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-rw-r--r--Documentation/kbuild/00-INDEX8
-rw-r--r--Documentation/kbuild/kconfig-language.txt282
-rw-r--r--Documentation/kbuild/makefiles.txt1122
-rw-r--r--Documentation/kbuild/modules.txt419
4 files changed, 1831 insertions, 0 deletions
diff --git a/Documentation/kbuild/00-INDEX b/Documentation/kbuild/00-INDEX
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..11464428545
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/kbuild/00-INDEX
@@ -0,0 +1,8 @@
+00-INDEX
+ - this file: info on the kernel build process
+kconfig-language.txt
+ - specification of Config Language, the language in Kconfig files
+makefiles.txt
+ - developer information for linux kernel makefiles
+modules.txt
+ - how to build modules and to install them
diff --git a/Documentation/kbuild/kconfig-language.txt b/Documentation/kbuild/kconfig-language.txt
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..ca1967f3642
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/kbuild/kconfig-language.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,282 @@
+Introduction
+------------
+
+The configuration database is collection of configuration options
+organized in a tree structure:
+
+ +- Code maturity level options
+ | +- Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers
+ +- General setup
+ | +- Networking support
+ | +- System V IPC
+ | +- BSD Process Accounting
+ | +- Sysctl support
+ +- Loadable module support
+ | +- Enable loadable module support
+ | +- Set version information on all module symbols
+ | +- Kernel module loader
+ +- ...
+
+Every entry has its own dependencies. These dependencies are used
+to determine the visibility of an entry. Any child entry is only
+visible if its parent entry is also visible.
+
+Menu entries
+------------
+
+Most entries define a config option, all other entries help to organize
+them. A single configuration option is defined like this:
+
+config MODVERSIONS
+ bool "Set version information on all module symbols"
+ depends MODULES
+ help
+ Usually, modules have to be recompiled whenever you switch to a new
+ kernel. ...
+
+Every line starts with a key word and can be followed by multiple
+arguments. "config" starts a new config entry. The following lines
+define attributes for this config option. Attributes can be the type of
+the config option, input prompt, dependencies, help text and default
+values. A config option can be defined multiple times with the same
+name, but every definition can have only a single input prompt and the
+type must not conflict.
+
+Menu attributes
+---------------
+
+A menu entry can have a number of attributes. Not all of them are
+applicable everywhere (see syntax).
+
+- type definition: "bool"/"tristate"/"string"/"hex"/"int"
+ Every config option must have a type. There are only two basic types:
+ tristate and string, the other types are based on these two. The type
+ definition optionally accepts an input prompt, so these two examples
+ are equivalent:
+
+ bool "Networking support"
+ and
+ bool
+ prompt "Networking support"
+
+- input prompt: "prompt" <prompt> ["if" <expr>]
+ Every menu entry can have at most one prompt, which is used to display
+ to the user. Optionally dependencies only for this prompt can be added
+ with "if".
+
+- default value: "default" <expr> ["if" <expr>]
+ A config option can have any number of default values. If multiple
+ default values are visible, only the first defined one is active.
+ Default values are not limited to the menu entry, where they are
+ defined, this means the default can be defined somewhere else or be
+ overridden by an earlier definition.
+ The default value is only assigned to the config symbol if no other
+ value was set by the user (via the input prompt above). If an input
+ prompt is visible the default value is presented to the user and can
+ be overridden by him.
+ Optionally dependencies only for this default value can be added with
+ "if".
+
+- dependencies: "depends on"/"requires" <expr>
+ This defines a dependency for this menu entry. If multiple
+ dependencies are defined they are connected with '&&'. Dependencies
+ are applied to all other options within this menu entry (which also
+ accept an "if" expression), so these two examples are equivalent:
+
+ bool "foo" if BAR
+ default y if BAR
+ and
+ depends on BAR
+ bool "foo"
+ default y
+
+- reverse dependencies: "select" <symbol> ["if" <expr>]
+ While normal dependencies reduce the upper limit of a symbol (see
+ below), reverse dependencies can be used to force a lower limit of
+ another symbol. The value of the current menu symbol is used as the
+ minimal value <symbol> can be set to. If <symbol> is selected multiple
+ times, the limit is set to the largest selection.
+ Reverse dependencies can only be used with boolean or tristate
+ symbols.
+
+- numerical ranges: "range" <symbol> <symbol> ["if" <expr>]
+ This allows to limit the range of possible input values for int
+ and hex symbols. The user can only input a value which is larger than
+ or equal to the first symbol and smaller than or equal to the second
+ symbol.
+
+- help text: "help" or "---help---"
+ This defines a help text. The end of the help text is determined by
+ the indentation level, this means it ends at the first line which has
+ a smaller indentation than the first line of the help text.
+ "---help---" and "help" do not differ in behaviour, "---help---" is
+ used to help visually seperate configuration logic from help within
+ the file as an aid to developers.
+
+
+Menu dependencies
+-----------------
+
+Dependencies define the visibility of a menu entry and can also reduce
+the input range of tristate symbols. The tristate logic used in the
+expressions uses one more state than normal boolean logic to express the
+module state. Dependency expressions have the following syntax:
+
+<expr> ::= <symbol> (1)
+ <symbol> '=' <symbol> (2)
+ <symbol> '!=' <symbol> (3)
+ '(' <expr> ')' (4)
+ '!' <expr> (5)
+ <expr> '&&' <expr> (6)
+ <expr> '||' <expr> (7)
+
+Expressions are listed in decreasing order of precedence.
+
+(1) Convert the symbol into an expression. Boolean and tristate symbols
+ are simply converted into the respective expression values. All
+ other symbol types result in 'n'.
+(2) If the values of both symbols are equal, it returns 'y',
+ otherwise 'n'.
+(3) If the values of both symbols are equal, it returns 'n',
+ otherwise 'y'.
+(4) Returns the value of the expression. Used to override precedence.
+(5) Returns the result of (2-/expr/).
+(6) Returns the result of min(/expr/, /expr/).
+(7) Returns the result of max(/expr/, /expr/).
+
+An expression can have a value of 'n', 'm' or 'y' (or 0, 1, 2
+respectively for calculations). A menu entry becomes visible when it's
+expression evaluates to 'm' or 'y'.
+
+There are two types of symbols: constant and nonconstant symbols.
+Nonconstant symbols are the most common ones and are defined with the
+'config' statement. Nonconstant symbols consist entirely of alphanumeric
+characters or underscores.
+Constant symbols are only part of expressions. Constant symbols are
+always surrounded by single or double quotes. Within the quote any
+other character is allowed and the quotes can be escaped using '\'.
+
+Menu structure
+--------------
+
+The position of a menu entry in the tree is determined in two ways. First
+it can be specified explicitly:
+
+menu "Network device support"
+ depends NET
+
+config NETDEVICES
+ ...
+
+endmenu
+
+All entries within the "menu" ... "endmenu" block become a submenu of
+"Network device support". All subentries inherit the dependencies from
+the menu entry, e.g. this means the dependency "NET" is added to the
+dependency list of the config option NETDEVICES.
+
+The other way to generate the menu structure is done by analyzing the
+dependencies. If a menu entry somehow depends on the previous entry, it
+can be made a submenu of it. First, the previous (parent) symbol must
+be part of the dependency list and then one of these two conditions
+must be true:
+- the child entry must become invisible, if the parent is set to 'n'
+- the child entry must only be visible, if the parent is visible
+
+config MODULES
+ bool "Enable loadable module support"
+
+config MODVERSIONS
+ bool "Set version information on all module symbols"
+ depends MODULES
+
+comment "module support disabled"
+ depends !MODULES
+
+MODVERSIONS directly depends on MODULES, this means it's only visible if
+MODULES is different from 'n'. The comment on the other hand is always
+visible when MODULES is visible (the (empty) dependency of MODULES is
+also part of the comment dependencies).
+
+
+Kconfig syntax
+--------------
+
+The configuration file describes a series of menu entries, where every
+line starts with a keyword (except help texts). The following keywords
+end a menu entry:
+- config
+- menuconfig
+- choice/endchoice
+- comment
+- menu/endmenu
+- if/endif
+- source
+The first five also start the definition of a menu entry.
