aboutsummaryrefslogtreecommitdiff
diff options
context:
space:
mode:
authorDmitry Vyukov <dvyukov@google.com>2016-03-22 14:27:30 -0700
committerLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>2016-03-22 15:36:02 -0700
commit5c9a8750a6409c63a0f01d51a9024861022f6593 (patch)
tree61c5cd39711d26f755a30a7f0fd52f91c1f56387
parentade356b99a4187578609f2a91c4d2ed88e4e70dc (diff)
downloadlinux-linaro-stable-5c9a8750a6409c63a0f01d51a9024861022f6593.tar.gz
kernel: add kcov code coverage
kcov provides code coverage collection for coverage-guided fuzzing (randomized testing). Coverage-guided fuzzing is a testing technique that uses coverage feedback to determine new interesting inputs to a system. A notable user-space example is AFL (http://lcamtuf.coredump.cx/afl/). However, this technique is not widely used for kernel testing due to missing compiler and kernel support. kcov does not aim to collect as much coverage as possible. It aims to collect more or less stable coverage that is function of syscall inputs. To achieve this goal it does not collect coverage in soft/hard interrupts and instrumentation of some inherently non-deterministic or non-interesting parts of kernel is disbled (e.g. scheduler, locking). Currently there is a single coverage collection mode (tracing), but the API anticipates additional collection modes. Initially I also implemented a second mode which exposes coverage in a fixed-size hash table of counters (what Quentin used in his original patch). I've dropped the second mode for simplicity. This patch adds the necessary support on kernel side. The complimentary compiler support was added in gcc revision 231296. We've used this support to build syzkaller system call fuzzer, which has found 90 kernel bugs in just 2 months: https://github.com/google/syzkaller/wiki/Found-Bugs We've also found 30+ bugs in our internal systems with syzkaller. Another (yet unexplored) direction where kcov coverage would greatly help is more traditional "blob mutation". For example, mounting a random blob as a filesystem, or receiving a random blob over wire. Why not gcov. Typical fuzzing loop looks as follows: (1) reset coverage, (2) execute a bit of code, (3) collect coverage, repeat. A typical coverage can be just a dozen of basic blocks (e.g. an invalid input). In such context gcov becomes prohibitively expensive as reset/collect coverage steps depend on total number of basic blocks/edges in program (in case of kernel it is about 2M). Cost of kcov depends only on number of executed basic blocks/edges. On top of that, kernel requires per-thread coverage because there are always background threads and unrelated processes that also produce coverage. With inlined gcov instrumentation per-thread coverage is not possible. kcov exposes kernel PCs and control flow to user-space which is insecure. But debugfs should not be mapped as user accessible. Based on a patch by Quentin Casasnovas. [akpm@linux-foundation.org: make task_struct.kcov_mode have type `enum kcov_mode'] [akpm@linux-foundation.org: unbreak allmodconfig] [akpm@linux-foundation.org: follow x86 Makefile layout standards] Signed-off-by: Dmitry Vyukov <dvyukov@google.com> Reviewed-by: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org> Cc: syzkaller <syzkaller@googlegroups.com> Cc: Vegard Nossum <vegard.nossum@oracle.com> Cc: Catalin Marinas <catalin.marinas@arm.com> Cc: Tavis Ormandy <taviso@google.com> Cc: Will Deacon <will.deacon@arm.com> Cc: Quentin Casasnovas <quentin.casasnovas@oracle.com> Cc: Kostya Serebryany <kcc@google.com> Cc: Eric Dumazet <edumazet@google.com> Cc: Alexander Potapenko <glider@google.com> Cc: Kees Cook <keescook@google.com> Cc: Bjorn Helgaas <bhelgaas@google.com> Cc: Sasha Levin <sasha.levin@oracle.com> Cc: David Drysdale <drysdale@google.com> Cc: Ard Biesheuvel <ard.biesheuvel@linaro.org> Cc: Andrey Ryabinin <ryabinin.a.a@gmail.com> Cc: Kirill A. Shutemov <kirill@shutemov.name> Cc: Jiri Slaby <jslaby@suse.cz> Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu> Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de> Cc: "H. Peter Anvin" <hpa@zytor.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
-rw-r--r--Documentation/kcov.txt111
-rw-r--r--Makefile11
-rw-r--r--arch/x86/Kconfig1
-rw-r--r--arch/x86/boot/Makefile7
-rw-r--r--arch/x86/boot/compressed/Makefile3
-rw-r--r--arch/x86/entry/vdso/Makefile3
-rw-r--r--arch/x86/kernel/Makefile6
-rw-r--r--arch/x86/kernel/apic/Makefile4
-rw-r--r--arch/x86/kernel/cpu/Makefile4
-rw-r--r--arch/x86/lib/Makefile3
-rw-r--r--arch/x86/mm/Makefile3
-rw-r--r--arch/x86/realmode/rm/Makefile3
-rw-r--r--drivers/firmware/efi/libstub/Makefile3
-rw-r--r--include/linux/kcov.h29
-rw-r--r--include/linux/sched.h11
-rw-r--r--include/uapi/linux/kcov.h10
-rw-r--r--kernel/Makefile12
-rw-r--r--kernel/exit.c2
-rw-r--r--kernel/fork.c3
-rw-r--r--kernel/kcov.c273
-rw-r--r--kernel/locking/Makefile3
-rw-r--r--kernel/rcu/Makefile4
-rw-r--r--kernel/sched/Makefile4
-rw-r--r--lib/Kconfig.debug21
-rw-r--r--lib/Makefile12
-rw-r--r--mm/Makefile15
-rw-r--r--mm/kasan/Makefile1
-rw-r--r--scripts/Makefile.lib6
28 files changed, 567 insertions, 1 deletions
diff --git a/Documentation/kcov.txt b/Documentation/kcov.txt
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..779ff4ab1c1d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/kcov.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,111 @@
+kcov: code coverage for fuzzing
+===============================
+
+kcov exposes kernel code coverage information in a form suitable for coverage-
+guided fuzzing (randomized testing). Coverage data of a running kernel is
+exported via the "kcov" debugfs file. Coverage collection is enabled on a task
+basis, and thus it can capture precise coverage of a single system call.
