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authorLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>2011-11-06 19:02:23 -0800
committerLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>2011-11-06 19:02:23 -0800
commit208bca0860406d16398145ddd950036a737c3c9d (patch)
tree7797a16c17d8bd155120126fa7976727fc6de013 /mm
parent6aad3738f6a79fd0ca480eaceefe064cc471f6eb (diff)
parent0e175a1835ffc979e55787774e58ec79e41957d7 (diff)
downloadlinux-linaro-stable-208bca0860406d16398145ddd950036a737c3c9d.tar.gz
Merge branch 'writeback-for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/wfg/linux
* 'writeback-for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/wfg/linux: writeback: Add a 'reason' to wb_writeback_work writeback: send work item to queue_io, move_expired_inodes writeback: trace event balance_dirty_pages writeback: trace event bdi_dirty_ratelimit writeback: fix ppc compile warnings on do_div(long long, unsigned long) writeback: per-bdi background threshold writeback: dirty position control - bdi reserve area writeback: control dirty pause time writeback: limit max dirty pause time writeback: IO-less balance_dirty_pages() writeback: per task dirty rate limit writeback: stabilize bdi->dirty_ratelimit writeback: dirty rate control writeback: add bg_threshold parameter to __bdi_update_bandwidth() writeback: dirty position control writeback: account per-bdi accumulated dirtied pages
Diffstat (limited to 'mm')
-rw-r--r--mm/backing-dev.c7
-rw-r--r--mm/page-writeback.c704
-rw-r--r--mm/vmscan.c3
3 files changed, 560 insertions, 154 deletions
diff --git a/mm/backing-dev.c b/mm/backing-dev.c
index 7520ef0bfd47..a0860640378d 100644
--- a/mm/backing-dev.c
+++ b/mm/backing-dev.c
@@ -97,6 +97,7 @@ static int bdi_debug_stats_show(struct seq_file *m, void *v)
"BdiDirtyThresh: %10lu kB\n"
"DirtyThresh: %10lu kB\n"
"BackgroundThresh: %10lu kB\n"
+ "BdiDirtied: %10lu kB\n"
"BdiWritten: %10lu kB\n"
"BdiWriteBandwidth: %10lu kBps\n"
"b_dirty: %10lu\n"
@@ -109,6 +110,7 @@ static int bdi_debug_stats_show(struct seq_file *m, void *v)
K(bdi_thresh),
K(dirty_thresh),
K(background_thresh),
+ (unsigned long) K(bdi_stat(bdi, BDI_DIRTIED)),
(unsigned long) K(bdi_stat(bdi, BDI_WRITTEN)),
(unsigned long) K(bdi->write_bandwidth),
nr_dirty,
@@ -473,7 +475,8 @@ static int bdi_forker_thread(void *ptr)
* the bdi from the thread. Hopefully 1024 is
* large enough for efficient IO.
*/
- writeback_inodes_wb(&bdi->wb, 1024);
+ writeback_inodes_wb(&bdi->wb, 1024,
+ WB_REASON_FORKER_THREAD);
} else {
/*
* The spinlock makes sure we do not lose
@@ -683,6 +686,8 @@ int bdi_init(struct backing_dev_info *bdi)
bdi->bw_time_stamp = jiffies;
bdi->written_stamp = 0;
+ bdi->balanced_dirty_ratelimit = INIT_BW;
+ bdi->dirty_ratelimit = INIT_BW;
bdi->write_bandwidth = INIT_BW;
bdi->avg_write_bandwidth = INIT_BW;
diff --git a/mm/page-writeback.c b/mm/page-writeback.c
index 793e9874de51..9c31199dae9a 100644
--- a/mm/page-writeback.c
+++ b/mm/page-writeback.c
@@ -46,26 +46,14 @@
*/
#define BANDWIDTH_INTERVAL max(HZ/5, 1)
+#define RATELIMIT_CALC_SHIFT 10
+
/*
* After a CPU has dirtied this many pages, balance_dirty_pages_ratelimited
* will look to see if it needs to force writeback or throttling.
*/
static long ratelimit_pages = 32;
-/*
- * When balance_dirty_pages decides that the caller needs to perform some
- * non-background writeback, this is how many pages it will attempt to write.
- * It should be somewhat larger than dirtied pages to ensure that reasonably
- * large amounts of I/O are submitted.
- */
-static inline long sync_writeback_pages(unsigned long dirtied)
-{
- if (dirtied < ratelimit_pages)
- dirtied = ratelimit_pages;
-
- return dirtied + dirtied / 2;
-}
-
/* The following parameters are exported via /proc/sys/vm */
/*
@@ -167,6 +155,8 @@ static void update_completion_period(void)
int shift = calc_period_shift();
prop_change_shift(&vm_completions, shift);
prop_change_shift(&vm_dirties, shift);
+
+ writeback_set_ratelimit();
}
int dirty_background_ratio_handler(struct ctl_table *table, int write,
@@ -260,50 +250,6 @@ static void bdi_writeout_fraction(struct backing_dev_info *bdi,
numerator, denominator);
}
-static inline void task_dirties_fraction(struct task_struct *tsk,
- long *numerator, long *denominator)
-{
- prop_fraction_single(&vm_dirties, &tsk->dirties,
- numerator, denominator);
-}
-
-/*
- * task_dirty_limit - scale down dirty throttling threshold for one task
- *
- * task specific dirty limit:
- *
- * dirty -= (dirty/8) * p_{t}
- *
- * To protect light/slow dirtying tasks from heavier/fast ones, we start
- * throttling individual tasks before reaching the bdi dirty limit.