+
+config:
+
+ "config" <symbol>
+ <config options>
+
+This defines a config symbol <symbol> and accepts any of above
+attributes as options.
+
+menuconfig:
+ "menuconfig" <symbol>
+ <config options>
+
+This is similiar to the simple config entry above, but it also gives a
+hint to front ends, that all suboptions should be displayed as a
+separate list of options.
+
+choices:
+
+ "choice"
+ <choice options>
+ <choice block>
+ "endchoice"
+
+This defines a choice group and accepts any of above attributes as
+options. A choice can only be of type bool or tristate, while a boolean
+choice only allows a single config entry to be selected, a tristate
+choice also allows any number of config entries to be set to 'm'. This
+can be used if multiple drivers for a single hardware exists and only a
+single driver can be compiled/loaded into the kernel, but all drivers
+can be compiled as modules.
+A choice accepts another option "optional", which allows to set the
+choice to 'n' and no entry needs to be selected.
+
+comment:
+
+ "comment" <prompt>
+ <comment options>
+
+This defines a comment which is displayed to the user during the
+configuration process and is also echoed to the output files. The only
+possible options are dependencies.
+
+menu:
+
+ "menu" <prompt>
+ <menu options>
+ <menu block>
+ "endmenu"
+
+This defines a menu block, see "Menu structure" above for more
+information. The only possible options are dependencies.
+
+if:
+
+ "if" <expr>
+ <if block>
+ "endif"
+
+This defines an if block. The dependency expression <expr> is appended
+to all enclosed menu entries.
+
+source:
+
+ "source" <prompt>
+
+This reads the specified configuration file. This file is always parsed.
diff --git a/Documentation/kbuild/makefiles.txt b/Documentation/kbuild/makefiles.txt
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..2616a58a5a4
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/kbuild/makefiles.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,1122 @@
+Linux Kernel Makefiles
+
+This document describes the Linux kernel Makefiles.
+
+=== Table of Contents
+
+ === 1 Overview
+ === 2 Who does what
+ === 3 The kbuild files
+ --- 3.1 Goal definitions
+ --- 3.2 Built-in object goals - obj-y
+ --- 3.3 Loadable module goals - obj-m
+ --- 3.4 Objects which export symbols
+ --- 3.5 Library file goals - lib-y
+ --- 3.6 Descending down in directories
+ --- 3.7 Compilation flags
+ --- 3.8 Command line dependency
+ --- 3.9 Dependency tracking
+ --- 3.10 Special Rules
+
+ === 4 Host Program support
+ --- 4.1 Simple Host Program
+ --- 4.2 Composite Host Programs
+ --- 4.3 Defining shared libraries
+ --- 4.4 Using C++ for host programs
+ --- 4.5 Controlling compiler options for host programs
+ --- 4.6 When host programs are actually built
+ --- 4.7 Using hostprogs-$(CONFIG_FOO)
+
+ === 5 Kbuild clean infrastructure
+
+ === 6 Architecture Makefiles
+ --- 6.1 Set variables to tweak the build to the architecture
+ --- 6.2 Add prerequisites to prepare:
+ --- 6.3 List directories to visit when descending
+ --- 6.4 Architecture specific boot images
+ --- 6.5 Building non-kbuild targets
+ --- 6.6 Commands useful for building a boot image
+ --- 6.7 Custom kbuild commands
+ --- 6.8 Preprocessing linker scripts
+ --- 6.9 $(CC) support functions
+
+ === 7 Kbuild Variables
+ === 8 Makefile language
+ === 9 Credits
+ === 10 TODO
+
+=== 1 Overview
+
+The Makefiles have five parts:
+
+ Makefile the top Makefile.
+ .config the kernel configuration file.
+ arch/$(ARCH)/Makefile the arch Makefile.
+ scripts/Makefile.* common rules etc. for all kbuild Makefiles.
+ kbuild Makefiles there are about 500 of these.
+
+The top Makefile reads the .config file, which comes from the kernel
+configuration process.
+
+The top Makefile is responsible for building two major products: vmlinux
+(the resident kernel image) and modules (any module files).
+It builds these goals by recursively descending into the subdirectories of
+the kernel source tree.
+The list of subdirectories which are visited depends upon the kernel
+configuration. The top Makefile textually includes an arch Makefile
+with the name arch/$(ARCH)/Makefile. The arch Makefile supplies
+architecture-specific information to the top Makefile.
+
+Each subdirectory has a kbuild Makefile which carries out the commands
+passed down from above. The kbuild Makefile uses information from the
+.config file to construct various file lists used by kbuild to build
+any built-in or modular targets.
+
+scripts/Makefile.* contains all the definitions/rules etc. that
+are used to build the kernel based on the kbuild makefiles.
+
+
+=== 2 Who does what
+
+People have four different relationships with the kernel Makefiles.
+
+*Users* are people who build kernels. These people type commands such as
+"make menuconfig" or "make". They usually do not read or edit
+any kernel Makefiles (or any other source files).
+
+*Normal developers* are people who work on features such as device
+drivers, file systems, and network protocols. These people need to
+maintain the kbuild Makefiles for the subsystem that they are
+working on. In order to do this effectively, they need some overall
+knowledge about the kernel Makefiles, plus detailed knowledge about the
+public interface for kbuild.
+
+*Arch developers* are people who work on an entire architecture, such
+as sparc or ia64. Arch developers need to know about the arch Makefile
+as well as kbuild Makefiles.
+
+*Kbuild developers* are people who work on the kernel build system itself.
+These people need to know about all aspects of the kernel Makefiles.
+
+This document is aimed towards normal developers and arch developers.
+
+
+=== 3 The kbuild files
+
+Most Makefiles within the kernel are kbuild Makefiles that use the
+kbuild infrastructure. This chapter introduce the syntax used in the
+kbuild makefiles.
+The preferred name for the kbuild files is 'Kbuild' but 'Makefile' will
+continue to be supported. All new developmen is expected to use the
+Kbuild filename.
+
+Section 3.1 "Goal definitions" is a quick intro, further chapters provide
+more details, with real examples.
+
+--- 3.1 Goal definitions
+
+ Goal definitions are the main part (heart) of the kbuild Makefile.
+ These lines define the files to be built, any special compilation
+ options, and any subdirectories to be entered recursively.
+
+ The most simple kbuild makefile contains one line:
+
+ Example:
+ obj-y += foo.o
+
+ This tell kbuild that there is one object in that directory named
+ foo.o. foo.o will be built from foo.c or foo.S.
+
+ If foo.o shall be built as a module, the variable obj-m is used.
+ Therefore the following pattern is often used:
+
+ Example:
+ obj-$(CONFIG_FOO) += foo.o
+
+ $(CONFIG_FOO) evaluates to either y (for built-in) or m (for module).
+ If CONFIG_FOO is neither y nor m, then the file will not be compiled
+ nor linked.
+
+--- 3.2 Built-in object goals - obj-y
+
+ The kbuild Makefile specifies object files for vmlinux
+ in the lists $(obj-y). These lists depend on the kernel
+ configuration.
+
+ Kbuild compiles all the $(obj-y) files. It then calls
+ "$(LD) -r" to merge these files into one built-in.o file.
+ built-in.o is later linked into vmlinux by the parent Makefile.
+
+ The order of files in $(obj-y) is significant. Duplicates in
+ the lists are allowed: the first instance will be linked into
+ built-in.o and succeeding instances will be ignored.
+
+ Link order is significant, because certain functions
+ (module_init() / __initcall) will be called during boot in the
+ order they appear. So keep in mind that changing the link
+ order may e.g. change the order in which your SCSI
+ controllers are detected, and thus you disks are renumbered.
+
+ Example:
+ #drivers/isdn/i4l/Makefile
+ # Makefile for the kernel ISDN subsystem and device drivers.
+ # Each configuration option enables a list of files.
+ obj-$(CONFIG_ISDN) += isdn.o
+ obj-$(CONFIG_ISDN_PPP_BSDCOMP) += isdn_bsdcomp.o
+
+--- 3.3 Loadable module goals - obj-m
+
+ $(obj-m) specify object files which are built as loadable
+ kernel modules.
+
+ A module may be built from one source file or several source
+ files. In the case of one source file, the kbuild makefile
+ simply adds the file to $(obj-m).