+
+Note that kcov does not aim to collect as much coverage as possible. It aims
+to collect more or less stable coverage that is function of syscall inputs.
+To achieve this goal it does not collect coverage in soft/hard interrupts
+and instrumentation of some inherently non-deterministic parts of kernel is
+disbled (e.g. scheduler, locking).
+
+Usage:
+======
+
+Configure kernel with:
+
+ CONFIG_KCOV=y
+
+CONFIG_KCOV requires gcc built on revision 231296 or later.
+Profiling data will only become accessible once debugfs has been mounted:
+
+ mount -t debugfs none /sys/kernel/debug
+
+The following program demonstrates kcov usage from within a test program:
+
+#include <stdio.h>
+#include <stddef.h>
+#include <stdint.h>
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <sys/types.h>
+#include <sys/stat.h>
+#include <sys/ioctl.h>
+#include <sys/mman.h>
+#include <unistd.h>
+#include <fcntl.h>
+
+#define KCOV_INIT_TRACE _IOR('c', 1, unsigned long)
+#define KCOV_ENABLE _IO('c', 100)
+#define KCOV_DISABLE _IO('c', 101)
+#define COVER_SIZE (64<<10)
+
+int main(int argc, char **argv)
+{
+ int fd;
+ unsigned long *cover, n, i;
+
+ /* A single fd descriptor allows coverage collection on a single
+ * thread.
+ */
+ fd = open("/sys/kernel/debug/kcov", O_RDWR);
+ if (fd == -1)
+ perror("open"), exit(1);
+ /* Setup trace mode and trace size. */
+ if (ioctl(fd, KCOV_INIT_TRACE, COVER_SIZE))
+ perror("ioctl"), exit(1);
+ /* Mmap buffer shared between kernel- and user-space. */
+ cover = (unsigned long*)mmap(NULL, COVER_SIZE * sizeof(unsigned long),
+ PROT_READ | PROT_WRITE, MAP_SHARED, fd, 0);
+ if ((void*)cover == MAP_FAILED)
+ perror("mmap"), exit(1);
+ /* Enable coverage collection on the current thread. */
+ if (ioctl(fd, KCOV_ENABLE, 0))
+ perror("ioctl"), exit(1);
+ /* Reset coverage from the tail of the ioctl() call. */
+ __atomic_store_n(&cover[0], 0, __ATOMIC_RELAXED);
+ /* That's the target syscal call. */
+ read(-1, NULL, 0);
+ /* Read number of PCs collected. */
+ n = __atomic_load_n(&cover[0], __ATOMIC_RELAXED);
+ for (i = 0; i < n; i++)
+ printf("0x%lx\n", cover[i + 1]);
+ /* Disable coverage collection for the current thread. After this call
+ * coverage can be enabled for a different thread.
+ */
+ if (ioctl(fd, KCOV_DISABLE, 0))
+ perror("ioctl"), exit(1);
+ /* Free resources. */
+ if (munmap(cover, COVER_SIZE * sizeof(unsigned long)))
+ perror("munmap"), exit(1);
+ if (close(fd))
+ perror("close"), exit(1);
+ return 0;
+}
+
+After piping through addr2line output of the program looks as follows:
+
+SyS_read
+fs/read_write.c:562
+__fdget_pos
+fs/file.c:774
+__fget_light
+fs/file.c:746
+__fget_light
+fs/file.c:750
+__fget_light
+fs/file.c:760
+__fdget_pos
+fs/file.c:784
+SyS_read
+fs/read_write.c:562
+
+If a program needs to collect coverage from several threads (independently),
+it needs to open /sys/kernel/debug/kcov in each thread separately.
+
+The interface is fine-grained to allow efficient forking of test processes.