- * Relatively low thresholds will be allocated to heavy dirtiers. So when
- * dirty pages grow large, heavy dirtiers will be throttled first, which will
- * effectively curb the growth of dirty pages. Light dirtiers with high enough
- * dirty threshold may never get throttled.
- */
-#define TASK_LIMIT_FRACTION 8
-static unsigned long task_dirty_limit(struct task_struct *tsk,
- unsigned long bdi_dirty)
-{
- long numerator, denominator;
- unsigned long dirty = bdi_dirty;
- u64 inv = dirty / TASK_LIMIT_FRACTION;
-
- task_dirties_fraction(tsk, &numerator, &denominator);
- inv *= numerator;
- do_div(inv, denominator);
-
- dirty -= inv;
-
- return max(dirty, bdi_dirty/2);
-}
-
-/* Minimum limit for any task */
-static unsigned long task_min_dirty_limit(unsigned long bdi_dirty)
-{
- return bdi_dirty - bdi_dirty / TASK_LIMIT_FRACTION;
-}
-
/*
* bdi_min_ratio keeps the sum of the minimum dirty shares of all
* registered backing devices, which, for obvious reasons, can not
@@ -413,6 +359,12 @@ unsigned long determine_dirtyable_memory(void)
return x + 1; /* Ensure that we never return 0 */
}
+static unsigned long dirty_freerun_ceiling(unsigned long thresh,
+ unsigned long bg_thresh)
+{
+ return (thresh + bg_thresh) / 2;
+}
+
static unsigned long hard_dirty_limit(unsigned long thresh)
{
return max(thresh, global_dirty_limit);
@@ -497,6 +449,198 @@ unsigned long bdi_dirty_limit(struct backing_dev_info *bdi, unsigned long dirty)
return bdi_dirty;
}
+/*
+ * Dirty position control.
+ *
+ * (o) global/bdi setpoints
+ *
+ * We want the dirty pages be balanced around the global/bdi setpoints.
+ * When the number of dirty pages is higher/lower than the setpoint, the
+ * dirty position control ratio (and hence task dirty ratelimit) will be
+ * decreased/increased to bring the dirty pages back to the setpoint.
+ *
+ * pos_ratio = 1 << RATELIMIT_CALC_SHIFT
+ *
+ * if (dirty < setpoint) scale up pos_ratio
+ * if (dirty > setpoint) scale down pos_ratio
+ *
+ * if (bdi_dirty < bdi_setpoint) scale up pos_ratio
+ * if (bdi_dirty > bdi_setpoint) scale down pos_ratio
+ *
+ * task_ratelimit = dirty_ratelimit * pos_ratio >> RATELIMIT_CALC_SHIFT
+ *
+ * (o) global control line
+ *
+ * ^ pos_ratio
+ * |
+ * | |<===== global dirty control scope ======>|
+ * 2.0 .............*
+ * | .*
+ * | . *
+ * | . *
+ * | . *
+ * | . *
+ * | . *
+ * 1.0 ................................*
+ * | . . *
+ * | . . *
+ * | . . *
+ * | . . *
+ * | . . *
+ * 0 +------------.------------------.----------------------*------------->
+ * freerun^ setpoint^ limit^ dirty pages
+ *
+ * (o) bdi control line
+ *
+ * ^ pos_ratio
+ * |
+ * | *
+ * | *
+ * | *
+ * | *
+ * | * |<=========== span ============>|
+ * 1.0 .......................*
+ * | . *
+ * | . *
+ * | . *
+ * | . *
+ * | . *
+ * | . *
+ * | . *
+ * | . *
+ * | . *
+ * | . *
+ * | . *
+ * 1/4 ...............................................* * * * * * * * * * * *
+ * | . .
+ * | . .
+ * | . .
+ * 0 +----------------------.-------------------------------.------------->
+ * bdi_setpoint^ x_intercept^
+ *
+ * The bdi control line won't drop below pos_ratio=1/4, so that bdi_dirty can
+ * be smoothly throttled down to normal if it starts high in situations like
+ * - start writing to a slow SD card and a fast disk at the same time. The SD
+ * card's bdi_dirty may rush to many times higher than bdi_setpoint.