+
+ Example:
+ #drivers/isdn/i4l/Makefile
+ obj-$(CONFIG_ISDN_PPP_BSDCOMP) += isdn_bsdcomp.o
+
+ Note: In this example $(CONFIG_ISDN_PPP_BSDCOMP) evaluates to 'm'
+
+ If a kernel module is built from several source files, you specify
+ that you want to build a module in the same way as above.
+
+ Kbuild needs to know which the parts that you want to build your
+ module from, so you have to tell it by setting an
+ $(<module_name>-objs) variable.
+
+ Example:
+ #drivers/isdn/i4l/Makefile
+ obj-$(CONFIG_ISDN) += isdn.o
+ isdn-objs := isdn_net_lib.o isdn_v110.o isdn_common.o
+
+ In this example, the module name will be isdn.o. Kbuild will
+ compile the objects listed in $(isdn-objs) and then run
+ "$(LD) -r" on the list of these files to generate isdn.o.
+
+ Kbuild recognises objects used for composite objects by the suffix
+ -objs, and the suffix -y. This allows the Makefiles to use
+ the value of a CONFIG_ symbol to determine if an object is part
+ of a composite object.
+
+ Example:
+ #fs/ext2/Makefile
+ obj-$(CONFIG_EXT2_FS) += ext2.o
+ ext2-y := balloc.o bitmap.o
+ ext2-$(CONFIG_EXT2_FS_XATTR) += xattr.o
+
+ In this example xattr.o is only part of the composite object
+ ext2.o, if $(CONFIG_EXT2_FS_XATTR) evaluates to 'y'.
+
+ Note: Of course, when you are building objects into the kernel,
+ the syntax above will also work. So, if you have CONFIG_EXT2_FS=y,
+ kbuild will build an ext2.o file for you out of the individual
+ parts and then link this into built-in.o, as you would expect.
+
+--- 3.4 Objects which export symbols
+
+ No special notation is required in the makefiles for
+ modules exporting symbols.
+
+--- 3.5 Library file goals - lib-y
+
+ Objects listed with obj-* are used for modules or
+ combined in a built-in.o for that specific directory.
+ There is also the possibility to list objects that will
+ be included in a library, lib.a.
+ All objects listed with lib-y are combined in a single
+ library for that directory.
+ Objects that are listed in obj-y and additional listed in
+ lib-y will not be included in the library, since they will anyway
+ be accessible.
+ For consistency objects listed in lib-m will be included in lib.a.
+
+ Note that the same kbuild makefile may list files to be built-in
+ and to be part of a library. Therefore the same directory
+ may contain both a built-in.o and a lib.a file.
+
+ Example:
+ #arch/i386/lib/Makefile
+ lib-y := checksum.o delay.o
+
+ This will create a library lib.a based on checksum.o and delay.o.
+ For kbuild to actually recognize that there is a lib.a being build
+ the directory shall be listed in libs-y.
+ See also "6.3 List directories to visit when descending".
+
+ Usage of lib-y is normally restricted to lib/ and arch/*/lib.
+
+--- 3.6 Descending down in directories
+
+ A Makefile is only responsible for building objects in its own
+ directory. Files in subdirectories should be taken care of by
+ Makefiles in these subdirs. The build system will automatically
+ invoke make recursively in subdirectories, provided you let it know of
+ them.
+
+ To do so obj-y and obj-m are used.
+ ext2 lives in a separate directory, and the Makefile present in fs/
+ tells kbuild to descend down using the following assignment.
+
+ Example:
+ #fs/Makefile
+ obj-$(CONFIG_EXT2_FS) += ext2/
+
+ If CONFIG_EXT2_FS is set to either 'y' (built-in) or 'm' (modular)
+ the corresponding obj- variable will be set, and kbuild will descend
+ down in the ext2 directory.
+ Kbuild only uses this information to decide that it needs to visit
+ the directory, it is the Makefile in the subdirectory that
+ specifies what is modules and what is built-in.
+
+ It is good practice to use a CONFIG_ variable when assigning directory
+ names. This allows kbuild to totally skip the directory if the
+ corresponding CONFIG_ option is neither 'y' nor 'm'.
+
+--- 3.7 Compilation flags
+
+ EXTRA_CFLAGS, EXTRA_AFLAGS, EXTRA_LDFLAGS, EXTRA_ARFLAGS
+
+ All the EXTRA_ variables apply only to the kbuild makefile
+ where they are assigned. The EXTRA_ variables apply to all
+ commands executed in the kbuild makefile.
+
+ $(EXTRA_CFLAGS) specifies options for compiling C files with
+ $(CC).
+
+ Example:
+ # drivers/sound/emu10k1/Makefile
+ EXTRA_CFLAGS += -I$(obj)
+ ifdef DEBUG
+ EXTRA_CFLAGS += -DEMU10K1_DEBUG
+ endif
+
+
+ This variable is necessary because the top Makefile owns the
+ variable $(CFLAGS) and uses it for compilation flags for the
+ entire tree.
+
+ $(EXTRA_AFLAGS) is a similar string for per-directory options
+ when compiling assembly language source.
+
+ Example:
+ #arch/x86_64/kernel/Makefile
+ EXTRA_AFLAGS := -traditional
+
+
+ $(EXTRA_LDFLAGS) and $(EXTRA_ARFLAGS) are similar strings for
+ per-directory options to $(LD) and $(AR).
+
+ Example:
+ #arch/m68k/fpsp040/Makefile
+ EXTRA_LDFLAGS := -x
+
+ CFLAGS_$@, AFLAGS_$@
+
+ CFLAGS_$@ and AFLAGS_$@ only apply to commands in current
+ kbuild makefile.
+
+ $(CFLAGS_$@) specifies per-file options for $(CC). The $@
+ part has a literal value which specifies the file that it is for.
+
+ Example:
+ # drivers/scsi/Makefile
+ CFLAGS_aha152x.o = -DAHA152X_STAT -DAUTOCONF
+ CFLAGS_gdth.o = # -DDEBUG_GDTH=2 -D__SERIAL__ -D__COM2__ \
+ -DGDTH_STATISTICS
+ CFLAGS_seagate.o = -DARBITRATE -DPARITY -DSEAGATE_USE_ASM
+
+ These three lines specify compilation flags for aha152x.o,
+ gdth.o, and seagate.o
+
+ $(AFLAGS_$@) is a similar feature for source files in assembly
+ languages.
+
+ Example:
+ # arch/arm/kernel/Makefile
+ AFLAGS_head-armv.o := -DTEXTADDR=$(TEXTADDR) -traditional
+ AFLAGS_head-armo.o := -DTEXTADDR=$(TEXTADDR) -traditional
+
+--- 3.9 Dependency tracking
+
+ Kbuild tracks dependencies on the following:
+ 1) All prerequisite files (both *.c and *.h)
+ 2) CONFIG_ options used in all prerequisite files
+ 3) Command-line used to compile target
+
+ Thus, if you change an option to $(CC) all affected files will
+ be re-compiled.
+
+--- 3.10 Special Rules
+
+ Special rules are used when the kbuild infrastructure does
+ not provide the required support. A typical example is
+ header files generated during the build process.
+ Another example is the architecture specific Makefiles which
+ needs special rules to prepare boot images etc.
+
+ Special rules are written as normal Make rules.
+ Kbuild is not executing in the directory where the Makefile is
+ located, so all special rules shall provide a relative
+ path to prerequisite files and target files.
+
+ Two variables are used when defining special rules:
+
+ $(src)
+ $(src) is a relative path which points to the directory
+ where the Makefile is located. Always use $(src) when
+ referring to files located in the src tree.
+
+ $(obj)
+ $(obj) is a relative path which points to the directory
+ where the target is saved. Always use $(obj) when
+ referring to generated files.
+
+ Example:
+ #drivers/scsi/Makefile
+ $(obj)/53c8xx_d.h: $(src)/53c7,8xx.scr $(src)/script_asm.pl
+ $(CPP) -DCHIP=810 - < $< | ... $(src)/script_asm.pl
+
+ This is a special rule, following the normal syntax
+ required by make.