+That is, a parent process opens /sys/kernel/debug/kcov, enables trace mode,
+mmaps coverage buffer and then forks child processes in a loop. Child processes
+only need to enable coverage (disable happens automatically on thread end).
diff --git a/Makefile b/Makefile
index e055b969c325..b98a4f70d1b5 100644
--- a/Makefile
+++ b/Makefile
@@ -365,6 +365,7 @@ LDFLAGS_MODULE =
CFLAGS_KERNEL =
AFLAGS_KERNEL =
CFLAGS_GCOV = -fprofile-arcs -ftest-coverage
+CFLAGS_KCOV = -fsanitize-coverage=trace-pc
# Use USERINCLUDE when you must reference the UAPI directories only.
@@ -411,7 +412,7 @@ export MAKE AWK GENKSYMS INSTALLKERNEL PERL PYTHON UTS_MACHINE
export HOSTCXX HOSTCXXFLAGS LDFLAGS_MODULE CHECK CHECKFLAGS
export KBUILD_CPPFLAGS NOSTDINC_FLAGS LINUXINCLUDE OBJCOPYFLAGS LDFLAGS
-export KBUILD_CFLAGS CFLAGS_KERNEL CFLAGS_MODULE CFLAGS_GCOV CFLAGS_KASAN CFLAGS_UBSAN
+export KBUILD_CFLAGS CFLAGS_KERNEL CFLAGS_MODULE CFLAGS_GCOV CFLAGS_KCOV CFLAGS_KASAN CFLAGS_UBSAN
export KBUILD_AFLAGS AFLAGS_KERNEL AFLAGS_MODULE
export KBUILD_AFLAGS_MODULE KBUILD_CFLAGS_MODULE KBUILD_LDFLAGS_MODULE
export KBUILD_AFLAGS_KERNEL KBUILD_CFLAGS_KERNEL
@@ -673,6 +674,14 @@ endif
endif
KBUILD_CFLAGS += $(stackp-flag)
+ifdef CONFIG_KCOV
+ ifeq ($(call cc-option, $(CFLAGS_KCOV)),)
+ $(warning Cannot use CONFIG_KCOV: \
+ -fsanitize-coverage=trace-pc is not supported by compiler)
+ CFLAGS_KCOV =
+ endif
+endif
+
ifeq ($(cc-name),clang)
KBUILD_CPPFLAGS += $(call cc-option,-Qunused-arguments,)
KBUILD_CPPFLAGS += $(call cc-option,-Wno-unknown-warning-option,)
diff --git a/arch/x86/Kconfig b/arch/x86/Kconfig
index 8b680a5cb25b..54478b7635de 100644
--- a/arch/x86/Kconfig
+++ b/arch/x86/Kconfig
@@ -28,6 +28,7 @@ config X86
select ARCH_HAS_ELF_RANDOMIZE
select ARCH_HAS_FAST_MULTIPLIER
select ARCH_HAS_GCOV_PROFILE_ALL
+ select ARCH_HAS_KCOV if X86_64
select ARCH_HAS_PMEM_API if X86_64
select ARCH_HAS_MMIO_FLUSH
select ARCH_HAS_SG_CHAIN
diff --git a/arch/x86/boot/Makefile b/arch/x86/boot/Makefile
index 0bf6749522d9..b1ef9e489084 100644
--- a/arch/x86/boot/Makefile
+++ b/arch/x86/boot/Makefile
@@ -12,6 +12,13 @@
KASAN_SANITIZE := n
OBJECT_FILES_NON_STANDARD := y
+# Kernel does not boot with kcov instrumentation here.
+# One of the problems observed was insertion of __sanitizer_cov_trace_pc()
+# callback into middle of per-cpu data enabling code. Thus the callback observed
+# inconsistent state and crashed. We are interested mostly in syscall coverage,
+# so boot code is not interesting anyway.
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT := n
+
# If you want to preset the SVGA mode, uncomment the next line and
# set SVGA_MODE to whatever number you want.
# Set it to -DSVGA_MODE=NORMAL_VGA if you just want the EGA/VGA mode.
diff --git a/arch/x86/boot/compressed/Makefile b/arch/x86/boot/compressed/Makefile
index 5e1d26e09407..6915ff2bd996 100644
--- a/arch/x86/boot/compressed/Makefile
+++ b/arch/x86/boot/compressed/Makefile
@@ -19,6 +19,9 @@
KASAN_SANITIZE := n
OBJECT_FILES_NON_STANDARD := y
+# Prevents link failures: __sanitizer_cov_trace_pc() is not linked in.
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT := n
+
targets := vmlinux vmlinux.bin vmlinux.bin.gz vmlinux.bin.bz2 vmlinux.bin.lzma \
vmlinux.bin.xz vmlinux.bin.lzo vmlinux.bin.lz4
diff --git a/arch/x86/entry/vdso/Makefile b/arch/x86/entry/vdso/Makefile
index f9fb859c98b9..6874da5f67fc 100644
--- a/arch/x86/entry/vdso/Makefile
+++ b/arch/x86/entry/vdso/Makefile
@@ -7,6 +7,9 @@ KASAN_SANITIZE := n
UBSAN_SANITIZE := n
OBJECT_FILES_NON_STANDARD := y
+# Prevents link failures: __sanitizer_cov_trace_pc() is not linked in.
