypermail/linux/kernel/0502.0/1896.html 2010 May, Kees Cook https://lkml.org/lkml/2010/5/30/144 Past objections and rebuttals could be summarized as: - Violates POSIX. - POSIX didn't consider this situation and it's not useful to follow a broken specification at the cost of security. - Might break unknown applications that use this feature. - Applications that break because of the change are easy to spot and fix. Applications that are vulnerable to symlink ToCToU by not having the change aren't. Additionally, no applications have yet been found that rely on this behavior. - Applications should just use mkstemp() or O_CREATE|O_EXCL. - True, but applications are not perfect, and new software is written all the time that makes these mistakes; blocking this flaw at the kernel is a single solution to the entire class of vulnerability. - This should live in the core VFS. - This should live in an LSM. (https://lkml.org/lkml/2010/5/31/135) - This should live in an LSM. - This should live in the core VFS. (https://lkml.org/lkml/2010/8/2/188) Hardlinks: On systems that have user-writable directories on the same partition as system files, a long-standing class of security issues is the hardlink-based time-of-check-time-of-use race, most commonly seen in world-writable directories like /tmp. The common method of exploitation of this flaw is to cross privilege boundaries when following a given hardlink (i.e. a root process follows a hardlink created by another user). Additionally, an issue exists where users can "pin" a potentially vulnerable setuid/setgid file so that an administrator will not actually upgrade a system fully. The solution is to permit hardlinks to only be created when the user is already the existing file's owner, or if they already have read/write access to the existing file. Many Linux users are surprised when they learn they can link to files they have no access to, so this change appears to follow the doctrine of "least surprise". Additionally, this change does not violate POSIX, which states "the implementation may require that the calling process has permission to access the existing file"[1]. This change is known to break some implementations of the "at" daemon, though the version used by Fedora and Ubuntu has been fixed[2] for a while. Otherwise, the change has been undisruptive while in use in Ubuntu for the last 1.5 years. [1] http://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/functions/linkat.html [2] http://anonscm.debian.org/gitweb/?p=collab-maint/at.git;a=commitdiff;h=f4114656c3a6c6f6070e315ffdf940a49eda3279 This patch is based on the patches in Openwall and grsecurity, along with suggestions from Al Viro. I have added a sysctl to enable the protected behavior, and documentation. Signed-off-by: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org> Acked-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
2012-05-31mqueue: separate mqueue default value from maximum valueKOSAKI Motohiro
Commit b231cca4381e ("message queues: increase range limits") changed mqueue default value when attr parameter is specified NULL from hard coded value to fs.mqueue.{msg,msgsize}_max sysctl value. This made large side effect. When user need to use two mqueue applications 1) using !NULL attr parameter and it require big message size and 2) using NULL attr parameter and only need small size message, app (1) require to raise fs.mqueue.msgsize_max and app (2) consume large memory size even though it doesn't need. Doug Ledford propsed to switch back it to static hard coded value. However it also has a compatibility problem. Some applications might started depend on the default value is tunable. The solution is to separate default value from maximum value. Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Doug Ledford <dledford@redhat.com> Acked-by: Doug Ledford <dledford@redhat.com> Acked-by: Joe Korty <joe.korty@ccur.com> Cc: Amerigo Wang <amwang@redhat.com> Acked-by: Serge E. Hallyn <serue@us.ibm.com> Cc: Jiri Slaby <jslaby@suse.cz> Cc: Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-04-27net: doc: merge /proc/sys/net/core/* documents into one placeShan Wei
All parameter descriptions in /proc/sys/net/core/* now is separated two places. So, merge them into Documentation/sysctl/net.txt. Signed-off-by: Shan Wei <davidshan@tencent.com> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
2012-02-06Documentation: add missing tainted bits to Documentation/sysctl/kernel.txtLarry Finger
Two of the bits in the tainted flag are not documented. Signed-off-by: Larry Finger <Larry.Finger@lwfinger.net> Signed-off-by: Randy Dunlap <rdunlap@xenotime.net> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-01-12sysctl: add the kernel.ns_last_pid controlPavel Emelyanov