+ * - the bdi dirty thresh drops quickly due to change of JBOD workload
+ */
+static unsigned long bdi_position_ratio(struct backing_dev_info *bdi,
+ unsigned long thresh,
+ unsigned long bg_thresh,
+ unsigned long dirty,
+ unsigned long bdi_thresh,
+ unsigned long bdi_dirty)
+{
+ unsigned long write_bw = bdi->avg_write_bandwidth;
+ unsigned long freerun = dirty_freerun_ceiling(thresh, bg_thresh);
+ unsigned long limit = hard_dirty_limit(thresh);
+ unsigned long x_intercept;
+ unsigned long setpoint; /* dirty pages' target balance point */
+ unsigned long bdi_setpoint;
+ unsigned long span;
+ long long pos_ratio; /* for scaling up/down the rate limit */
+ long x;
+
+ if (unlikely(dirty >= limit))
+ return 0;
+
+ /*
+ * global setpoint
+ *
+ * setpoint - dirty 3
+ * f(dirty) := 1.0 + (----------------)
+ * limit - setpoint
+ *
+ * it's a 3rd order polynomial that subjects to
+ *
+ * (1) f(freerun) = 2.0 => rampup dirty_ratelimit reasonably fast
+ * (2) f(setpoint) = 1.0 => the balance point
+ * (3) f(limit) = 0 => the hard limit
+ * (4) df/dx <= 0 => negative feedback control
+ * (5) the closer to setpoint, the smaller |df/dx| (and the reverse)
+ * => fast response on large errors; small oscillation near setpoint
+ */
+ setpoint = (freerun + limit) / 2;
+ x = div_s64((setpoint - dirty) << RATELIMIT_CALC_SHIFT,
+ limit - setpoint + 1);
+ pos_ratio = x;
+ pos_ratio = pos_ratio * x >> RATELIMIT_CALC_SHIFT;
+ pos_ratio = pos_ratio * x >> RATELIMIT_CALC_SHIFT;
+ pos_ratio += 1 << RATELIMIT_CALC_SHIFT;
+
+ /*
+ * We have computed basic pos_ratio above based on global situation. If
+ * the bdi is over/under its share of dirty pages, we want to scale
+ * pos_ratio further down/up. That is done by the following mechanism.
+ */
+
+ /*
+ * bdi setpoint
+ *
+ * f(bdi_dirty) := 1.0 + k * (bdi_dirty - bdi_setpoint)
+ *
+ * x_intercept - bdi_dirty
+ * := --------------------------
+ * x_intercept - bdi_setpoint
+ *
+ * The main bdi control line is a linear function that subjects to
+ *
+ * (1) f(bdi_setpoint) = 1.0
+ * (2) k = - 1 / (8 * write_bw) (in single bdi case)
+ * or equally: x_intercept = bdi_setpoint + 8 * write_bw
+ *
+ * For single bdi case, the dirty pages are observed to fluctuate
+ * regularly within range
+ * [bdi_setpoint - write_bw/2, bdi_setpoint + write_bw/2]
+ * for various filesystems, where (2) can yield in a reasonable 12.5%
+ * fluctuation range for pos_ratio.
+ *
+ * For JBOD case, bdi_thresh (not bdi_dirty!) could fluctuate up to its
+ * own size, so move the slope over accordingly and choose a slope that
+ * yields 100% pos_ratio fluctuation on suddenly doubled bdi_thresh.
+ */
+ if (unlikely(bdi_thresh > thresh))
+ bdi_thresh = thresh;
+ bdi_thresh = max(bdi_thresh, (limit - dirty) / 8);
+ /*
+ * scale global setpoint to bdi's:
+ * bdi_setpoint = setpoint * bdi_thresh / thresh
+ */
+ x = div_u64((u64)bdi_thresh << 16, thresh + 1);
+ bdi_setpoint = setpoint * (u64)x >> 16;
+ /*
+ * Use span=(8*write_bw) in single bdi case as indicated by
+ * (thresh - bdi_thresh ~= 0) and transit to bdi_thresh in JBOD case.
+ *
+ * bdi_thresh thresh - bdi_thresh
+ * span = ---------- * (8 * write_bw) + ------------------- * bdi_thresh
+ * thresh thresh
+ */
+ span = (thresh - bdi_thresh + 8 * write_bw) * (u64)x >> 16;
+ x_intercept = bdi_setpoint + span;
+
+ if (bdi_dirty < x_intercept - span / 4) {
+ pos_ratio = div_u64(pos_ratio * (x_intercept - bdi_dirty),
+ x_intercept - bdi_setpoint + 1);
+ } else
+ pos_ratio /= 4;
+
+ /*
+ * bdi reserve area, safeguard against dirty pool underrun and disk idle
+ * It may push the desired control point of global dirty pages higher
+ * than setpoint.
+ */
+ x_intercept = bdi_thresh / 2;
+ if (bdi_dirty < x_intercept) {
+ if (bdi_dirty > x_intercept / 8)
+ pos_ratio = div_u64(pos_ratio * x_intercept, bdi_dirty);
+ else
+ pos_ratio *= 8;
+ }
+
+ return pos_ratio;
+}
+
static void bdi_update_write_bandwidth(struct backing_dev_info *bdi,
unsigned long elapsed,
unsigned long written)
@@ -593,8 +737,153 @@ static void global_update_bandwidth(unsigned long thresh,
spin_unlock(&dirty_lock);
}
+/*
+ * Maintain bdi->dirty_ratelimit, the base dirty throttle rate.
+ *
+ * Normal bdi tasks will be curbed at or below it in long term.
+ * Obviously it should be around (write_bw / N) when there are N dd tasks.