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT := n
+
VDSO64-$(CONFIG_X86_64) := y
VDSOX32-$(CONFIG_X86_X32_ABI) := y
VDSO32-$(CONFIG_X86_32) := y
diff --git a/arch/x86/kernel/Makefile b/arch/x86/kernel/Makefile
index d5fb0871aba3..adaae2c781c1 100644
--- a/arch/x86/kernel/Makefile
+++ b/arch/x86/kernel/Makefile
@@ -25,6 +25,12 @@ OBJECT_FILES_NON_STANDARD_relocate_kernel_$(BITS).o := y
OBJECT_FILES_NON_STANDARD_mcount_$(BITS).o := y
OBJECT_FILES_NON_STANDARD_test_nx.o := y
+# If instrumentation of this dir is enabled, boot hangs during first second.
+# Probably could be more selective here, but note that files related to irqs,
+# boot, dumpstack/stacktrace, etc are either non-interesting or can lead to
+# non-deterministic coverage.
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT := n
+
CFLAGS_irq.o := -I$(src)/../include/asm/trace
obj-y := process_$(BITS).o signal.o
diff --git a/arch/x86/kernel/apic/Makefile b/arch/x86/kernel/apic/Makefile
index 8bb12ddc5db8..8e63ebdcbd0b 100644
--- a/arch/x86/kernel/apic/Makefile
+++ b/arch/x86/kernel/apic/Makefile
@@ -2,6 +2,10 @@
# Makefile for local APIC drivers and for the IO-APIC code
#
+# Leads to non-deterministic coverage that is not a function of syscall inputs.
+# In particualr, smp_apic_timer_interrupt() is called in random places.
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT := n
+
obj-$(CONFIG_X86_LOCAL_APIC) += apic.o apic_noop.o ipi.o vector.o
obj-y += hw_nmi.o
diff --git a/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/Makefile b/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/Makefile
index 0d373d7affc8..4a8697f7d4ef 100644
--- a/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/Makefile
+++ b/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/Makefile
@@ -8,6 +8,10 @@ CFLAGS_REMOVE_common.o = -pg
CFLAGS_REMOVE_perf_event.o = -pg
endif
+# If these files are instrumented, boot hangs during the first second.
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT_common.o := n
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT_perf_event.o := n
+
# Make sure load_percpu_segment has no stackprotector
nostackp := $(call cc-option, -fno-stack-protector)
CFLAGS_common.o := $(nostackp)
diff --git a/arch/x86/lib/Makefile b/arch/x86/lib/Makefile
index a501fa25da41..72a576752a7e 100644
--- a/arch/x86/lib/Makefile
+++ b/arch/x86/lib/Makefile
@@ -2,6 +2,9 @@
# Makefile for x86 specific library files.
#
+# Produces uninteresting flaky coverage.
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT_delay.o := n
+
inat_tables_script = $(srctree)/arch/x86/tools/gen-insn-attr-x86.awk
inat_tables_maps = $(srctree)/arch/x86/lib/x86-opcode-map.txt
quiet_cmd_inat_tables = GEN $@
diff --git a/arch/x86/mm/Makefile b/arch/x86/mm/Makefile
index 67cf2e1e557b..f98913258c63 100644
--- a/arch/x86/mm/Makefile
+++ b/arch/x86/mm/Makefile
@@ -1,3 +1,6 @@
+# Kernel does not boot with instrumentation of tlb.c.
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT_tlb.o := n
+
obj-y := init.o init_$(BITS).o fault.o ioremap.o extable.o pageattr.o mmap.o \
pat.o pgtable.o physaddr.o gup.o setup_nx.o
diff --git a/arch/x86/realmode/rm/Makefile b/arch/x86/realmode/rm/Makefile
index 053abe7b0ef7..b95964610ea7 100644
--- a/arch/x86/realmode/rm/Makefile
+++ b/arch/x86/realmode/rm/Makefile
@@ -9,6 +9,9 @@
KASAN_SANITIZE := n
OBJECT_FILES_NON_STANDARD := y
+# Prevents link failures: __sanitizer_cov_trace_pc() is not linked in.
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT := n
+
always := realmode.bin realmode.relocs
wakeup-objs := wakeup_asm.o wakemain.o video-mode.o
diff --git a/drivers/firmware/efi/libstub/Makefile b/drivers/firmware/efi/libstub/Makefile
index a15841eced4e..da99bbb74aeb 100644
--- a/drivers/firmware/efi/libstub/Makefile
+++ b/drivers/firmware/efi/libstub/Makefile
@@ -25,6 +25,9 @@ KASAN_SANITIZE := n
UBSAN_SANITIZE := n
OBJECT_FILES_NON_STANDARD := y
+# Prevents link failures: __sanitizer_cov_trace_pc() is not linked in.
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT := n
+
lib-y := efi-stub-helper.o
# include the stub's generic dependencies from lib/ when building for ARM/arm64
diff --git a/include/linux/kcov.h b/include/linux/kcov.h
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..2883ac98c280
--- /dev/null
+++ b/include/linux/kcov.h
@@ -0,0 +1,29 @@
+#ifndef _LINUX_KCOV_H
+#define _LINUX_KCOV_H
+
+#include <uapi/linux/kcov.h>
+
+struct task_struct;
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_KCOV
+
+void kcov_task_init(struct task_struct *t);
+void kcov_task_exit(struct task_struct *t);
+
+enum kcov_mode {
+ /* Coverage collection is not enabled yet. */
+ KCOV_MODE_DISABLED = 0,
+ /*
+ * Tracing coverage collection mode.