The sysctl works on the current task's pid namespace, getting and setting its last_pid field. Writing is allowed for CAP_SYS_ADMIN-capable tasks thus making it possible to create a task with desired pid value. This ability is required badly for the checkpoint/restore in userspace. This approach suits all the parties for now. Signed-off-by: Pavel Emelyanov <xemul@parallels.com> Acked-by: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org> Cc: Oleg Nesterov <oleg@redhat.com> Cc: Cyrill Gorcunov <gorcunov@openvz.org> Cc: "Eric W. Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com> Cc: Serge Hallyn <serue@us.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2011-12-05x86: Panic on detection of stack overflowMitsuo Hayasaka
Currently, messages are just output on the detection of stack overflow, which is not sufficient for systems that need a high reliability. This is because in general the overflow may corrupt data, and the additional corruption may occur due to reading them unless systems stop. This patch adds the sysctl parameter kernel.panic_on_stackoverflow and causes a panic when detecting the overflows of kernel, IRQ and exception stacks except user stack according to the parameter. It is disabled by default. Signed-off-by: Mitsuo Hayasaka <mitsuo.hayasaka.hu@hitachi.com> Cc: yrl.pp-manager.tt@hitachi.com Cc: Randy Dunlap <rdunlap@xenotime.net> Cc: "H. Peter Anvin" <hpa@zytor.com> Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/20111129060836.11076.12323.stgit@ltc219.sdl.hitachi.co.jp Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
2011-10-31kernel/sysctl.c: add cap_last_cap to /proc/sys/kernelDan Ballard
Userspace needs to know the highest valid capability of the running kernel, which right now cannot reliably be retrieved from the header files only. The fact that this value cannot be determined properly right now creates various problems for libraries compiled on newer header files which are run on older kernels. They assume capabilities are available which actually aren't. libcap-ng is one example. And we ran into the same problem with systemd too. Now the capability is exported in /proc/sys/kernel/cap_last_cap. [akpm@linux-foundation.org: make cap_last_cap const, per Ulrich] Signed-off-by: Dan Ballard <dan@mindstab.net> Cc: Randy Dunlap <rdunlap@xenotime.net> Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu> Cc: Lennart Poettering <lennart@poettering.net> Cc: Kay Sievers <kay.sievers@vrfy.org> Cc: Ulrich Drepper <drepper@akkadia.org> Cc: James Morris <jmorris@namei.org> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2011-07-26ipc: introduce shm_rmid_forced sysctlVasiliy Kulikov
Add support for the shm_rmid_forced sysctl. If set to 1, all shared memory objects in current ipc namespace will be automatically forced to use IPC_RMID. The POSIX way of handling shmem allows one to create shm objects and call shmdt(), leaving shm object associated with no process, thus consuming memory not counted via rlimits. With shm_rmid_forced=1 the shared memory object is counted at least for one process, so OOM killer may effectively kill the fat process holding the shared memory. It obviously breaks POSIX - some programs relying on the feature would stop working. So set shm_rmid_forced=1 only if you're sure nobody uses "orphaned" memory. Use shm_rmid_forced=0 by default for compatability reasons. The feature was previously impemented in -ow as a configure option. [akpm@linux-foundation.org: fix documentation, per Randy] [akpm@linux-foundation.org: fix warning] [akpm@linux-foundation.org: readability/conventionality tweaks] [akpm@linux-foundation.org: fix shm_rmid_forced/shm_forced_rmid confusion, use standard comment layout] Signed-off-by: Vasiliy Kulikov <segoon@openwall.com> Cc: Randy Dunlap <rdunlap@xenotime.net> Cc: "Eric W. Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com> Cc: "Serge E. Hallyn" <serge.hallyn@canonical.com> Cc: Daniel Lezcano <daniel.lezcano@free.fr> Cc: Oleg Nesterov <oleg@redhat.com> Cc: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org> Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu> Cc: Alan Cox <alan@lxorguk.ukuu.org.uk> Cc: Solar Designer <solar@openwall.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2011-07-23Documentation: refresh sysctl/kernel.txtBorislav Petkov
Refresh sysctl/kernel.txt. More specifically, - drop stale index entries - sync and sort index and entries - reflow sticking out paragraphs to colwidth 72 - correct typos - cleanup whitespace Signed-off-by: Borislav Petkov <bp@alien8.de> Signed-off-by: Randy Dunlap <rdunlap@xenotime.net> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>