path: root/Documentation
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authorNick Piggin <npiggin@suse.de>2008-10-18 20:27:03 -0700
committerLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>2008-10-20 08:52:32 -0700
commitdb64fe02258f1507e13fe5212a989922323685ce (patch)
treeed24c8d4e3b0bcadfce3a8c3916a6b35d6c891cb /Documentation
parentcb8f488c33539f096580e202f5438a809195008f (diff)
mm: rewrite vmap layer
Rewrite the vmap allocator to use rbtrees and lazy tlb flushing, and provide a fast, scalable percpu frontend for small vmaps (requires a slightly different API, though). The biggest problem with vmap is actually vunmap. Presently this requires a global kernel TLB flush, which on most architectures is a broadcast IPI to all CPUs to flush the cache. This is all done under a global lock. As the number of CPUs increases, so will the number of vunmaps a scaled workload will want to perform, and so will the cost of a global TLB flush. This gives terrible quadratic scalability characteristics. Another problem is that the entire vmap subsystem works under a single lock. It is a rwlock, but it is actually taken for write in all the fast paths, and the read locking would likely never be run concurrently anyway, so it's just pointless. This is a rewrite of vmap subsystem to solve those problems. The existing vmalloc API is implemented on top of the rewritten subsystem. The TLB flushing problem is solved by using lazy TLB unmapping. vmap addresses do not have to be flushed immediately when they are vunmapped, because the kernel will not reuse them again (would be a use-after-free) until they are reallocated. So the addresses aren't allocated again until a subsequent TLB flush. A single TLB flush then can flush multiple vunmaps from each CPU. XEN and PAT and such do not like deferred TLB flushing because they can't always handle multiple aliasing virtual addresses to a physical address. They now call vm_unmap_aliases() in order to flush any deferred mappings. That call is very expensive (well, actually not a lot more expensive than a single vunmap under the old scheme), however it should be OK if not called too often. The virtual memory extent information is stored in an rbtree rather than a linked list to improve the algorithmic scalability. There is a per-CPU allocator for small vmaps, which amortizes or avoids global locking. To use the per-CPU interface, the vm_map_ram / vm_unmap_ram interfaces must be used in place of vmap and vunmap. Vmalloc does not use these interfaces at the moment, so it will not be quite so scalable (although it will use lazy TLB flushing). As a quick test of performance, I ran a test that loops in the kernel, linearly mapping then touching then unmapping 4 pages. Different numbers of tests were run in parallel on an 4 core, 2 socket opteron. Results are in nanoseconds per map+touch+unmap. threads vanilla vmap rewrite 1 14700 2900 2 33600 3000 4 49500 2800 8 70631 2900 So with a 8 cores, the rewritten version is already 25x faster. In a slightly more realistic test (although with an older and less scalable version of the patch), I ripped the not-very-good vunmap batching code out of XFS, and implemented the large buffer mapping with vm_map_ram and vm_unmap_ram... along with a couple of other tricks, I was able to speed up a large directory workload by 20x on a 64 CPU system. I believe vmap/vunmap is actually sped up a lot more than 20x on such a system, but I'm running into other locks now. vmap is pretty well blown off the profiles. Before: 1352059 total 0.1401 798784 _write_lock 8320.6667 <- vmlist_lock 529313 default_idle 1181.5022 15242 smp_call_function 15.8771 <- vmap tlb flushing 2472 __get_vm_area_node 1.9312 <- vmap 1762 remove_vm_area 4.5885 <- vunmap 316 map_vm_area 0.2297 <- vmap 312 kfree 0.1950 300 _spin_lock 3.1250 252 sn_send_IPI_phys 0.4375 <- tlb flushing 238 vmap 0.8264 <- vmap 216 find_lock_page 0.5192 196 find_next_bit 0.3603 136 sn2_send_IPI 0.2024 130 pio_phys_write_mmr 2.0312 118 unmap_kernel_range 0.1229 After: 78406 total 0.0081 40053 default_idle 89.4040 33576 ia64_spinlock_contention 349.7500 1650 _spin_lock 17.1875 319 __reg_op 0.5538 281 _atomic_dec_and_lock 1.0977 153 mutex_unlock 1.5938 123 iget_locked 0.1671 117 xfs_dir_lookup 0.1662 117 dput 0.1406 114 xfs_iget_core 0.0268 92 xfs_da_hashname 0.1917 75 d_alloc 0.0670 68 vmap_page_range 0.0462 <- vmap 58 kmem_cache_alloc 0.0604 57 memset 0.0540 52 rb_next 0.1625 50 __copy_user 0.0208 49 bitmap_find_free_region 0.2188 <- vmap 46 ia64_sn_udelay 0.1106 45 find_inode_fast 0.1406 42 memcmp 0.2188 42 finish_task_switch 0.1094 42 __d_lookup 0.0410 40 radix_tree_lookup_slot 0.1250 37 _spin_unlock_irqrestore 0.3854 36 xfs_bmapi 0.0050 36 kmem_cache_free 0.0256 35 xfs_vn_getattr 0.0322 34 radix_tree_lookup 0.1062 33 __link_path_walk 0.0035 31 xfs_da_do_buf 0.0091 30 _xfs_buf_find 0.0204 28 find_get_page 0.0875 27 xfs_iread 0.0241 27 __strncpy_from_user 0.2812 26 _xfs_buf_initialize 0.0406 24 _xfs_buf_lookup_pages 0.0179 24 vunmap_page_range 0.0250 <- vunmap 23 find_lock_page 0.0799 22 vm_map_ram 0.0087 <- vmap 20 kfree 0.0125 19 put_page 0.0330 18 __kmalloc 0.0176 17 xfs_da_node_lookup_int 0.0086 17 _read_lock 0.0885 17 page_waitqueue 0.0664 vmap has gone from being the top 5 on the profiles and flushing the crap out of all TLBs, to using less than 1% of kernel time. [akpm@linux-foundation.org: cleanups, section fix] [akpm@linux-foundation.org: fix build on alpha] Signed-off-by: Nick Piggin <npiggin@suse.de> Cc: Jeremy Fitzhardinge <jeremy@goop.org> Cc: Krzysztof Helt <krzysztof.h1@poczta.fm> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
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