+ * Covered PCs are collected in a per-task buffer.
+ */
+ KCOV_MODE_TRACE = 1,
+};
+
+#else
+
+static inline void kcov_task_init(struct task_struct *t) {}
+static inline void kcov_task_exit(struct task_struct *t) {}
+
+#endif /* CONFIG_KCOV */
+#endif /* _LINUX_KCOV_H */
diff --git a/include/linux/sched.h b/include/linux/sched.h
index 084ed9fba620..34495d2d2d7b 100644
--- a/include/linux/sched.h
+++ b/include/linux/sched.h
@@ -51,6 +51,7 @@ struct sched_param {
#include <linux/resource.h>
#include <linux/timer.h>
#include <linux/hrtimer.h>
+#include <linux/kcov.h>
#include <linux/task_io_accounting.h>
#include <linux/latencytop.h>
#include <linux/cred.h>
@@ -1818,6 +1819,16 @@ struct task_struct {
/* bitmask and counter of trace recursion */
unsigned long trace_recursion;
#endif /* CONFIG_TRACING */
+#ifdef CONFIG_KCOV
+ /* Coverage collection mode enabled for this task (0 if disabled). */
+ enum kcov_mode kcov_mode;
+ /* Size of the kcov_area. */
+ unsigned kcov_size;
+ /* Buffer for coverage collection. */
+ void *kcov_area;
+ /* kcov desciptor wired with this task or NULL. */
+ struct kcov *kcov;
+#endif
#ifdef CONFIG_MEMCG
struct mem_cgroup *memcg_in_oom;
gfp_t memcg_oom_gfp_mask;
diff --git a/include/uapi/linux/kcov.h b/include/uapi/linux/kcov.h
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..574e22ec640d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/include/uapi/linux/kcov.h
@@ -0,0 +1,10 @@
+#ifndef _LINUX_KCOV_IOCTLS_H
+#define _LINUX_KCOV_IOCTLS_H
+
+#include <linux/types.h>
+
+#define KCOV_INIT_TRACE _IOR('c', 1, unsigned long)
+#define KCOV_ENABLE _IO('c', 100)
+#define KCOV_DISABLE _IO('c', 101)
+
+#endif /* _LINUX_KCOV_IOCTLS_H */
diff --git a/kernel/Makefile b/kernel/Makefile
index baa55e50a315..f0c40bf49d9f 100644
--- a/kernel/Makefile
+++ b/kernel/Makefile
@@ -18,6 +18,17 @@ ifdef CONFIG_FUNCTION_TRACER
CFLAGS_REMOVE_irq_work.o = $(CC_FLAGS_FTRACE)
endif
+# Prevents flicker of uninteresting __do_softirq()/__local_bh_disable_ip()
+# in coverage traces.
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT_softirq.o := n
+# These are called from save_stack_trace() on slub debug path,
+# and produce insane amounts of uninteresting coverage.
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT_module.o := n
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT_extable.o := n
+# Don't self-instrument.
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT_kcov.o := n
+KASAN_SANITIZE_kcov.o := n
+
# cond_syscall is currently not LTO compatible
CFLAGS_sys_ni.o = $(DISABLE_LTO)
@@ -68,6 +79,7 @@ obj-$(CONFIG_AUDITSYSCALL) += auditsc.o
obj-$(CONFIG_AUDIT_WATCH) += audit_watch.o audit_fsnotify.o
obj-$(CONFIG_AUDIT_TREE) += audit_tree.o
obj-$(CONFIG_GCOV_KERNEL) += gcov/
+obj-$(CONFIG_KCOV) += kcov.o
obj-$(CONFIG_KPROBES) += kprobes.o
obj-$(CONFIG_KGDB) += debug/
obj-$(CONFIG_DETECT_HUNG_TASK) += hung_task.o
diff --git a/kernel/exit.c b/kernel/exit.c
index 10e088237fed..953d1a1c0387 100644
--- a/kernel/exit.c
+++ b/kernel/exit.c
@@ -53,6 +53,7 @@
#include <linux/oom.h>
#include <linux/writeback.h>
#include <linux/shm.h>
+#include <linux/kcov.h>
#include <asm/uaccess.h>
#include <asm/unistd.h>
@@ -655,6 +656,7 @@ void do_exit(long code)
TASKS_RCU(int tasks_rcu_i);
profile_task_exit(tsk);
+ kcov_task_exit(tsk);
WARN_ON(blk_needs_flush_plug(tsk));
diff --git a/kernel/fork.c b/kernel/fork.c
index 5b8d1e7ceeea..d277e83ed3e0 100644
--- a/kernel/fork.c
+++ b/kernel/fork.c
@@ -75,6 +75,7 @@
#include <linux/aio.h>
#include <linux/compiler.h>
#include <linux/sysctl.h>
+#include <linux/kcov.h>
#include <asm/pgtable.h>
#include <asm/pgalloc.h>
@@ -392,6 +393,8 @@ static struct task_struct *dup_task_struct(struct task_struct *orig)
account_kernel_stack(ti, 1);
+ kcov_task_init(tsk);
+
return tsk;
free_ti:
diff --git a/kernel/kcov.c b/kernel/kcov.c
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..3efbee0834a8
--- /dev/null
+++ b/kernel/kcov.c
@@ -0,0 +1,273 @@
+#define pr_fmt(fmt) "kcov: " fmt
+
+#include <linux/compiler.h>
+#include <linux/types.h>
+#include <linux/file.h>
+#include <linux/fs.h>
+#include <linux/mm.h>
+#include <linux/printk.h>
+#include <linux/slab.h>
+#include <linux/spinlock.h>
+#include <linux/vmalloc.h>
+#include <linux/debugfs.h>
+#include <linux/uaccess.h>
+#include <linux/kcov.h>
+
+/*
+ * kcov descriptor (one per opened debugfs file).
