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authorNick Piggin <npiggin@suse.de>2006-12-06 20:33:44 -0800
committerLinus Torvalds <torvalds@woody.osdl.org>2006-12-07 08:39:25 -0800
commit7cf9c2c76c1a17b32f2da85b50cd4fe468ed44b5 (patch)
treec3ed3e92e21f19ef744c9ea6829f4ff8d06e9f14 /lib/radix-tree.c
parent36de6437866bbb1d37e2312ff4f95ee4ed6d2b61 (diff)
downloadlinux-linaro-stable-7cf9c2c76c1a17b32f2da85b50cd4fe468ed44b5.tar.gz
[PATCH] radix-tree: RCU lockless readside
Make radix tree lookups safe to be performed without locks. Readers are protected against nodes being deleted by using RCU based freeing. Readers are protected against new node insertion by using memory barriers to ensure the node itself will be properly written before it is visible in the radix tree. Each radix tree node keeps a record of their height (above leaf nodes). This height does not change after insertion -- when the radix tree is extended, higher nodes are only inserted in the top. So a lookup can take the pointer to what is *now* the root node, and traverse down it even if the tree is concurrently extended and this node becomes a subtree of a new root. "Direct" pointers (tree height of 0, where root->rnode points directly to the data item) are handled by using the low bit of the pointer to signal whether rnode is a direct pointer or a pointer to a radix tree node. When a reader wants to traverse the next branch, they will take a copy of the pointer. This pointer will be either NULL (and the branch is empty) or non-NULL (and will point to a valid node). [akpm@osdl.org: cleanups] [Lee.Schermerhorn@hp.com: bugfixes, comments, simplifications] [clameter@sgi.com: build fix] Signed-off-by: Nick Piggin <npiggin@suse.de> Cc: "Paul E. McKenney" <paulmck@us.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Lee Schermerhorn <lee.schermerhorn@hp.com> Cc: Christoph Lameter <clameter@engr.sgi.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@osdl.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
Diffstat (limited to 'lib/radix-tree.c')
-rw-r--r--lib/radix-tree.c327
1 files changed, 227 insertions, 100 deletions
diff --git a/lib/radix-tree.c b/lib/radix-tree.c
index 9eb25955019f..e2cefabb5aa0 100644
--- a/lib/radix-tree.c
+++ b/lib/radix-tree.c
@@ -2,6 +2,7 @@
* Copyright (C) 2001 Momchil Velikov
* Portions Copyright (C) 2001 Christoph Hellwig
* Copyright (C) 2005 SGI, Christoph Lameter <clameter@sgi.com>
+ * Copyright (C) 2006 Nick Piggin
*
* This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
* modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as
@@ -30,6 +31,7 @@
#include <linux/gfp.h>
#include <linux/string.h>
#include <linux/bitops.h>
+#include <linux/rcupdate.h>
#ifdef __KERNEL__
@@ -45,7 +47,9 @@
((RADIX_TREE_MAP_SIZE + BITS_PER_LONG - 1) / BITS_PER_LONG)
struct radix_tree_node {
+ unsigned int height; /* Height from the bottom */
unsigned int count;
+ struct rcu_head rcu_head;
void *slots[RADIX_TREE_MAP_SIZE];
unsigned long tags[RADIX_TREE_MAX_TAGS][RADIX_TREE_TAG_LONGS];
};
@@ -100,13 +104,21 @@ radix_tree_node_alloc(struct radix_tree_root *root)
rtp->nr--;
}
}
+ BUG_ON(radix_tree_is_direct_ptr(ret));
return ret;
}
+static void radix_tree_node_rcu_free(struct rcu_head *head)
+{
+ struct radix_tree_node *node =
+ container_of(head, struct radix_tree_node, rcu_head);
+ kmem_cache_free(radix_tree_node_cachep, node);
+}
+
static inline void
radix_tree_node_free(struct radix_tree_node *node)
{
- kmem_cache_free(radix_tree_node_cachep, node);
+ call_rcu(&node->rcu_head, radix_tree_node_rcu_free);
}
/*
@@ -222,11 +234,12 @@ static int radix_tree_extend(struct radix_tree_root *root, unsigned long index)
}
do {
+ unsigned int newheight;
if (!(node = radix_tree_node_alloc(root)))
return -ENOMEM;
/* Increase the height. */
- node->slots[0] = root->rnode;
+ node->slots[0] = radix_tree_direct_to_ptr(root->rnode);