+ */
+static void bdi_update_dirty_ratelimit(struct backing_dev_info *bdi,
+ unsigned long thresh,
+ unsigned long bg_thresh,
+ unsigned long dirty,
+ unsigned long bdi_thresh,
+ unsigned long bdi_dirty,
+ unsigned long dirtied,
+ unsigned long elapsed)
+{
+ unsigned long freerun = dirty_freerun_ceiling(thresh, bg_thresh);
+ unsigned long limit = hard_dirty_limit(thresh);
+ unsigned long setpoint = (freerun + limit) / 2;
+ unsigned long write_bw = bdi->avg_write_bandwidth;
+ unsigned long dirty_ratelimit = bdi->dirty_ratelimit;
+ unsigned long dirty_rate;
+ unsigned long task_ratelimit;
+ unsigned long balanced_dirty_ratelimit;
+ unsigned long pos_ratio;
+ unsigned long step;
+ unsigned long x;
+
+ /*
+ * The dirty rate will match the writeout rate in long term, except
+ * when dirty pages are truncated by userspace or re-dirtied by FS.
+ */
+ dirty_rate = (dirtied - bdi->dirtied_stamp) * HZ / elapsed;
+
+ pos_ratio = bdi_position_ratio(bdi, thresh, bg_thresh, dirty,
+ bdi_thresh, bdi_dirty);
+ /*
+ * task_ratelimit reflects each dd's dirty rate for the past 200ms.
+ */
+ task_ratelimit = (u64)dirty_ratelimit *
+ pos_ratio >> RATELIMIT_CALC_SHIFT;
+ task_ratelimit++; /* it helps rampup dirty_ratelimit from tiny values */
+
+ /*
+ * A linear estimation of the "balanced" throttle rate. The theory is,
+ * if there are N dd tasks, each throttled at task_ratelimit, the bdi's
+ * dirty_rate will be measured to be (N * task_ratelimit). So the below
+ * formula will yield the balanced rate limit (write_bw / N).
+ *
+ * Note that the expanded form is not a pure rate feedback:
+ * rate_(i+1) = rate_(i) * (write_bw / dirty_rate) (1)
+ * but also takes pos_ratio into account:
+ * rate_(i+1) = rate_(i) * (write_bw / dirty_rate) * pos_ratio (2)
+ *
+ * (1) is not realistic because pos_ratio also takes part in balancing
+ * the dirty rate. Consider the state
+ * pos_ratio = 0.5 (3)
+ * rate = 2 * (write_bw / N) (4)
+ * If (1) is used, it will stuck in that state! Because each dd will
+ * be throttled at
+ * task_ratelimit = pos_ratio * rate = (write_bw / N) (5)
+ * yielding
+ * dirty_rate = N * task_ratelimit = write_bw (6)
+ * put (6) into (1) we get
+ * rate_(i+1) = rate_(i) (7)
+ *
+ * So we end up using (2) to always keep
+ * rate_(i+1) ~= (write_bw / N) (8)
+ * regardless of the value of pos_ratio. As long as (8) is satisfied,
+ * pos_ratio is able to drive itself to 1.0, which is not only where
+ * the dirty count meet the setpoint, but also where the slope of
+ * pos_ratio is most flat and hence task_ratelimit is least fluctuated.
+ */
+ balanced_dirty_ratelimit = div_u64((u64)task_ratelimit * write_bw,
+ dirty_rate | 1);
+
+ /*
+ * We could safely do this and return immediately:
+ *
+ * bdi->dirty_ratelimit = balanced_dirty_ratelimit;
+ *
+ * However to get a more stable dirty_ratelimit, the below elaborated
+ * code makes use of task_ratelimit to filter out sigular points and
+ * limit the step size.
+ *
+ * The below code essentially only uses the relative value of
+ *
+ * task_ratelimit - dirty_ratelimit
+ * = (pos_ratio - 1) * dirty_ratelimit
+ *
+ * which reflects the direction and size of dirty position error.
+ */
+
+ /*
+ * dirty_ratelimit will follow balanced_dirty_ratelimit iff
+ * task_ratelimit is on the same side of dirty_ratelimit, too.
+ * For example, when
+ * - dirty_ratelimit > balanced_dirty_ratelimit
+ * - dirty_ratelimit > task_ratelimit (dirty pages are above setpoint)
+ * lowering dirty_ratelimit will help meet both the position and rate
+ * control targets. Otherwise, don't update dirty_ratelimit if it will
+ * only help meet the rate target. After all, what the users ultimately
+ * feel and care are stable dirty rate and small position error.
+ *
+ * |task_ratelimit - dirty_ratelimit| is used to limit the step size
+ * and filter out the sigular points of balanced_dirty_ratelimit. Which
+ * keeps jumping around randomly and can even leap far away at times
+ * due to the small 200ms estimation period of dirty_rate (we want to
+ * keep that period small to reduce time lags).
+ */
+ step = 0;
+ if (dirty < setpoint) {
+ x = min(bdi->balanced_dirty_ratelimit,
+ min(balanced_dirty_ratelimit, task_ratelimit));
+ if (dirty_ratelimit < x)
+ step = x - dirty_ratelimit;
+ } else {
+ x = max(bdi->balanced_dirty_ratelimit,
+ max(balanced_dirty_ratelimit, task_ratelimit));
+ if (dirty_ratelimit > x)
+ step = dirty_ratelimit - x;
+ }
+
+ /*
+ * Don't pursue 100% rate matching. It's impossible since the balanced
+ * rate itself is constantly fluctuating. So decrease the track speed
+ * when it gets close to the target. Helps eliminate pointless tremors.