+ * State transitions of the descriptor:
+ * - initial state after open()
+ * - then there must be a single ioctl(KCOV_INIT_TRACE) call
+ * - then, mmap() call (several calls are allowed but not useful)
+ * - then, repeated enable/disable for a task (only one task a time allowed)
+ */
+struct kcov {
+ /*
+ * Reference counter. We keep one for:
+ * - opened file descriptor
+ * - task with enabled coverage (we can't unwire it from another task)
+ */
+ atomic_t refcount;
+ /* The lock protects mode, size, area and t. */
+ spinlock_t lock;
+ enum kcov_mode mode;
+ /* Size of arena (in long's for KCOV_MODE_TRACE). */
+ unsigned size;
+ /* Coverage buffer shared with user space. */
+ void *area;
+ /* Task for which we collect coverage, or NULL. */
+ struct task_struct *t;
+};
+
+/*
+ * Entry point from instrumented code.
+ * This is called once per basic-block/edge.
+ */
+void __sanitizer_cov_trace_pc(void)
+{
+ struct task_struct *t;
+ enum kcov_mode mode;
+
+ t = current;
+ /*
+ * We are interested in code coverage as a function of a syscall inputs,
+ * so we ignore code executed in interrupts.
+ */
+ if (!t || in_interrupt())
+ return;
+ mode = READ_ONCE(t->kcov_mode);
+ if (mode == KCOV_MODE_TRACE) {
+ unsigned long *area;
+ unsigned long pos;
+
+ /*
+ * There is some code that runs in interrupts but for which
+ * in_interrupt() returns false (e.g. preempt_schedule_irq()).
+ * READ_ONCE()/barrier() effectively provides load-acquire wrt
+ * interrupts, there are paired barrier()/WRITE_ONCE() in
+ * kcov_ioctl_locked().
+ */
+ barrier();
+ area = t->kcov_area;
+ /* The first word is number of subsequent PCs. */
+ pos = READ_ONCE(area[0]) + 1;
+ if (likely(pos < t->kcov_size)) {
+ area[pos] = _RET_IP_;
+ WRITE_ONCE(area[0], pos);
+ }
+ }
+}
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(__sanitizer_cov_trace_pc);
+
+static void kcov_get(struct kcov *kcov)
+{
+ atomic_inc(&kcov->refcount);
+}
+
+static void kcov_put(struct kcov *kcov)
+{
+ if (atomic_dec_and_test(&kcov->refcount)) {
+ vfree(kcov->area);
+ kfree(kcov);
+ }
+}
+
+void kcov_task_init(struct task_struct *t)
+{
+ t->kcov_mode = KCOV_MODE_DISABLED;
+ t->kcov_size = 0;
+ t->kcov_area = NULL;
+ t->kcov = NULL;
+}
+
+void kcov_task_exit(struct task_struct *t)
+{
+ struct kcov *kcov;
+
+ kcov = t->kcov;
+ if (kcov == NULL)
+ return;
+ spin_lock(&kcov->lock);
+ if (WARN_ON(kcov->t != t)) {
+ spin_unlock(&kcov->lock);
+ return;
+ }
+ /* Just to not leave dangling references behind. */
+ kcov_task_init(t);
+ kcov->t = NULL;
+ spin_unlock(&kcov->lock);
+ kcov_put(kcov);
+}
+
+static int kcov_mmap(struct file *filep, struct vm_area_struct *vma)
+{
+ int res = 0;
+ void *area;
+ struct kcov *kcov = vma->vm_file->private_data;
+ unsigned long size, off;
+ struct page *page;
+
+ area = vmalloc_user(vma->vm_end - vma->vm_start);
+ if (!area)
+ return -ENOMEM;
+
+ spin_lock(&kcov->lock);
+ size = kcov->size * sizeof(unsigned long);
+ if (kcov->mode == KCOV_MODE_DISABLED || vma->vm_pgoff != 0 ||
+ vma->vm_end - vma->vm_start != size) {
+ res = -EINVAL;
+ goto exit;
+ }
+ if (!kcov->area) {
+ kcov->area = area;
+ vma->vm_flags |= VM_DONTEXPAND;
+ spin_unlock(&kcov->lock);
+ for (off = 0; off < size; off += PAGE_SIZE) {
+ page = vmalloc_to_page(kcov->area + off);
+ if (vm_insert_page(vma, vma->vm_start + off, page))
+ WARN_ONCE(1, "vm_insert_page() failed");
+ }
+ return 0;
+ }
+exit:
+ spin_unlock(&kcov->lock);
+ vfree(area);
+ return res;
+}
+
+static int kcov_open(struct inode *inode, struct file *filep)
+{
+ struct kcov *kcov;
+
+ kcov = kzalloc(sizeof(*kcov), GFP_KERNEL);
+ if (!kcov)
+ return -ENOMEM;
+ atomic_set(&kcov->refcount, 1);
+ spin_lock_init(&kcov->lock);
+ filep->private_data = kcov;
+ return nonseekable_open(inode, filep);
+}
+
+static int kcov_close(struct inode *inode, struct file *filep)
+{
+ kcov_put(filep->private_data);
+ return 0;
+}
+
+static int kcov_ioctl_locked(struct kcov *kcov, unsigned int cmd,
+ unsigned long arg)
+{
+ struct task_struct *t;
+ unsigned long size, unused;
+
+ switch (cmd) {
+ case KCOV_INIT_TRACE:
+ /*
+ * Enable kcov in trace mode and setup buffer size.