/* Propagate the aggregated tag info into the new root */
for (tag = 0; tag < RADIX_TREE_MAX_TAGS; tag++) {
@@ -234,9 +247,11 @@ static int radix_tree_extend(struct radix_tree_root *root, unsigned long index)
tag_set(node, tag, 0);
}
+ newheight = root->height+1;
+ node->height = newheight;
node->count = 1;
- root->rnode = node;
- root->height++;
+ rcu_assign_pointer(root->rnode, node);
+ root->height = newheight;
} while (height > root->height);
out:
return 0;
@@ -258,6 +273,8 @@ int radix_tree_insert(struct radix_tree_root *root,
int offset;
int error;
+ BUG_ON(radix_tree_is_direct_ptr(item));
+
/* Make sure the tree is high enough. */
if (index > radix_tree_maxindex(root->height)) {
error = radix_tree_extend(root, index);
@@ -275,11 +292,12 @@ int radix_tree_insert(struct radix_tree_root *root,
/* Have to add a child node. */
if (!(slot = radix_tree_node_alloc(root)))
return -ENOMEM;
+ slot->height = height;
if (node) {
- node->slots[offset] = slot;
+ rcu_assign_pointer(node->slots[offset], slot);
node->count++;
} else
- root->rnode = slot;
+ rcu_assign_pointer(root->rnode, slot);
}
/* Go a level down */
@@ -295,11 +313,11 @@ int radix_tree_insert(struct radix_tree_root *root,
if (node) {
node->count++;
- node->slots[offset] = item;
+ rcu_assign_pointer(node->slots[offset], item);
BUG_ON(tag_get(node, 0, offset));
BUG_ON(tag_get(node, 1, offset));
} else {
- root->rnode = item;
+ rcu_assign_pointer(root->rnode, radix_tree_ptr_to_direct(item));
BUG_ON(root_tag_get(root, 0));
BUG_ON(root_tag_get(root, 1));
}
@@ -308,49 +326,54 @@ int radix_tree_insert(struct radix_tree_root *root,
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(radix_tree_insert);
-static inline void **__lookup_slot(struct radix_tree_root *root,
- unsigned long index)
+/**
+ * radix_tree_lookup_slot - lookup a slot in a radix tree
+ * @root: radix tree root
+ * @index: index key
+ *
+ * Returns: the slot corresponding to the position @index in the
+ * radix tree @root. This is useful for update-if-exists operations.
+ *
+ * This function cannot be called under rcu_read_lock, it must be
+ * excluded from writers, as must the returned slot for subsequent
+ * use by radix_tree_deref_slot() and radix_tree_replace slot.
+ * Caller must hold tree write locked across slot lookup and
+ * replace.
+ */
+void **radix_tree_lookup_slot(struct radix_tree_root *root, unsigned long index)
{
unsigned int height, shift;
- struct radix_tree_node **slot;
-
- height = root->height;
+ struct radix_tree_node *node, **slot;
- if (index > radix_tree_maxindex(height))
+ node = root->rnode;
+ if (node == NULL)
return NULL;
- if (height == 0 && root->rnode)
+ if (radix_tree_is_direct_ptr(node)) {
+ if (index > 0)
+ return NULL;
return (void **)&root->rnode;
+ }
+
+ height = node->height;
+ if (index > radix_tree_maxindex(height))
+ return NULL;
shift = (height-1) * RADIX_TREE_MAP_SHIFT;
- slot = &root->rnode;
- while (height > 0) {
- if (*slot == NULL)
+ do {
+ slot = (struct radix_tree_node **)
+ (node->slots + ((index>>shift) & RADIX_TREE_MAP_MASK));
+ node = *slot;
+ if (node == NULL)
return NULL;
- slot = (struct radix_tree_node **)
- ((*slot)->slots +
- ((index >> shift) & RADIX_TREE_MAP_MASK));
shift -= RADIX_TREE_MAP_SHIFT;
height--;
- }
+ } while (height > 0);
return (void **)slot;
}
-
-/**
- * radix_tree_lookup_slot - lookup a slot in a radix tree
- * @root: radix tree root
- * @index: index key
- *
- * Lookup the slot corresponding to the position @index in the radix tree
- * @root. This is useful for update-if-exists operations.
- */
-void **radix_tree_lookup_slot(struct radix_tree_root *root, unsigned long index)
-{
- return __lookup_slot(root, index);
-}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(radix_tree_lookup_slot);
/**
@@ -359,13 +382,45 @@ EXPORT_SYMBOL(radix_tree_lookup_slot);
* @index: index key
*
* Lookup the item at the position @index in the radix tree @root.