+ The target file depends on two prerequisite files. References
+ to the target file are prefixed with $(obj), references
+ to prerequisites are referenced with $(src) (because they are not
+ generated files).
+
+
+=== 4 Host Program support
+
+Kbuild supports building executables on the host for use during the
+compilation stage.
+Two steps are required in order to use a host executable.
+
+The first step is to tell kbuild that a host program exists. This is
+done utilising the variable hostprogs-y.
+
+The second step is to add an explicit dependency to the executable.
+This can be done in two ways. Either add the dependency in a rule,
+or utilise the variable $(always).
+Both possibilities are described in the following.
+
+--- 4.1 Simple Host Program
+
+ In some cases there is a need to compile and run a program on the
+ computer where the build is running.
+ The following line tells kbuild that the program bin2hex shall be
+ built on the build host.
+
+ Example:
+ hostprogs-y := bin2hex
+
+ Kbuild assumes in the above example that bin2hex is made from a single
+ c-source file named bin2hex.c located in the same directory as
+ the Makefile.
+
+--- 4.2 Composite Host Programs
+
+ Host programs can be made up based on composite objects.
+ The syntax used to define composite objects for host programs is
+ similar to the syntax used for kernel objects.
+ $(<executeable>-objs) list all objects used to link the final
+ executable.
+
+ Example:
+ #scripts/lxdialog/Makefile
+ hostprogs-y := lxdialog
+ lxdialog-objs := checklist.o lxdialog.o
+
+ Objects with extension .o are compiled from the corresponding .c
+ files. In the above example checklist.c is compiled to checklist.o
+ and lxdialog.c is compiled to lxdialog.o.
+ Finally the two .o files are linked to the executable, lxdialog.
+ Note: The syntax <executable>-y is not permitted for host-programs.
+
+--- 4.3 Defining shared libraries
+
+ Objects with extension .so are considered shared libraries, and
+ will be compiled as position independent objects.
+ Kbuild provides support for shared libraries, but the usage
+ shall be restricted.
+ In the following example the libkconfig.so shared library is used
+ to link the executable conf.
+
+ Example:
+ #scripts/kconfig/Makefile
+ hostprogs-y := conf
+ conf-objs := conf.o libkconfig.so
+ libkconfig-objs := expr.o type.o
+
+ Shared libraries always require a corresponding -objs line, and
+ in the example above the shared library libkconfig is composed by
+ the two objects expr.o and type.o.
+ expr.o and type.o will be built as position independent code and
+ linked as a shared library libkconfig.so. C++ is not supported for
+ shared libraries.
+
+--- 4.4 Using C++ for host programs
+
+ kbuild offers support for host programs written in C++. This was
+ introduced solely to support kconfig, and is not recommended
+ for general use.
+
+ Example:
+ #scripts/kconfig/Makefile
+ hostprogs-y := qconf
+ qconf-cxxobjs := qconf.o
+
+ In the example above the executable is composed of the C++ file
+ qconf.cc - identified by $(qconf-cxxobjs).
+
+ If qconf is composed by a mixture of .c and .cc files, then an
+ additional line can be used to identify this.
+
+ Example:
+ #scripts/kconfig/Makefile
+ hostprogs-y := qconf
+ qconf-cxxobjs := qconf.o
+ qconf-objs := check.o
+
+--- 4.5 Controlling compiler options for host programs
+
+ When compiling host programs, it is possible to set specific flags.
+ The programs will always be compiled utilising $(HOSTCC) passed
+ the options specified in $(HOSTCFLAGS).
+ To set flags that will take effect for all host programs created
+ in that Makefile use the variable HOST_EXTRACFLAGS.
+
+ Example:
+ #scripts/lxdialog/Makefile
+ HOST_EXTRACFLAGS += -I/usr/include/ncurses
+
+ To set specific flags for a single file the following construction
+ is used:
+
+ Example:
+ #arch/ppc64/boot/Makefile
+ HOSTCFLAGS_piggyback.o := -DKERNELBASE=$(KERNELBASE)
+
+ It is also possible to specify additional options to the linker.
+
+ Example:
+ #scripts/kconfig/Makefile
+ HOSTLOADLIBES_qconf := -L$(QTDIR)/lib
+
+ When linking qconf it will be passed the extra option "-L$(QTDIR)/lib".
+
+--- 4.6 When host programs are actually built
+
+ Kbuild will only build host-programs when they are referenced
+ as a prerequisite.
+ This is possible in two ways:
+
+ (1) List the prerequisite explicitly in a special rule.
+
+ Example:
+ #drivers/pci/Makefile
+ hostprogs-y := gen-devlist
+ $(obj)/devlist.h: $(src)/pci.ids $(obj)/gen-devlist
+ ( cd $(obj); ./gen-devlist ) < $<
+
+ The target $(obj)/devlist.h will not be built before
+ $(obj)/gen-devlist is updated. Note that references to
+ the host programs in special rules must be prefixed with $(obj).
+
+ (2) Use $(always)
+ When there is no suitable special rule, and the host program
+ shall be built when a makefile is entered, the $(always)
+ variable shall be used.
+
+ Example:
+ #scripts/lxdialog/Makefile
+ hostprogs-y := lxdialog
+ always := $(hostprogs-y)
+
+ This will tell kbuild to build lxdialog even if not referenced in
+ any rule.
+
+--- 4.7 Using hostprogs-$(CONFIG_FOO)
+
+ A typcal pattern in a Kbuild file lok like this:
+
+ Example:
+ #scripts/Makefile
+ hostprogs-$(CONFIG_KALLSYMS) += kallsyms
+
+ Kbuild knows about both 'y' for built-in and 'm' for module.
+ So if a config symbol evaluate to 'm', kbuild will still build
+ the binary. In other words Kbuild handle hostprogs-m exactly
+ like hostprogs-y. But only hostprogs-y is recommend used
+ when no CONFIG symbol are involved.
+
+=== 5 Kbuild clean infrastructure
+
+"make clean" deletes most generated files in the src tree where the kernel
+is compiled. This includes generated files such as host programs.
+Kbuild knows targets listed in $(hostprogs-y), $(hostprogs-m), $(always),
+$(extra-y) and $(targets). They are all deleted during "make clean".
+Files matching the patterns "*.[oas]", "*.ko", plus some additional files
+generated by kbuild are deleted all over the kernel src tree when
+"make clean" is executed.
+
+Additional files can be specified in kbuild makefiles by use of $(clean-files).
+
+ Example:
+ #drivers/pci/Makefile
+ clean-files := devlist.h classlist.h
+
+When executing "make clean", the two files "devlist.h classlist.h" will
+be deleted. Kbuild will assume files to be in same relative directory as the
+Makefile except if an absolute path is specified (path starting with '/').
+
+To delete a directory hirachy use:
+ Example:
+ #scripts/package/Makefile
+ clean-dirs := $(objtree)/debian/
+
+This will delete the directory debian, including all subdirectories.
+Kbuild will assume the directories to be in the same relative path as the
+Makefile if no absolute path is specified (path does not start with '/').
+
+Usually kbuild descends down in subdirectories due to "obj-* := dir/",
+but in the architecture makefiles where the kbuild infrastructure
+is not sufficient this sometimes needs to be explicit.
+
+ Example:
+ #arch/i386/boot/Makefile
+ subdir- := compressed/
+
+The above assignment instructs kbuild to descend down in the
+directory compressed/ when "make clean" is executed.
+
+To support the clean infrastructure in the Makefiles that builds the
+final bootimage there is an optional target named archclean:
+
+ Example:
+ #arch/i386/Makefile
+ archclean:
+ $(Q)$(MAKE) $(clean)=arch/i386/boot
+
+When "make clean" is executed, make will descend down in arch/i386/boot,
+and clean as usual. The Makefile located in arch/i386/boot/ may use
+the subdir- trick to descend further down.
+
+Note 1: arch/$(ARCH)/Makefile cannot use "subdir-", because that file is
+included in the top level makefile, and the kbuild infrastructure
+is not operational at that point.
+
+Note 2: All directories listed in core-y, libs-y, drivers-y and net-y will
+be visited during "make clean".
+
+=== 6 Architecture Makefiles
+
+The top level Makefile sets up the environment and does the preparation,
+before starting to descend down in the individual directories.