+ */
+ step >>= dirty_ratelimit / (2 * step + 1);
+ /*
+ * Limit the tracking speed to avoid overshooting.
+ */
+ step = (step + 7) / 8;
+
+ if (dirty_ratelimit < balanced_dirty_ratelimit)
+ dirty_ratelimit += step;
+ else
+ dirty_ratelimit -= step;
+
+ bdi->dirty_ratelimit = max(dirty_ratelimit, 1UL);
+ bdi->balanced_dirty_ratelimit = balanced_dirty_ratelimit;
+
+ trace_bdi_dirty_ratelimit(bdi, dirty_rate, task_ratelimit);
+}
+
void __bdi_update_bandwidth(struct backing_dev_info *bdi,
unsigned long thresh,
+ unsigned long bg_thresh,
unsigned long dirty,
unsigned long bdi_thresh,
unsigned long bdi_dirty,
@@ -602,6 +891,7 @@ void __bdi_update_bandwidth(struct backing_dev_info *bdi,
{
unsigned long now = jiffies;
unsigned long elapsed = now - bdi->bw_time_stamp;
+ unsigned long dirtied;
unsigned long written;
/*
@@ -610,6 +900,7 @@ void __bdi_update_bandwidth(struct backing_dev_info *bdi,
if (elapsed < BANDWIDTH_INTERVAL)
return;
+ dirtied = percpu_counter_read(&bdi->bdi_stat[BDI_DIRTIED]);
written = percpu_counter_read(&bdi->bdi_stat[BDI_WRITTEN]);
/*
@@ -619,18 +910,23 @@ void __bdi_update_bandwidth(struct backing_dev_info *bdi,
if (elapsed > HZ && time_before(bdi->bw_time_stamp, start_time))
goto snapshot;
- if (thresh)
+ if (thresh) {
global_update_bandwidth(thresh, dirty, now);
-
+ bdi_update_dirty_ratelimit(bdi, thresh, bg_thresh, dirty,
+ bdi_thresh, bdi_dirty,
+ dirtied, elapsed);
+ }
bdi_update_write_bandwidth(bdi, elapsed, written);
snapshot:
+ bdi->dirtied_stamp = dirtied;
bdi->written_stamp = written;
bdi->bw_time_stamp = now;
}
static void bdi_update_bandwidth(struct backing_dev_info *bdi,
unsigned long thresh,
+ unsigned long bg_thresh,
unsigned long dirty,
unsigned long bdi_thresh,
unsigned long bdi_dirty,
@@ -639,37 +935,99 @@ static void bdi_update_bandwidth(struct backing_dev_info *bdi,
if (time_is_after_eq_jiffies(bdi->bw_time_stamp + BANDWIDTH_INTERVAL))
return;
spin_lock(&bdi->wb.list_lock);
- __bdi_update_bandwidth(bdi, thresh, dirty, bdi_thresh, bdi_dirty,
- start_time);
+ __bdi_update_bandwidth(bdi, thresh, bg_thresh, dirty,
+ bdi_thresh, bdi_dirty, start_time);
spin_unlock(&bdi->wb.list_lock);
}
/*
+ * After a task dirtied this many pages, balance_dirty_pages_ratelimited_nr()
+ * will look to see if it needs to start dirty throttling.
+ *
+ * If dirty_poll_interval is too low, big NUMA machines will call the expensive
+ * global_page_state() too often. So scale it near-sqrt to the safety margin
+ * (the number of pages we may dirty without exceeding the dirty limits).
+ */
+static unsigned long dirty_poll_interval(unsigned long dirty,
+ unsigned long thresh)
+{
+ if (thresh > dirty)
+ return 1UL << (ilog2(thresh - dirty) >> 1);
+
+ return 1;
+}
+
+static unsigned long bdi_max_pause(struct backing_dev_info *bdi,
+ unsigned long bdi_dirty)
+{
+ unsigned long bw = bdi->avg_write_bandwidth;
+ unsigned long hi = ilog2(bw);
+ unsigned long lo = ilog2(bdi->dirty_ratelimit);
+ unsigned long t;
+
+ /* target for 20ms max pause on 1-dd case */
+ t = HZ / 50;
+
+ /*
+ * Scale up pause time for concurrent dirtiers in order to reduce CPU
+ * overheads.
+ *
+ * (N * 20ms) on 2^N concurrent tasks.
+ */
+ if (hi > lo)
+ t += (hi - lo) * (20 * HZ) / 1024;
+
+ /*
+ * Limit pause time for small memory systems. If sleeping for too long
+ * time, a small pool of dirty/writeback pages may go empty and disk go
+ * idle.
+ *
+ * 8 serves as the safety ratio.
+ */
+ if (bdi_dirty)
+ t = min(t, bdi_dirty * HZ / (8 * bw + 1));
+
+ /*
+ * The pause time will be settled within range (max_pause/4, max_pause).
+ * Apply a minimal value of 4 to get a non-zero max_pause/4.