+ *
+ * This function can be called under rcu_read_lock, however the caller
+ * must manage lifetimes of leaf nodes (eg. RCU may also be used to free
+ * them safely). No RCU barriers are required to access or modify the
+ * returned item, however.
*/
void *radix_tree_lookup(struct radix_tree_root *root, unsigned long index)
{
- void **slot;
+ unsigned int height, shift;
+ struct radix_tree_node *node, **slot;
+
+ node = rcu_dereference(root->rnode);
+ if (node == NULL)
+ return NULL;
+
+ if (radix_tree_is_direct_ptr(node)) {
+ if (index > 0)
+ return NULL;
+ return radix_tree_direct_to_ptr(node);
+ }
+
+ height = node->height;
+ if (index > radix_tree_maxindex(height))
+ return NULL;
+
+ shift = (height-1) * RADIX_TREE_MAP_SHIFT;
- slot = __lookup_slot(root, index);
- return slot != NULL ? *slot : NULL;
+ do {
+ slot = (struct radix_tree_node **)
+ (node->slots + ((index>>shift) & RADIX_TREE_MAP_MASK));
+ node = rcu_dereference(*slot);
+ if (node == NULL)
+ return NULL;
+
+ shift -= RADIX_TREE_MAP_SHIFT;
+ height--;
+ } while (height > 0);
+
+ return node;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(radix_tree_lookup);
@@ -495,27 +550,30 @@ int radix_tree_tag_get(struct radix_tree_root *root,
unsigned long index, unsigned int tag)
{
unsigned int height, shift;
- struct radix_tree_node *slot;
+ struct radix_tree_node *node;
int saw_unset_tag = 0;
- height = root->height;
- if (index > radix_tree_maxindex(height))
- return 0;
-
/* check the root's tag bit */
if (!root_tag_get(root, tag))
return 0;
- if (height == 0)
- return 1;
+ node = rcu_dereference(root->rnode);
+ if (node == NULL)
+ return 0;
+
+ if (radix_tree_is_direct_ptr(node))
+ return (index == 0);
+
+ height = node->height;
+ if (index > radix_tree_maxindex(height))
+ return 0;
shift = (height - 1) * RADIX_TREE_MAP_SHIFT;
- slot = root->rnode;
for ( ; ; ) {
int offset;
- if (slot == NULL)
+ if (node == NULL)
return 0;
offset = (index >> shift) & RADIX_TREE_MAP_MASK;
@@ -524,15 +582,15 @@ int radix_tree_tag_get(struct radix_tree_root *root,
* This is just a debug check. Later, we can bale as soon as
* we see an unset tag.
*/
- if (!tag_get(slot, tag, offset))
+ if (!tag_get(node, tag, offset))
saw_unset_tag = 1;
if (height == 1) {
- int ret = tag_get(slot, tag, offset);
+ int ret = tag_get(node, tag, offset);
BUG_ON(ret && saw_unset_tag);
return !!ret;
}
- slot = slot->slots[offset];
+ node = rcu_dereference(node->slots[offset]);
shift -= RADIX_TREE_MAP_SHIFT;
height--;
}
@@ -541,47 +599,45 @@ EXPORT_SYMBOL(radix_tree_tag_get);
#endif
static unsigned int
-__lookup(struct radix_tree_root *root, void **results, unsigned long index,
+__lookup(struct radix_tree_node *slot, void **results, unsigned long index,
unsigned int max_items, unsigned long *next_index)
{
unsigned int nr_found = 0;
unsigned int shift, height;
- struct radix_tree_node *slot;
unsigned long i;
- height = root->height;
- if (height == 0) {
- if (root->rnode && index == 0)
- results[nr_found++] = root->rnode;
+ height = slot->height;
+ if (height == 0)
goto out;
- }
-
shift = (height-1) * RADIX_TREE_MAP_SHIFT;
- slot = root->rnode;
for ( ; height > 1; height--) {
-
- for (i = (index >> shift) & RADIX_TREE_MAP_MASK ;
- i < RADIX_TREE_MAP_SIZE; i++) {
+ i = (index >> shift) & RADIX_TREE_MAP_MASK;
+ for (;;) {
if (slot->slots[i] != NULL)
break;
index &= ~((1UL << shift) - 1);
index += 1UL << shift;
if (index == 0)
goto out; /* 32-bit wraparound */
+ i++;
+ if (i == RADIX_TREE_MAP_SIZE)
+ goto out;
}
- if (i == RADIX_TREE_MAP_SIZE)
- goto out;
shift -= RADIX_TREE_MAP_SHIFT;
- slot = slot->slots[i];
+ slot = rcu_dereference(slot->slots[i]);
+ if (slot == NULL)
+ goto out;
}
/* Bottom level: grab some items */
for (i = index & RADIX_TREE_MAP_MASK; i < RADIX_TREE_MAP_SIZE; i++) {
+ struct radix_tree_node *node;
index++;
- if (slot->slots[i]) {
- results[nr_found++] = slot->slots[i];
+ node = slot->slots[i];
+ if (node) {
+ results[nr_found++] = rcu_dereference(node);
if (nr_found == max_items)
goto out;
}
@@ -603,28 +659,51 @@ out:
* *@results.