+The top level makefile contains the generic part, whereas the
+arch/$(ARCH)/Makefile contains what is required to set-up kbuild
+to the said architecture.
+To do so arch/$(ARCH)/Makefile sets a number of variables, and defines
+a few targets.
+
+When kbuild executes the following steps are followed (roughly):
+1) Configuration of the kernel => produced .config
+2) Store kernel version in include/linux/version.h
+3) Symlink include/asm to include/asm-$(ARCH)
+4) Updating all other prerequisites to the target prepare:
+ - Additional prerequisites are specified in arch/$(ARCH)/Makefile
+5) Recursively descend down in all directories listed in
+ init-* core* drivers-* net-* libs-* and build all targets.
+ - The value of the above variables are extended in arch/$(ARCH)/Makefile.
+6) All object files are then linked and the resulting file vmlinux is
+ located at the root of the src tree.
+ The very first objects linked are listed in head-y, assigned by
+ arch/$(ARCH)/Makefile.
+7) Finally the architecture specific part does any required post processing
+ and builds the final bootimage.
+ - This includes building boot records
+ - Preparing initrd images and the like
+
+
+--- 6.1 Set variables to tweak the build to the architecture
+
+ LDFLAGS Generic $(LD) options
+
+ Flags used for all invocations of the linker.
+ Often specifying the emulation is sufficient.
+
+ Example:
+ #arch/s390/Makefile
+ LDFLAGS := -m elf_s390
+ Note: EXTRA_LDFLAGS and LDFLAGS_$@ can be used to further customise
+ the flags used. See chapter 7.
+
+ LDFLAGS_MODULE Options for $(LD) when linking modules
+
+ LDFLAGS_MODULE is used to set specific flags for $(LD) when
+ linking the .ko files used for modules.
+ Default is "-r", for relocatable output.
+
+ LDFLAGS_vmlinux Options for $(LD) when linking vmlinux
+
+ LDFLAGS_vmlinux is used to specify additional flags to pass to
+ the linker when linking the final vmlinux.
+ LDFLAGS_vmlinux uses the LDFLAGS_$@ support.
+
+ Example:
+ #arch/i386/Makefile
+ LDFLAGS_vmlinux := -e stext
+
+ OBJCOPYFLAGS objcopy flags
+
+ When $(call if_changed,objcopy) is used to translate a .o file,
+ then the flags specified in OBJCOPYFLAGS will be used.
+ $(call if_changed,objcopy) is often used to generate raw binaries on
+ vmlinux.
+
+ Example:
+ #arch/s390/Makefile
+ OBJCOPYFLAGS := -O binary
+
+ #arch/s390/boot/Makefile
+ $(obj)/image: vmlinux FORCE
+ $(call if_changed,objcopy)
+
+ In this example the binary $(obj)/image is a binary version of
+ vmlinux. The usage of $(call if_changed,xxx) will be described later.
+
+ AFLAGS $(AS) assembler flags
+
+ Default value - see top level Makefile
+ Append or modify as required per architecture.
+
+ Example:
+ #arch/sparc64/Makefile
+ AFLAGS += -m64 -mcpu=ultrasparc
+
+ CFLAGS $(CC) compiler flags
+
+ Default value - see top level Makefile
+ Append or modify as required per architecture.
+
+ Often the CFLAGS variable depends on the configuration.
+
+ Example:
+ #arch/i386/Makefile
+ cflags-$(CONFIG_M386) += -march=i386
+ CFLAGS += $(cflags-y)
+
+ Many arch Makefiles dynamically run the target C compiler to
+ probe supported options:
+
+ #arch/i386/Makefile
+
+ ...
+ cflags-$(CONFIG_MPENTIUMII) += $(call cc-option,\
+ -march=pentium2,-march=i686)
+ ...
+ # Disable unit-at-a-time mode ...
+ CFLAGS += $(call cc-option,-fno-unit-at-a-time)
+ ...
+
+
+ The first examples utilises the trick that a config option expands
+ to 'y' when selected.
+
+ CFLAGS_KERNEL $(CC) options specific for built-in
+
+ $(CFLAGS_KERNEL) contains extra C compiler flags used to compile
+ resident kernel code.
+
+ CFLAGS_MODULE $(CC) options specific for modules
+
+ $(CFLAGS_MODULE) contains extra C compiler flags used to compile code
+ for loadable kernel modules.
+
+
+--- 6.2 Add prerequisites to prepare:
+
+ The prepare: rule is used to list prerequisites that needs to be
+ built before starting to descend down in the subdirectories.
+ This is usual header files containing assembler constants.
+
+ Example:
+ #arch/s390/Makefile
+ prepare: include/asm-$(ARCH)/offsets.h
+
+ In this example the file include/asm-$(ARCH)/offsets.h will
+ be built before descending down in the subdirectories.
+ See also chapter XXX-TODO that describe how kbuild supports
+ generating offset header files.
+
+
+--- 6.3 List directories to visit when descending
+
+ An arch Makefile cooperates with the top Makefile to define variables
+ which specify how to build the vmlinux file. Note that there is no
+ corresponding arch-specific section for modules; the module-building
+ machinery is all architecture-independent.
+
+
+ head-y, init-y, core-y, libs-y, drivers-y, net-y
+
+ $(head-y) list objects to be linked first in vmlinux.
+ $(libs-y) list directories where a lib.a archive can be located.
+ The rest list directories where a built-in.o object file can be located.
+
+ $(init-y) objects will be located after $(head-y).
+ Then the rest follows in this order:
+ $(core-y), $(libs-y), $(drivers-y) and $(net-y).
+
+ The top level Makefile define values for all generic directories,
+ and arch/$(ARCH)/Makefile only adds architecture specific directories.
+
+ Example:
+ #arch/sparc64/Makefile
+ core-y += arch/sparc64/kernel/
+ libs-y += arch/sparc64/prom/ arch/sparc64/lib/
+ drivers-$(CONFIG_OPROFILE) += arch/sparc64/oprofile/
+
+
+--- 6.4 Architecture specific boot images
+
+ An arch Makefile specifies goals that take the vmlinux file, compress
+ it, wrap it in bootstrapping code, and copy the resulting files
+ somewhere. This includes various kinds of installation commands.
+ The actual goals are not standardized across architectures.
+
+ It is common to locate any additional processing in a boot/
+ directory below arch/$(ARCH)/.
+
+ Kbuild does not provide any smart way to support building a
+ target specified in boot/. Therefore arch/$(ARCH)/Makefile shall
+ call make manually to build a target in boot/.
+
+ The recommended approach is to include shortcuts in
+ arch/$(ARCH)/Makefile, and use the full path when calling down
+ into the arch/$(ARCH)/boot/Makefile.
+
+ Example:
+ #arch/i386/Makefile
+ boot := arch/i386/boot
+ bzImage: vmlinux
+ $(Q)$(MAKE) $(build)=$(boot) $(boot)/$@
+
+ "$(Q)$(MAKE) $(build)=<dir>" is the recommended way to invoke
+ make in a subdirectory.
+
+ There are no rules for naming of the architecture specific targets,
+ but executing "make help" will list all relevant targets.
+ To support this $(archhelp) must be defined.
+
+ Example:
+ #arch/i386/Makefile
+ define archhelp
+ echo '* bzImage - Image (arch/$(ARCH)/boot/bzImage)'
+ endef
+
+ When make is executed without arguments, the first goal encountered
+ will be built. In the top level Makefile the first goal present
+ is all:.
+ An architecture shall always per default build a bootable image.
+ In "make help" the default goal is highlighted with a '*'.
+ Add a new prerequisite to all: to select a default goal different
+ from vmlinux.
+
+ Example:
+ #arch/i386/Makefile
+ all: bzImage
+
+ When "make" is executed without arguments, bzImage will be built.
+
+--- 6.5 Building non-kbuild targets
+
+ extra-y
+
+ extra-y specify additional targets created in the current
+ directory, in addition to any targets specified by obj-*.
+
+ Listing all targets in extra-y is required for two purposes:
+ 1) Enable kbuild to check changes in command lines
+ - When $(call if_changed,xxx) is used
+ 2) kbuild knows what files to delete during "make clean"
+
+ Example:
+ #arch/i386/kernel/Makefile
+ extra-y := head.o init_task.o
+
+ In this example extra-y is used to list object files that
+ shall be built, but shall not be linked as part of built-in.o.