+ * Must happen before anything else.
+ */
+ if (kcov->mode != KCOV_MODE_DISABLED)
+ return -EBUSY;
+ /*
+ * Size must be at least 2 to hold current position and one PC.
+ * Later we allocate size * sizeof(unsigned long) memory,
+ * that must not overflow.
+ */
+ size = arg;
+ if (size < 2 || size > INT_MAX / sizeof(unsigned long))
+ return -EINVAL;
+ kcov->size = size;
+ kcov->mode = KCOV_MODE_TRACE;
+ return 0;
+ case KCOV_ENABLE:
+ /*
+ * Enable coverage for the current task.
+ * At this point user must have been enabled trace mode,
+ * and mmapped the file. Coverage collection is disabled only
+ * at task exit or voluntary by KCOV_DISABLE. After that it can
+ * be enabled for another task.
+ */
+ unused = arg;
+ if (unused != 0 || kcov->mode == KCOV_MODE_DISABLED ||
+ kcov->area == NULL)
+ return -EINVAL;
+ if (kcov->t != NULL)
+ return -EBUSY;
+ t = current;
+ /* Cache in task struct for performance. */
+ t->kcov_size = kcov->size;
+ t->kcov_area = kcov->area;
+ /* See comment in __sanitizer_cov_trace_pc(). */
+ barrier();
+ WRITE_ONCE(t->kcov_mode, kcov->mode);
+ t->kcov = kcov;
+ kcov->t = t;
+ /* This is put either in kcov_task_exit() or in KCOV_DISABLE. */
+ kcov_get(kcov);
+ return 0;
+ case KCOV_DISABLE:
+ /* Disable coverage for the current task. */
+ unused = arg;
+ if (unused != 0 || current->kcov != kcov)
+ return -EINVAL;
+ t = current;
+ if (WARN_ON(kcov->t != t))
+ return -EINVAL;
+ kcov_task_init(t);
+ kcov->t = NULL;
+ kcov_put(kcov);
+ return 0;
+ default:
+ return -ENOTTY;
+ }
+}
+
+static long kcov_ioctl(struct file *filep, unsigned int cmd, unsigned long arg)
+{
+ struct kcov *kcov;
+ int res;
+
+ kcov = filep->private_data;
+ spin_lock(&kcov->lock);
+ res = kcov_ioctl_locked(kcov, cmd, arg);
+ spin_unlock(&kcov->lock);
+ return res;
+}
+
+static const struct file_operations kcov_fops = {
+ .open = kcov_open,
+ .unlocked_ioctl = kcov_ioctl,
+ .mmap = kcov_mmap,
+ .release = kcov_close,
+};
+
+static int __init kcov_init(void)
+{
+ if (!debugfs_create_file("kcov", 0600, NULL, NULL, &kcov_fops)) {
+ pr_err("failed to create kcov in debugfs\n");
+ return -ENOMEM;
+ }
+ return 0;
+}
+
+device_initcall(kcov_init);
diff --git a/kernel/locking/Makefile b/kernel/locking/Makefile
index 8e96f6cc2a4a..31322a4275cd 100644
--- a/kernel/locking/Makefile
+++ b/kernel/locking/Makefile
@@ -1,3 +1,6 @@
+# Any varying coverage in these files is non-deterministic
+# and is generally not a function of system call inputs.
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT := n
obj-y += mutex.o semaphore.o rwsem.o percpu-rwsem.o
diff --git a/kernel/rcu/Makefile b/kernel/rcu/Makefile
index 61a16569ffbf..032b2c015beb 100644
--- a/kernel/rcu/Makefile
+++ b/kernel/rcu/Makefile
@@ -1,3 +1,7 @@
+# Any varying coverage in these files is non-deterministic
+# and is generally not a function of system call inputs.
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT := n
+
obj-y += update.o sync.o
obj-$(CONFIG_SRCU) += srcu.o
obj-$(CONFIG_RCU_TORTURE_TEST) += rcutorture.o
diff --git a/kernel/sched/Makefile b/kernel/sched/Makefile
index 302d6ebd64f7..414d9c16da42 100644
--- a/kernel/sched/Makefile
+++ b/kernel/sched/Makefile
@@ -2,6 +2,10 @@ ifdef CONFIG_FUNCTION_TRACER
CFLAGS_REMOVE_clock.o = $(CC_FLAGS_FTRACE)
endif
+# These files are disabled because they produce non-interesting flaky coverage
+# that is not a function of syscall inputs. E.g. involuntary context switches.