+ */
+ return clamp_val(t, 4, MAX_PAUSE);
+}
+
+/*
* balance_dirty_pages() must be called by processes which are generating dirty
* data. It looks at the number of dirty pages in the machine and will force
- * the caller to perform writeback if the system is over `vm_dirty_ratio'.
+ * the caller to wait once crossing the (background_thresh + dirty_thresh) / 2.
* If we're over `background_thresh' then the writeback threads are woken to
* perform some writeout.
*/
static void balance_dirty_pages(struct address_space *mapping,
- unsigned long write_chunk)
+ unsigned long pages_dirtied)
{
- unsigned long nr_reclaimable, bdi_nr_reclaimable;
+ unsigned long nr_reclaimable; /* = file_dirty + unstable_nfs */
+ unsigned long bdi_reclaimable;
unsigned long nr_dirty; /* = file_dirty + writeback + unstable_nfs */
unsigned long bdi_dirty;
+ unsigned long freerun;
unsigned long background_thresh;
unsigned long dirty_thresh;
unsigned long bdi_thresh;
- unsigned long task_bdi_thresh;
- unsigned long min_task_bdi_thresh;
- unsigned long pages_written = 0;
- unsigned long pause = 1;
+ long pause = 0;
+ long uninitialized_var(max_pause);
bool dirty_exceeded = false;
- bool clear_dirty_exceeded = true;
+ unsigned long task_ratelimit;
+ unsigned long uninitialized_var(dirty_ratelimit);
+ unsigned long pos_ratio;
struct backing_dev_info *bdi = mapping->backing_dev_info;
unsigned long start_time = jiffies;
for (;;) {
+ /*
+ * Unstable writes are a feature of certain networked
+ * filesystems (i.e. NFS) in which data may have been
+ * written to the server's write cache, but has not yet
+ * been flushed to permanent storage.
+ */
nr_reclaimable = global_page_state(NR_FILE_DIRTY) +
global_page_state(NR_UNSTABLE_NFS);
nr_dirty = nr_reclaimable + global_page_state(NR_WRITEBACK);
@@ -681,12 +1039,28 @@ static void balance_dirty_pages(struct address_space *mapping,
* catch-up. This avoids (excessively) small writeouts
* when the bdi limits are ramping up.
*/
- if (nr_dirty <= (background_thresh + dirty_thresh) / 2)
+ freerun = dirty_freerun_ceiling(dirty_thresh,
+ background_thresh);
+ if (nr_dirty <= freerun)
break;
+ if (unlikely(!writeback_in_progress(bdi)))
+ bdi_start_background_writeback(bdi);
+
+ /*
+ * bdi_thresh is not treated as some limiting factor as
+ * dirty_thresh, due to reasons
+ * - in JBOD setup, bdi_thresh can fluctuate a lot
+ * - in a system with HDD and USB key, the USB key may somehow
+ * go into state (bdi_dirty >> bdi_thresh) either because
+ * bdi_dirty starts high, or because bdi_thresh drops low.
+ * In this case we don't want to hard throttle the USB key
+ * dirtiers for 100 seconds until bdi_dirty drops under
+ * bdi_thresh. Instead the auxiliary bdi control line in
+ * bdi_position_ratio() will let the dirtier task progress
+ * at some rate <= (write_bw / 2) for bringing down bdi_dirty.
+ */
bdi_thresh = bdi_dirty_limit(bdi, dirty_thresh);
- min_task_bdi_thresh = task_min_dirty_limit(bdi_thresh);
- task_bdi_thresh = task_dirty_limit(current, bdi_thresh);
/*
* In order to avoid the stacked BDI deadlock we need
@@ -698,56 +1072,69 @@ static void balance_dirty_pages(struct address_space *mapping,
* actually dirty; with m+n sitting in the percpu
* deltas.
*/
- if (task_bdi_thresh < 2 * bdi_stat_error(bdi)) {
- bdi_nr_reclaimable = bdi_stat_sum(bdi, BDI_RECLAIMABLE);
- bdi_dirty = bdi_nr_reclaimable +
+ if (bdi_thresh < 2 * bdi_stat_error(bdi)) {
+ bdi_reclaimable = bdi_stat_sum(bdi, BDI_RECLAIMABLE);
+ bdi_dirty = bdi_reclaimable +
bdi_stat_sum(bdi, BDI_WRITEBACK);
} else {
- bdi_nr_reclaimable = bdi_stat(bdi, BDI_RECLAIMABLE);
- bdi_dirty = bdi_nr_reclaimable +
+ bdi_reclaimable = bdi_stat(bdi, BDI_RECLAIMABLE);
+ bdi_dirty = bdi_reclaimable +
bdi_stat(bdi, BDI_WRITEBACK);
}
- /*
- * The bdi thresh is somehow "soft" limit derived from the
- * global "hard" limit. The former helps to prevent heavy IO
- * bdi or process from holding back light ones; The latter is
- * the last resort safeguard.