+
+
+--- 6.6 Commands useful for building a boot image
+
+ Kbuild provides a few macros that are useful when building a
+ boot image.
+
+ if_changed
+
+ if_changed is the infrastructure used for the following commands.
+
+ Usage:
+ target: source(s) FORCE
+ $(call if_changed,ld/objcopy/gzip)
+
+ When the rule is evaluated it is checked to see if any files
+ needs an update, or the commandline has changed since last
+ invocation. The latter will force a rebuild if any options
+ to the executable have changed.
+ Any target that utilises if_changed must be listed in $(targets),
+ otherwise the command line check will fail, and the target will
+ always be built.
+ Assignments to $(targets) are without $(obj)/ prefix.
+ if_changed may be used in conjunction with custom commands as
+ defined in 6.7 "Custom kbuild commands".
+ Note: It is a typical mistake to forget the FORCE prerequisite.
+
+ ld
+ Link target. Often LDFLAGS_$@ is used to set specific options to ld.
+
+ objcopy
+ Copy binary. Uses OBJCOPYFLAGS usually specified in
+ arch/$(ARCH)/Makefile.
+ OBJCOPYFLAGS_$@ may be used to set additional options.
+
+ gzip
+ Compress target. Use maximum compression to compress target.
+
+ Example:
+ #arch/i386/boot/Makefile
+ LDFLAGS_bootsect := -Ttext 0x0 -s --oformat binary
+ LDFLAGS_setup := -Ttext 0x0 -s --oformat binary -e begtext
+
+ targets += setup setup.o bootsect bootsect.o
+ $(obj)/setup $(obj)/bootsect: %: %.o FORCE
+ $(call if_changed,ld)
+
+ In this example there are two possible targets, requiring different
+ options to the linker. the linker options are specified using the
+ LDFLAGS_$@ syntax - one for each potential target.
+ $(targets) are assinged all potential targets, herby kbuild knows
+ the targets and will:
+ 1) check for commandline changes
+ 2) delete target during make clean
+
+ The ": %: %.o" part of the prerequisite is a shorthand that
+ free us from listing the setup.o and bootsect.o files.
+ Note: It is a common mistake to forget the "target :=" assignment,
+ resulting in the target file being recompiled for no
+ obvious reason.
+
+
+--- 6.7 Custom kbuild commands
+
+ When kbuild is executing with KBUILD_VERBOSE=0 then only a shorthand
+ of a command is normally displayed.
+ To enable this behaviour for custom commands kbuild requires
+ two variables to be set:
+ quiet_cmd_<command> - what shall be echoed
+ cmd_<command> - the command to execute
+
+ Example:
+ #
+ quiet_cmd_image = BUILD $@
+ cmd_image = $(obj)/tools/build $(BUILDFLAGS) \
+ $(obj)/vmlinux.bin > $@
+
+ targets += bzImage
+ $(obj)/bzImage: $(obj)/vmlinux.bin $(obj)/tools/build FORCE
+ $(call if_changed,image)
+ @echo 'Kernel: $@ is ready'
+
+ When updating the $(obj)/bzImage target the line:
+
+ BUILD arch/i386/boot/bzImage
+
+ will be displayed with "make KBUILD_VERBOSE=0".
+
+
+--- 6.8 Preprocessing linker scripts
+
+ When the vmlinux image is build the linker script:
+ arch/$(ARCH)/kernel/vmlinux.lds is used.
+ The script is a preprocessed variant of the file vmlinux.lds.S
+ located in the same directory.
+ kbuild knows .lds file and includes a rule *lds.S -> *lds.
+
+ Example:
+ #arch/i386/kernel/Makefile
+ always := vmlinux.lds
+
+ #Makefile
+ export CPPFLAGS_vmlinux.lds += -P -C -U$(ARCH)
+
+ The assigment to $(always) is used to tell kbuild to build the
+ target: vmlinux.lds.
+ The assignment to $(CPPFLAGS_vmlinux.lds) tell kbuild to use the
+ specified options when building the target vmlinux.lds.
+
+ When building the *.lds target kbuild used the variakles:
+ CPPFLAGS : Set in top-level Makefile
+ EXTRA_CPPFLAGS : May be set in the kbuild makefile
+ CPPFLAGS_$(@F) : Target specific flags.
+ Note that the full filename is used in this
+ assignment.
+
+ The kbuild infrastructure for *lds file are used in several
+ architecture specific files.
+
+
+--- 6.9 $(CC) support functions
+
+ The kernel may be build with several different versions of
+ $(CC), each supporting a unique set of features and options.
+ kbuild provide basic support to check for valid options for $(CC).
+ $(CC) is useally the gcc compiler, but other alternatives are
+ available.
+
+ cc-option
+ cc-option is used to check if $(CC) support a given option, and not
+ supported to use an optional second option.
+
+ Example:
+ #arch/i386/Makefile
+ cflags-y += $(call cc-option,-march=pentium-mmx,-march=i586)
+
+ In the above example cflags-y will be assigned the option
+ -march=pentium-mmx if supported by $(CC), otherwise -march-i586.
+ The second argument to cc-option is optional, and if omitted
+ cflags-y will be assigned no value if first option is not supported.
+
+ cc-option-yn
+ cc-option-yn is used to check if gcc supports a given option
+ and return 'y' if supported, otherwise 'n'.
+
+ Example:
+ #arch/ppc/Makefile
+ biarch := $(call cc-option-yn, -m32)
+ aflags-$(biarch) += -a32
+ cflags-$(biarch) += -m32
+
+ In the above example $(biarch) is set to y if $(CC) supports the -m32
+ option. When $(biarch) equals to y the expanded variables $(aflags-y)
+ and $(cflags-y) will be assigned the values -a32 and -m32.
+
+ cc-option-align
+ gcc version >= 3.0 shifted type of options used to speify
+ alignment of functions, loops etc. $(cc-option-align) whrn used
+ as prefix to the align options will select the right prefix:
+ gcc < 3.00
+ cc-option-align = -malign
+ gcc >= 3.00
+ cc-option-align = -falign
+
+ Example:
+ CFLAGS += $(cc-option-align)-functions=4
+
+ In the above example the option -falign-functions=4 is used for
+ gcc >= 3.00. For gcc < 3.00 -malign-functions=4 is used.
+
+ cc-version
+ cc-version return a numerical version of the $(CC) compiler version.
+ The format is <major><minor> where both are two digits. So for example
+ gcc 3.41 would return 0341.
+ cc-version is useful when a specific $(CC) version is faulty in one
+ area, for example the -mregparm=3 were broken in some gcc version
+ even though the option was accepted by gcc.
+
+ Example:
+ #arch/i386/Makefile
+ GCC_VERSION := $(call cc-version)
+ cflags-y += $(shell \
+ if [ $(GCC_VERSION) -ge 0300 ] ; then echo "-mregparm=3"; fi ;)
+
+ In the above example -mregparm=3 is only used for gcc version greater
+ than or equal to gcc 3.0.
+
+
+=== 7 Kbuild Variables
+
+The top Makefile exports the following variables:
+
+ VERSION, PATCHLEVEL, SUBLEVEL, EXTRAVERSION
+
+ These variables define the current kernel version. A few arch
+ Makefiles actually use these values directly; they should use
+ $(KERNELRELEASE) instead.
+
+ $(VERSION), $(PATCHLEVEL), and $(SUBLEVEL) define the basic
+ three-part version number, such as "2", "4", and "0". These three
+ values are always numeric.
+
+ $(EXTRAVERSION) defines an even tinier sublevel for pre-patches
+ or additional patches. It is usually some non-numeric string
+ such as "-pre4", and is often blank.
+
+ KERNELRELEASE
+
+ $(KERNELRELEASE) is a single string such as "2.4.0-pre4", suitable
+ for constructing installation directory names or showing in
+ version strings. Some arch Makefiles use it for this purpose.
+
+ ARCH
+
+ This variable defines the target architecture, such as "i386",
+ "arm", or "sparc". Some kbuild Makefiles test $(ARCH) to
+ determine which files to compile.