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT := n
+
ifneq ($(CONFIG_SCHED_OMIT_FRAME_POINTER),y)
# According to Alan Modra <alan@linuxcare.com.au>, the -fno-omit-frame-pointer is
# needed for x86 only. Why this used to be enabled for all architectures is beyond
diff --git a/lib/Kconfig.debug b/lib/Kconfig.debug
index 5a60f45cd9bb..532d4d52d1df 100644
--- a/lib/Kconfig.debug
+++ b/lib/Kconfig.debug
@@ -696,6 +696,27 @@ source "lib/Kconfig.kasan"
endmenu # "Memory Debugging"
+config ARCH_HAS_KCOV
+ bool
+ help
+ KCOV does not have any arch-specific code, but currently it is enabled
+ only for x86_64. KCOV requires testing on other archs, and most likely
+ disabling of instrumentation for some early boot code.
+
+config KCOV
+ bool "Code coverage for fuzzing"
+ depends on ARCH_HAS_KCOV
+ select DEBUG_FS
+ help
+ KCOV exposes kernel code coverage information in a form suitable
+ for coverage-guided fuzzing (randomized testing).
+
+ If RANDOMIZE_BASE is enabled, PC values will not be stable across
+ different machines and across reboots. If you need stable PC values,
+ disable RANDOMIZE_BASE.
+
+ For more details, see Documentation/kcov.txt.
+
config DEBUG_SHIRQ
bool "Debug shared IRQ handlers"
depends on DEBUG_KERNEL
diff --git a/lib/Makefile b/lib/Makefile
index 4962d14c450f..a1de5b61ff40 100644
--- a/lib/Makefile
+++ b/lib/Makefile
@@ -7,6 +7,18 @@ ORIG_CFLAGS := $(KBUILD_CFLAGS)
KBUILD_CFLAGS = $(subst $(CC_FLAGS_FTRACE),,$(ORIG_CFLAGS))
endif
+# These files are disabled because they produce lots of non-interesting and/or
+# flaky coverage that is not a function of syscall inputs. For example,
+# rbtree can be global and individual rotations don't correlate with inputs.
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT_string.o := n
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT_rbtree.o := n
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT_list_debug.o := n
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT_debugobjects.o := n
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT_dynamic_debug.o := n
+# Kernel does not boot if we instrument this file as it uses custom calling
+# convention (see CONFIG_ARCH_HWEIGHT_CFLAGS).
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT_hweight.o := n
+
lib-y := ctype.o string.o vsprintf.o cmdline.o \
rbtree.o radix-tree.o dump_stack.o timerqueue.o\
idr.o int_sqrt.o extable.o \
diff --git a/mm/Makefile b/mm/Makefile
index 6da300a1414b..f5e797cbd128 100644
--- a/mm/Makefile
+++ b/mm/Makefile
@@ -5,6 +5,21 @@
KASAN_SANITIZE_slab_common.o := n
KASAN_SANITIZE_slub.o := n
+# These files are disabled because they produce non-interesting and/or
+# flaky coverage that is not a function of syscall inputs. E.g. slab is out of
+# free pages, or a task is migrated between nodes.
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT_slab_common.o := n
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT_slob.o := n
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT_slab.o := n
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT_slub.o := n
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT_page_alloc.o := n
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT_debug-pagealloc.o := n
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT_kmemleak.o := n
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT_kmemcheck.o := n
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT_memcontrol.o := n
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT_mmzone.o := n
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT_vmstat.o := n
+
mmu-y := nommu.o
mmu-$(CONFIG_MMU) := gup.o highmem.o memory.o mincore.o \
mlock.o mmap.o mprotect.o mremap.o msync.o rmap.o \
diff --git a/mm/kasan/Makefile b/mm/kasan/Makefile
index a61460d9f5b0..131daadf40e4 100644
--- a/mm/kasan/Makefile
+++ b/mm/kasan/Makefile
@@ -1,5 +1,6 @@
KASAN_SANITIZE := n
UBSAN_SANITIZE_kasan.o := n
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT := n
CFLAGS_REMOVE_kasan.o = -pg
# Function splitter causes unnecessary splits in __asan_load1/__asan_store1
diff --git a/scripts/Makefile.lib b/scripts/Makefile.lib
index ad50d5859ac4..ddf83d0181e7 100644
--- a/scripts/Makefile.lib
+++ b/scripts/Makefile.lib
@@ -136,6 +136,12 @@ _c_flags += $(if $(patsubst n%,, \
$(CFLAGS_UBSAN))
endif
+ifeq ($(CONFIG_KCOV),y)
+_c_flags += $(if $(patsubst n%,, \
+ $(KCOV_INSTRUMENT_$(basetarget).o)$(KCOV_INSTRUMENT)y), \
+ $(CFLAGS_KCOV))
+endif
+
# If building the kernel in a separate objtree expand all occurrences
# of -Idir to -I$(srctree)/dir except for absolute paths (starting with '/').