*
* The implementation is naive.
+ *
+ * Like radix_tree_lookup, radix_tree_gang_lookup may be called under
+ * rcu_read_lock. In this case, rather than the returned results being
+ * an atomic snapshot of the tree at a single point in time, the semantics
+ * of an RCU protected gang lookup are as though multiple radix_tree_lookups
+ * have been issued in individual locks, and results stored in 'results'.
*/
unsigned int
radix_tree_gang_lookup(struct radix_tree_root *root, void **results,
unsigned long first_index, unsigned int max_items)
{
- const unsigned long max_index = radix_tree_maxindex(root->height);
+ unsigned long max_index;
+ struct radix_tree_node *node;
unsigned long cur_index = first_index;
- unsigned int ret = 0;
+ unsigned int ret;
+
+ node = rcu_dereference(root->rnode);
+ if (!node)
+ return 0;
+ if (radix_tree_is_direct_ptr(node)) {
+ if (first_index > 0)
+ return 0;
+ node = radix_tree_direct_to_ptr(node);
+ results[0] = rcu_dereference(node);
+ return 1;
+ }
+
+ max_index = radix_tree_maxindex(node->height);
+
+ ret = 0;
while (ret < max_items) {
unsigned int nr_found;
unsigned long next_index; /* Index of next search */
if (cur_index > max_index)
break;
- nr_found = __lookup(root, results + ret, cur_index,
+ nr_found = __lookup(node, results + ret, cur_index,
max_items - ret, &next_index);
ret += nr_found;
if (next_index == 0)
break;
cur_index = next_index;
}
+
return ret;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(radix_tree_gang_lookup);
@@ -634,55 +713,64 @@ EXPORT_SYMBOL(radix_tree_gang_lookup);
* open-coding the search.
*/
static unsigned int
-__lookup_tag(struct radix_tree_root *root, void **results, unsigned long index,
+__lookup_tag(struct radix_tree_node *slot, void **results, unsigned long index,
unsigned int max_items, unsigned long *next_index, unsigned int tag)
{
unsigned int nr_found = 0;
- unsigned int shift;
- unsigned int height = root->height;
- struct radix_tree_node *slot;
+ unsigned int shift, height;
- if (height == 0) {
- if (root->rnode && index == 0)
- results[nr_found++] = root->rnode;
+ height = slot->height;
+ if (height == 0)
goto out;
- }
-
- shift = (height - 1) * RADIX_TREE_MAP_SHIFT;
- slot = root->rnode;
+ shift = (height-1) * RADIX_TREE_MAP_SHIFT;
- do {
- unsigned long i = (index >> shift) & RADIX_TREE_MAP_MASK;
+ while (height > 0) {
+ unsigned long i = (index >> shift) & RADIX_TREE_MAP_MASK ;
- for ( ; i < RADIX_TREE_MAP_SIZE; i++) {
- if (tag_get(slot, tag, i)) {
- BUG_ON(slot->slots[i] == NULL);
+ for (;;) {
+ if (tag_get(slot, tag, i))
break;
- }
index &= ~((1UL << shift) - 1);
index += 1UL << shift;
if (index == 0)
goto out; /* 32-bit wraparound */
+ i++;
+ if (i == RADIX_TREE_MAP_SIZE)
+ goto out;
}
- if (i == RADIX_TREE_MAP_SIZE)
- goto out;
height--;
if (height == 0) { /* Bottom level: grab some items */
unsigned long j = index & RADIX_TREE_MAP_MASK;
for ( ; j < RADIX_TREE_MAP_SIZE; j++) {
+ struct radix_tree_node *node;
index++;
- if (tag_get(slot, tag, j)) {
- BUG_ON(slot->slots[j] == NULL);
- results[nr_found++] = slot->slots[j];
+ if (!tag_get(slot, tag, j))
+ continue;
+ node = slot->slots[j];
+ /*
+ * Even though the tag was found set, we need to
+ * recheck that we have a non-NULL node, because
+ * if this lookup is lockless, it may have been
+ * subsequently deleted.