+
+ By default, the top Makefile sets $(ARCH) to be the same as the
+ host system architecture. For a cross build, a user may
+ override the value of $(ARCH) on the command line:
+
+ make ARCH=m68k ...
+
+
+ INSTALL_PATH
+
+ This variable defines a place for the arch Makefiles to install
+ the resident kernel image and System.map file.
+ Use this for architecture specific install targets.
+
+ INSTALL_MOD_PATH, MODLIB
+
+ $(INSTALL_MOD_PATH) specifies a prefix to $(MODLIB) for module
+ installation. This variable is not defined in the Makefile but
+ may be passed in by the user if desired.
+
+ $(MODLIB) specifies the directory for module installation.
+ The top Makefile defines $(MODLIB) to
+ $(INSTALL_MOD_PATH)/lib/modules/$(KERNELRELEASE). The user may
+ override this value on the command line if desired.
+
+=== 8 Makefile language
+
+The kernel Makefiles are designed to run with GNU Make. The Makefiles
+use only the documented features of GNU Make, but they do use many
+GNU extensions.
+
+GNU Make supports elementary list-processing functions. The kernel
+Makefiles use a novel style of list building and manipulation with few
+"if" statements.
+
+GNU Make has two assignment operators, ":=" and "=". ":=" performs
+immediate evaluation of the right-hand side and stores an actual string
+into the left-hand side. "=" is like a formula definition; it stores the
+right-hand side in an unevaluated form and then evaluates this form each
+time the left-hand side is used.
+
+There are some cases where "=" is appropriate. Usually, though, ":="
+is the right choice.
+
+=== 9 Credits
+
+Original version made by Michael Elizabeth Chastain, <mailto:mec@shout.net>
+Updates by Kai Germaschewski <kai@tp1.ruhr-uni-bochum.de>
+Updates by Sam Ravnborg <sam@ravnborg.org>
+
+=== 10 TODO
+
+- Describe how kbuild support shipped files with _shipped.
+- Generating offset header files.
+- Add more variables to section 7?
+
diff --git a/Documentation/kbuild/modules.txt b/Documentation/kbuild/modules.txt
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..c91caf7eb30
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/kbuild/modules.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,419 @@
+
+In this document you will find information about:
+- how to build external modules
+- how to make your module use kbuild infrastructure
+- how kbuild will install a kernel
+- how to install modules in a non-standard location
+
+=== Table of Contents
+
+ === 1 Introduction
+ === 2 How to build external modules
+ --- 2.1 Building external modules
+ --- 2.2 Available targets
+ --- 2.3 Available options
+ --- 2.4 Preparing the kernel tree for module build
+ === 3. Example commands
+ === 4. Creating a kbuild file for an external module
+ === 5. Include files
+ --- 5.1 How to include files from the kernel include dir
+ --- 5.2 External modules using an include/ dir
+ === 6. Module installation
+ --- 6.1 INSTALL_MOD_PATH
+ --- 6.2 INSTALL_MOD_DIR
+ === 7. Module versioning
+ === 8. Tips & Tricks
+ --- 8.1 Testing for CONFIG_FOO_BAR
+
+
+
+=== 1. Introduction
+
+kbuild includes functionality for building modules both
+within the kernel source tree and outside the kernel source tree.
+The latter is usually referred to as external modules and is used
+both during development and for modules that are not planned to be
+included in the kernel tree.
+
+What is covered within this file is mainly information to authors
+of modules. The author of an external modules should supply
+a makefile that hides most of the complexity so one only has to type
+'make' to buld the module. A complete example will be present in
+chapter . Creating a kbuild file for an external module".
+
+
+=== 2. How to build external modules
+
+kbuild offers functionality to build external modules, with the
+prerequisite that there is a pre-built kernel available with full source.
+A subset of the targets available when building the kernel is available
+when building an external module.
+
+--- 2.1 Building external modules
+
+ Use the following command to build an external module:
+
+ make -C <path-to-kernel> M=`pwd`
+
+ For the running kernel use:
+ make -C /lib/modules/`uname -r`/build M=`pwd`
+
+ For the above command to succeed the kernel must have been built with
+ modules enabled.
+
+ To install the modules that were just built:
+
+ make -C <path-to-kernel> M=`pwd` modules_install
+
+ More complex examples later, the above should get you going.
+
+--- 2.2 Available targets
+
+ $KDIR refers to path to kernel source top-level directory
+
+ make -C $KDIR M=`pwd`
+ Will build the module(s) located in current directory.
+ All output files will be located in the same directory
+ as the module source.
+ No attempts are made to update the kernel source, and it is
+ a precondition that a successful make has been executed
+ for the kernel.
+
+ make -C $KDIR M=`pwd` modules
+ The modules target is implied when no target is given.
+ Same functionality as if no target was specified.
+ See description above.
+
+ make -C $KDIR M=$PWD modules_install
+ Install the external module(s).
+ Installation default is in /lib/modules/<kernel-version>/extra,
+ but may be prefixed with INSTALL_MOD_PATH - see separate chater.
+
+ make -C $KDIR M=$PWD clean
+ Remove all generated files for the module - the kernel
+ source directory is not moddified.
+
+ make -C $KDIR M=`pwd` help
+ help will list the available target when building external
+ modules.
+
+--- 2.3 Available options:
+
+ $KDIR refer to path to kernel src
+
+ make -C $KDIR
+ Used to specify where to find the kernel source.
+ '$KDIR' represent the directory where the kernel source is.
+ Make will actually change directory to the specified directory
+ when executed but change back when finished.
+
+ make -C $KDIR M=`pwd`
+ M= is used to tell kbuild that an external module is
+ being built.
+ The option given to M= is the directory where the external
+ module (kbuild file) is located.
+ When an external module is being built only a subset of the
+ usual targets are available.
+
+ make -C $KDIR SUBDIRS=`pwd`
+ Same as M=. The SUBDIRS= syntax is kept for backwards
+ compatibility.
+
+--- 2.4 Preparing the kernel tree for module build
+
+ To make sure the kernel contains the information required to
+ build external modules the target 'modules_prepare' must be used.
+ 'module_prepare' solely exists as a simple way to prepare
+ a kernel for building external modules.
+ Note: modules_prepare will not build Module.symvers even if
+ CONFIG_MODULEVERSIONING is set.
+ Therefore a full kernel build needs to be executed to make
+ module versioning work.
+
+
+=== 3. Example commands
+
+This example shows the actual commands to be executed when building
+an external module for the currently running kernel.
+In the example below the distribution is supposed to use the
+facility to locate output files for a kernel compile in a different
+directory than the kernel source - but the examples will also work
+when the source and the output files are mixed in the same directory.
+
+# Kernel source
+/lib/modules/<kernel-version>/source -> /usr/src/linux-<version>
+
+# Output from kernel compile
+/lib/modules/<kernel-version>/build -> /usr/src/linux-<version>-up
+
+Change to the directory where the kbuild file is located and execute
+the following commands to build the module:
+
+ cd /home/user/src/module
+ make -C /usr/src/`uname -r`/source \
+ O=/lib/modules/`uname-r`/build \
+ M=`pwd`
+
+Then to install the module use the following command:
+
+ make -C /usr/src/`uname -r`/source \
+ O=/lib/modules/`uname-r`/build \
+ M=`pwd` \
+ modules_install
+
+If one looks closely you will see that this is the same commands as
+listed before - with the directories spelled out.
+
+The above are rather long commands, and the following chapter
+lists a few tricks to make it all easier.
+
+
+=== 4. Creating a kbuild file for an external module
+
+kbuild is the build system for the kernel, and external modules
+must use kbuild to stay compatible with changes in the build system
+and to pick up the right flags to gcc etc.
+
+The kbuild file used as input shall follow the syntax described
+in Documentation/kbuild/makefiles.txt. This chapter will introduce a few
+more tricks to be used when dealing with external modules.
+
+In the following a Makefile will be created for a module with the
+following files:
+ 8123_if.c
+ 8123_if.h
+ 8123_pci.c
+ 8123_bin.o_shipped <= Binary blob
+
+--- 4.1 Shared Makefile for module and kernel
+
+ An external module always includes a wrapper Makefile supporting
+ building the module using 'make' with no arguments.