- */
- dirty_exceeded = (bdi_dirty > task_bdi_thresh) ||
+ dirty_exceeded = (bdi_dirty > bdi_thresh) ||
(nr_dirty > dirty_thresh);
- clear_dirty_exceeded = (bdi_dirty <= min_task_bdi_thresh) &&
- (nr_dirty <= dirty_thresh);
-
- if (!dirty_exceeded)
- break;
-
- if (!bdi->dirty_exceeded)
+ if (dirty_exceeded && !bdi->dirty_exceeded)
bdi->dirty_exceeded = 1;
- bdi_update_bandwidth(bdi, dirty_thresh, nr_dirty,
- bdi_thresh, bdi_dirty, start_time);
+ bdi_update_bandwidth(bdi, dirty_thresh, background_thresh,
+ nr_dirty, bdi_thresh, bdi_dirty,
+ start_time);
- /* Note: nr_reclaimable denotes nr_dirty + nr_unstable.
- * Unstable writes are a feature of certain networked
- * filesystems (i.e. NFS) in which data may have been
- * written to the server's write cache, but has not yet
- * been flushed to permanent storage.
- * Only move pages to writeback if this bdi is over its
- * threshold otherwise wait until the disk writes catch
- * up.
- */
- trace_balance_dirty_start(bdi);
- if (bdi_nr_reclaimable > task_bdi_thresh) {
- pages_written += writeback_inodes_wb(&bdi->wb,
- write_chunk);
- trace_balance_dirty_written(bdi, pages_written);
- if (pages_written >= write_chunk)
- break; /* We've done our duty */
+ max_pause = bdi_max_pause(bdi, bdi_dirty);
+
+ dirty_ratelimit = bdi->dirty_ratelimit;
+ pos_ratio = bdi_position_ratio(bdi, dirty_thresh,
+ background_thresh, nr_dirty,
+ bdi_thresh, bdi_dirty);
+ if (unlikely(pos_ratio == 0)) {
+ pause = max_pause;
+ goto pause;
+ }
+ task_ratelimit = (u64)dirty_ratelimit *
+ pos_ratio >> RATELIMIT_CALC_SHIFT;
+ pause = (HZ * pages_dirtied) / (task_ratelimit | 1);
+ if (unlikely(pause <= 0)) {
+ trace_balance_dirty_pages(bdi,
+ dirty_thresh,
+ background_thresh,
+ nr_dirty,
+ bdi_thresh,
+ bdi_dirty,
+ dirty_ratelimit,
+ task_ratelimit,
+ pages_dirtied,
+ pause,
+ start_time);
+ pause = 1; /* avoid resetting nr_dirtied_pause below */
+ break;
}
+ pause = min(pause, max_pause);
+
+pause:
+ trace_balance_dirty_pages(bdi,
+ dirty_thresh,
+ background_thresh,
+ nr_dirty,
+ bdi_thresh,
+ bdi_dirty,
+ dirty_ratelimit,
+ task_ratelimit,
+ pages_dirtied,
+ pause,
+ start_time);
__set_current_state(TASK_UNINTERRUPTIBLE);
io_schedule_timeout(pause);
- trace_balance_dirty_wait(bdi);
dirty_thresh = hard_dirty_limit(dirty_thresh);
/*
@@ -756,24 +1143,30 @@ static void balance_dirty_pages(struct address_space *mapping,
* 200ms is typically more than enough to curb heavy dirtiers;
* (b) the pause time limit makes the dirtiers more responsive.
*/
- if (nr_dirty < dirty_thresh &&
- bdi_dirty < (task_bdi_thresh + bdi_thresh) / 2 &&
- time_after(jiffies, start_time + MAX_PAUSE))
+ if (nr_dirty < dirty_thresh)
break;
-
- /*
- * Increase the delay for each loop, up to our previous
- * default of taking a 100ms nap.
- */
- pause <<= 1;
- if (pause > HZ / 10)
- pause = HZ / 10;
}
- /* Clear dirty_exceeded flag only when no task can exceed the limit */
- if (clear_dirty_exceeded && bdi->dirty_exceeded)
+ if (!dirty_exceeded && bdi->dirty_exceeded)
bdi->dirty_exceeded = 0;
+ current->nr_dirtied = 0;
+ if (pause == 0) { /* in freerun area */
+ current->nr_dirtied_pause =
+ dirty_poll_interval(nr_dirty, dirty_thresh);
+ } else if (pause <= max_pause / 4 &&
+ pages_dirtied >= current->nr_dirtied_pause) {
+ current->nr_dirtied_pause = clamp_val(
+ dirty_ratelimit * (max_pause / 2) / HZ,
+ pages_dirtied + pages_dirtied / 8,
+ pages_dirtied * 4);
+ } else if (pause >= max_pause) {
+ current->nr_dirtied_pause = 1 | clamp_val(
+ dirty_ratelimit * (max_pause / 2) / HZ,
+ pages_dirtied / 4,
+ pages_dirtied - pages_dirtied / 8);
+ }
+
if (writeback_in_progress(bdi))
return;
@@ -785,8 +1178,10 @@ static void balance_dirty_pages(struct address_space *mapping,
* In normal mode, we start background writeout at the lower
* background_thresh, to keep the amount of dirty memory low.