+ *
+ * Similar care must be taken in any place that
+ * lookup ->slots[x] without a lock (ie. can't
+ * rely on its value remaining the same).
+ */
+ if (node) {
+ node = rcu_dereference(node);
+ results[nr_found++] = node;
if (nr_found == max_items)
goto out;
}
}
}
shift -= RADIX_TREE_MAP_SHIFT;
- slot = slot->slots[i];
- } while (height > 0);
+ slot = rcu_dereference(slot->slots[i]);
+ if (slot == NULL)
+ break;
+ }
out:
*next_index = index;
return nr_found;
@@ -706,27 +794,44 @@ radix_tree_gang_lookup_tag(struct radix_tree_root *root, void **results,
unsigned long first_index, unsigned int max_items,
unsigned int tag)
{
- const unsigned long max_index = radix_tree_maxindex(root->height);
+ struct radix_tree_node *node;
+ unsigned long max_index;
unsigned long cur_index = first_index;
- unsigned int ret = 0;
+ unsigned int ret;
/* check the root's tag bit */
if (!root_tag_get(root, tag))
return 0;
+ node = rcu_dereference(root->rnode);
+ if (!node)
+ return 0;
+
+ if (radix_tree_is_direct_ptr(node)) {
+ if (first_index > 0)
+ return 0;
+ node = radix_tree_direct_to_ptr(node);
+ results[0] = rcu_dereference(node);
+ return 1;
+ }
+
+ max_index = radix_tree_maxindex(node->height);
+
+ ret = 0;
while (ret < max_items) {
unsigned int nr_found;
unsigned long next_index; /* Index of next search */
if (cur_index > max_index)
break;
- nr_found = __lookup_tag(root, results + ret, cur_index,
+ nr_found = __lookup_tag(node, results + ret, cur_index,
max_items - ret, &next_index, tag);
ret += nr_found;
if (next_index == 0)
break;
cur_index = next_index;
}
+
return ret;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(radix_tree_gang_lookup_tag);
@@ -742,8 +847,19 @@ static inline void radix_tree_shrink(struct radix_tree_root *root)
root->rnode->count == 1 &&
root->rnode->slots[0]) {
struct radix_tree_node *to_free = root->rnode;
+ void *newptr;
- root->rnode = to_free->slots[0];
+ /*
+ * We don't need rcu_assign_pointer(), since we are simply
+ * moving the node from one part of the tree to another. If
+ * it was safe to dereference the old pointer to it
+ * (to_free->slots[0]), it will be safe to dereference the new
+ * one (root->rnode).
+ */
+ newptr = to_free->slots[0];
+ if (root->height == 1)
+ newptr = radix_tree_ptr_to_direct(newptr);
+ root->rnode = newptr;
root->height--;
/* must only free zeroed nodes into the slab */
tag_clear(to_free, 0, 0);
@@ -767,6 +883,7 @@ void *radix_tree_delete(struct radix_tree_root *root, unsigned long index)
{
struct radix_tree_path path[RADIX_TREE_MAX_PATH], *pathp = path;
struct radix_tree_node *slot = NULL;
+ struct radix_tree_node *to_free;
unsigned int height, shift;
int tag;
int offset;
@@ -777,6 +894,7 @@ void *radix_tree_delete(struct radix_tree_root *root, unsigned long index)
slot = root->rnode;
if (height == 0 && root->rnode) {
+ slot = radix_tree_direct_to_ptr(slot);
root_tag_clear_all(root);
root->rnode = NULL;
goto out;
@@ -809,10 +927,17 @@ void *radix_tree_delete(struct radix_tree_root *root, unsigned long index)
radix_tree_tag_clear(root, index, tag);
}
+ to_free = NULL;
/* Now free the nodes we do not need anymore */
while (pathp->node) {
pathp->node->slots[pathp->offset] = NULL;
pathp->node->count--;
+ /*
+ * Queue the node for deferred freeing after the
+ * last reference to it disappears (set NULL, above).
+ */
+ if (to_free)
+ radix_tree_node_free(to_free);
if (pathp->node->count) {
if (pathp->node == root->rnode)
@@ -821,13 +946,15 @@ void *radix_tree_delete(struct radix_tree_root *root, unsigned long index)
}
/* Node with zero slots in use so free it */
- radix_tree_node_free(pathp->node);
-
+ to_free = pathp->node;
pathp--;
+
}
root_tag_clear_all(root);
root->height = 0;
root->rnode = NULL;
+ if (to_free)
+ radix_tree_node_free(to_free);
out:
return slot;