+ The Makefile provided will most likely include additional
+ functionality such as test targets etc. and this part shall
+ be filtered away from kbuild since it may impact kbuild if
+ name clashes occurs.
+
+ Example 1:
+ --> filename: Makefile
+ ifneq ($(KERNELRELEASE),)
+ # kbuild part of makefile
+ obj-m := 8123.o
+ 8123-y := 8123_if.o 8123_pci.o 8123_bin.o
+
+ else
+ # Normal Makefile
+
+ KERNELDIR := /lib/modules/`uname -r`/build
+ all::
+ $(MAKE) -C $KERNELDIR M=`pwd` $@
+
+ # Module specific targets
+ genbin:
+ echo "X" > 8123_bini.o_shipped
+
+ endif
+
+ In example 1 the check for KERNELRELEASE is used to separate
+ the two parts of the Makefile. kbuild will only see the two
+ assignments whereas make will see everything except the two
+ kbuild assignments.
+
+ In recent versions of the kernel, kbuild will look for a file named
+ Kbuild and as second option look for a file named Makefile.
+ Utilising the Kbuild file makes us split up the Makefile in example 1
+ into two files as shown in example 2:
+
+ Example 2:
+ --> filename: Kbuild
+ obj-m := 8123.o
+ 8123-y := 8123_if.o 8123_pci.o 8123_bin.o
+
+ --> filename: Makefile
+ KERNELDIR := /lib/modules/`uname -r`/build
+ all::
+ $(MAKE) -C $KERNELDIR M=`pwd` $@
+
+ # Module specific targets
+ genbin:
+ echo "X" > 8123_bin_shipped
+
+
+ In example 2 we are down to two fairly simple files and for simple
+ files as used in this example the split is questionable. But some
+ external modules use Makefiles of several hundred lines and here it
+ really pays off to separate the kbuild part from the rest.
+ Example 3 shows a backward compatible version.
+
+ Example 3:
+ --> filename: Kbuild
+ obj-m := 8123.o
+ 8123-y := 8123_if.o 8123_pci.o 8123_bin.o
+
+ --> filename: Makefile
+ ifneq ($(KERNELRELEASE),)
+ include Kbuild
+ else
+ # Normal Makefile
+
+ KERNELDIR := /lib/modules/`uname -r`/build
+ all::
+ $(MAKE) -C $KERNELDIR M=`pwd` $@
+
+ # Module specific targets
+ genbin:
+ echo "X" > 8123_bin_shipped
+
+ endif
+
+ The trick here is to include the Kbuild file from Makefile so
+ if an older version of kbuild picks up the Makefile the Kbuild
+ file will be included.
+
+--- 4.2 Binary blobs included in a module
+
+ Some external modules needs to include a .o as a blob. kbuild
+ has support for this, but requires the blob file to be named
+ <filename>_shipped. In our example the blob is named
+ 8123_bin.o_shipped and when the kbuild rules kick in the file
+ 8123_bin.o is created as a simple copy off the 8213_bin.o_shipped file
+ with the _shipped part stripped of the filename.
+ This allows the 8123_bin.o filename to be used in the assignment to
+ the module.
+
+ Example 4:
+ obj-m := 8123.o
+ 8123-y := 8123_if.o 8123_pci.o 8123_bin.o
+
+ In example 4 there is no distinction between the ordinary .c/.h files
+ and the binary file. But kbuild will pick up different rules to create
+ the .o file.
+
+
+=== 5. Include files
+
+Include files are a necessity when a .c file uses something from another .c
+files (not strictly in the sense of .c but if good programming practice is
+used). Any module that consist of more than one .c file will have a .h file
+for one of the .c files.
+- If the .h file only describes a module internal interface then the .h file
+ shall be placed in the same directory as the .c files.
+- If the .h files describe an interface used by other parts of the kernel
+ located in different directories, the .h files shall be located in
+ include/linux/ or other include/ directories as appropriate.
+
+One exception for this rule is larger subsystems that have their own directory
+under include/ such as include/scsi. Another exception is arch-specific
+.h files which are located under include/asm-$(ARCH)/*.
+
+External modules have a tendency to locate include files in a separate include/
+directory and therefore needs to deal with this in their kbuild file.
+
+--- 5.1 How to include files from the kernel include dir
+
+ When a module needs to include a file from include/linux/ then one
+ just uses:
+
+ #include <linux/modules.h>
+
+ kbuild will make sure to add options to gcc so the relevant
+ directories are searched.
+ Likewise for .h files placed in the same directory as the .c file.
+
+ #include "8123_if.h"
+
+ will do the job.
+
+--- 5.2 External modules using an include/ dir
+
+ External modules often locate their .h files in a separate include/
+ directory although this is not usual kernel style. When an external
+ module uses an include/ dir then kbuild needs to be told so.
+ The trick here is to use either EXTRA_CFLAGS (take effect for all .c
+ files) or CFLAGS_$F.o (take effect only for a single file).
+
+ In our example if we move 8123_if.h to a subdirectory named include/
+ the resulting Kbuild file would look like:
+
+ --> filename: Kbuild
+ obj-m := 8123.o
+
+ EXTRA_CFLAGS := -Iinclude
+ 8123-y := 8123_if.o 8123_pci.o 8123_bin.o
+
+ Note that in the assingment there is no space between -I and the path.
+ This is a kbuild limitation and no space must be present.
+
+
+=== 6. Module installation
+
+Modules which are included in the kernel is installed in the directory:
+
+ /lib/modules/$(KERNELRELEASE)/kernel
+
+External modules are installed in the directory:
+
+ /lib/modules/$(KERNELRELEASE)/extra
+
+--- 6.1 INSTALL_MOD_PATH
+
+ Above are the default directories, but as always some level of
+ customization is possible. One can prefix the path using the variable
+ INSTALL_MOD_PATH:
+
+ $ make INSTALL_MOD_PATH=/frodo modules_install
+ => Install dir: /frodo/lib/modules/$(KERNELRELEASE)/kernel
+
+ INSTALL_MOD_PATH may be set as an ordinary shell variable or as in the
+ example above be specified on the commandline when calling make.
+ INSTALL_MOD_PATH has effect both when installing modules included in
+ the kernel as well as when installing external modules.
+
+--- 6.2 INSTALL_MOD_DIR
+
+ When installing external modules they are default installed in a
+ directory under /lib/modules/$(KERNELRELEASE)/extra, but one may wish
+ to locate modules for a specific functionality in a separate
+ directory. For this purpose one can use INSTALL_MOD_DIR to specify an
+ alternative name than 'extra'.
+
+ $ make INSTALL_MOD_DIR=gandalf -C KERNELDIR \
+ M=`pwd` modules_install
+ => Install dir: /lib/modules/$(KERNELRELEASE)/gandalf
+
+
+=== 7. Module versioning
+
+Module versioning are enabled by the CONFIG_MODVERSIONS tag.
+
+Module versioning is used as a simple ABI consistency check. The Module
+versioning creates a CRC value of the full prototype for an exported symbol and
+when a module is loaded/used then the CRC values contained in the kernel are
+compared with similar values in the module. If they are not equal then the
+kernel refuses to load the module.
+
+During a kernel build a file named Module.symvers will be generated. This
+file includes the symbol version of all symbols within the kernel. If the
+Module.symvers file is saved from the last full kernel compile one does not
+have to do a full kernel compile to build a module version's compatible module.
+
+=== 8. Tips & Tricks
+
+--- 8.1 Testing for CONFIG_FOO_BAR
+
+ Modules often needs to check for certain CONFIG_ options to decide if
+ a specific feature shall be included in the module. When kbuild is used
+ this is done by referencing the CONFIG_ variable directly.
+
+ #fs/ext2/Makefile
+ obj-$(CONFIG_EXT2_FS) += ext2.o
+
+ ext2-y := balloc.o bitmap.o dir.o
+ ext2-$(CONFIG_EXT2_FS_XATTR) += xattr.o
+
+ External modules have traditionally used grep to check for specific
+ CONFIG_ settings directly in .config. This usage is broken.
+ As introduced before external modules shall use kbuild when building
+ and therefore can use the same methods as in-kernel modules when testing
+ for CONFIG_ definitions.
+