*/
- if ((laptop_mode && pages_written) ||
- (!laptop_mode && (nr_reclaimable > background_thresh)))
+ if (laptop_mode)
+ return;
+
+ if (nr_reclaimable > background_thresh)
bdi_start_background_writeback(bdi);
}
@@ -800,7 +1195,7 @@ void set_page_dirty_balance(struct page *page, int page_mkwrite)
}
}
-static DEFINE_PER_CPU(unsigned long, bdp_ratelimits) = 0;
+static DEFINE_PER_CPU(int, bdp_ratelimits);
/**
* balance_dirty_pages_ratelimited_nr - balance dirty memory state
@@ -820,31 +1215,39 @@ void balance_dirty_pages_ratelimited_nr(struct address_space *mapping,
unsigned long nr_pages_dirtied)
{
struct backing_dev_info *bdi = mapping->backing_dev_info;
- unsigned long ratelimit;
- unsigned long *p;
+ int ratelimit;
+ int *p;
if (!bdi_cap_account_dirty(bdi))
return;
- ratelimit = ratelimit_pages;
- if (mapping->backing_dev_info->dirty_exceeded)
- ratelimit = 8;
+ ratelimit = current->nr_dirtied_pause;
+ if (bdi->dirty_exceeded)
+ ratelimit = min(ratelimit, 32 >> (PAGE_SHIFT - 10));
+
+ current->nr_dirtied += nr_pages_dirtied;
+ preempt_disable();
/*
- * Check the rate limiting. Also, we do not want to throttle real-time
- * tasks in balance_dirty_pages(). Period.
+ * This prevents one CPU to accumulate too many dirtied pages without
+ * calling into balance_dirty_pages(), which can happen when there are
+ * 1000+ tasks, all of them start dirtying pages at exactly the same
+ * time, hence all honoured too large initial task->nr_dirtied_pause.
*/
- preempt_disable();
p = &__get_cpu_var(bdp_ratelimits);
- *p += nr_pages_dirtied;
- if (unlikely(*p >= ratelimit)) {
- ratelimit = sync_writeback_pages(*p);
+ if (unlikely(current->nr_dirtied >= ratelimit))
*p = 0;
- preempt_enable();
- balance_dirty_pages(mapping, ratelimit);
- return;
+ else {
+ *p += nr_pages_dirtied;
+ if (unlikely(*p >= ratelimit_pages)) {
+ *p = 0;
+ ratelimit = 0;
+ }
}
preempt_enable();
+
+ if (unlikely(current->nr_dirtied >= ratelimit))
+ balance_dirty_pages(mapping, current->nr_dirtied);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(balance_dirty_pages_ratelimited_nr);
@@ -900,7 +1303,8 @@ void laptop_mode_timer_fn(unsigned long data)
* threshold
*/
if (bdi_has_dirty_io(&q->backing_dev_info))
- bdi_start_writeback(&q->backing_dev_info, nr_pages);
+ bdi_start_writeback(&q->backing_dev_info, nr_pages,
+ WB_REASON_LAPTOP_TIMER);
}
/*
@@ -939,22 +1343,17 @@ void laptop_sync_completion(void)
*
* Here we set ratelimit_pages to a level which ensures that when all CPUs are
* dirtying in parallel, we cannot go more than 3% (1/32) over the dirty memory
- * thresholds before writeback cuts in.
- *
- * But the limit should not be set too high. Because it also controls the
- * amount of memory which the balance_dirty_pages() caller has to write back.
- * If this is too large then the caller will block on the IO queue all the
- * time. So limit it to four megabytes - the balance_dirty_pages() caller
- * will write six megabyte chunks, max.
+ * thresholds.
*/
void writeback_set_ratelimit(void)
{
- ratelimit_pages = vm_total_pages / (num_online_cpus() * 32);
+ unsigned long background_thresh;
+ unsigned long dirty_thresh;
+ global_dirty_limits(&background_thresh, &dirty_thresh);
+ ratelimit_pages = dirty_thresh / (num_online_cpus() * 32);
if (ratelimit_pages < 16)
ratelimit_pages = 16;
- if (ratelimit_pages * PAGE_CACHE_SIZE > 4096 * 1024)
- ratelimit_pages = (4096 * 1024) / PAGE_CACHE_SIZE;
}
static int __cpuinit
@@ -1324,6 +1723,7 @@ void account_page_dirtied(struct page *page, struct address_space *mapping)
__inc_zone_page_state(page, NR_FILE_DIRTY);
__inc_zone_page_state(page, NR_DIRTIED);
__inc_bdi_stat(mapping->backing_dev_info, BDI_RECLAIMABLE);
+ __inc_bdi_stat(mapping->backing_dev_info, BDI_DIRTIED);
task_dirty_inc(current);
task_io_account_write(PAGE_CACHE_SIZE);
}
diff --git a/mm/vmscan.c b/mm/vmscan.c
index 132d1ddb2238..a1893c050795 100644
--- a/mm/vmscan.c
+++ b/mm/vmscan.c
@@ -2266,7 +2266,8 @@ static unsigned long do_try_to_free_pages(struct zonelist *zonelist,
*/
writeback_threshold = sc->nr_to_reclaim + sc->nr_to_reclaim / 2;
if (total_scanned > writeback_threshold) {
- wakeup_flusher_threads(laptop_mode ? 0 : total_scanned);
+ wakeup_flusher_threads(laptop_mode ? 0 : total_scanned,
+ WB_REASON_TRY_TO_FREE_PAGES);
sc->may_writepage = 1;
}