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+$Id: README.aztcd,v 2.60 1997/11/29 09:51:25 root Exp root $
+ Readme-File Documentation/cdrom/aztcd
+ for
+ CD-ROM Drives
+ Version 2.6 and newer
+ (for other drives see 6.-8.)
+ A PROPRIETARY INTERFACE (implemented on a sound card or on an
+ ISA-AT-bus card).
+ such as the Aztech CDA269-031SE !!! (The only known exceptions are
+ 'faked' IDE drives like the CyCDROM CR520ie which work with aztcd
+ under certain conditions, see 7.). IF YOU'RE USING A CD-ROM DRIVE
+Contents of this file:
+ 1. NOTE
+ APPENDIX: Source code of cdplay.c
+1. NOTE
+This software has been successfully in alpha and beta test and is part of
+the standard kernel since kernel 1.1.8x since December 1994. It works with
+(Nr.99 31 23 -series 04) and has proven to be stable with kernel
+versions 1.0.9 and newer. But with any software there still may be bugs in it.
+So if you encounter problems, you are invited to help us improve this software.
+Please send me a detailed bug report (see chapter BUG REPORTS). You are also
+invited in helping us to increase the number of drives, which are supported.
+Please read the README-files carefully and always keep a backup copy of your
+old kernel, in order to reboot if something goes wrong!
+The driver consists of a header file 'aztcd.h', which normally should reside
+in /usr/src/linux/drivers/cdrom and the source code 'aztcd.c', which normally
+resides in the same place. It uses /dev/aztcd (/dev/aztcd0 in some distri-
+butions), which must be a valid block device with major number 29 and reside
+in directory /dev. To mount a CD-ROM, your kernel needs to have the ISO9660-
+filesystem support included.
+PLEASE NOTE: aztcd.c has been developed in parallel to the linux kernel,
+which had and is having many major and minor changes which are not backward
+compatible. Quite definitely aztcd.c version 1.80 and newer will NOT work
+in kernels older than 1.3.33. So please always use the most recent version
+of aztcd.c with the appropriate linux-kernel.
+If your kernel is already configured for using the AZTECH driver you will
+see the following message while Linux boots:
+ Aztech CD-ROM Init: DriverVersion=<version number> BaseAddress=<baseaddress>
+ Aztech CD-ROM Init: FirmwareVersion=<firmware version id of your I/O-card>>>
+ Aztech CD-ROM Init: <drive type> detected
+ Aztech CD-ROM Init: End
+If the message looks different and you are sure to have a supported drive,
+it may have a different base address. The Aztech driver does look for the
+CD-ROM drive at the base address specified in aztcd.h at compile time. This
+address can be overwritten by boot parameter aztcd=....You should reboot and
+start Linux with boot parameter aztcd=<base address>, e.g. aztcd=0x320. If
+you do not know the base address, start your PC with DOS and look at the boot
+message of your CD-ROM's DOS driver. If that still does not help, use boot
+parameter aztcd=<base address>,0x79 , this tells aztcd to try a little harder.
+aztcd may be configured to use autoprobing the base address by recompiling
+it (see chapter 4.).
+If the message looks correct, as user 'root' you should be able to mount the
+drive by
+ mount -t iso9660 -r /dev/aztcd0 /mnt
+and use it as any other filesystem. (If this does not work, check if
+/dev/aztcd0 and /mnt do exist and create them, if necessary by doing
+ mknod /dev/aztcd0 b 29 0
+ mkdir /mnt
+If you still get a different message while Linux boots or when you get the
+message, that the ISO9660-filesystem is not supported by your kernel, when
+you try to mount the CD-ROM drive, you have to recompile your kernel.
+If you do *not* have an Aztech/Orchid/Okano/Wearnes/TXC drive and want to
+bypass drive detection during Linux boot up, start with boot parameter aztcd=0.
+Most distributions nowadays do contain a boot disk image containing aztcd.
+Please note, that this driver will not work with IDE/ATAPI drives! With these
+you must use ide-cd.c instead.
+If your kernel is not yet configured for the AZTECH driver and the ISO9660-
+filesystem, you have to recompile your kernel:
+- Edit aztcd.h to set the I/O-address to your I/O-Base address (AZT_BASE_ADDR),
+ the driver does not use interrupts or DMA, so if you are using an AZTECH
+ CD268, an ORCHID CD-3110 or ORCHID/WEARNES CDD110 that's the only item you
+ have to set up. If you have a soundcard, read chapter 4.2.
+ Users of other drives should read chapter OTHER DRIVES of this file.
+ You also can configure that address by kernel boot parameter aztcd=...
+- aztcd may be configured to use autoprobing the base address by setting
+ AZT_BASE_ADDR to '-1'. In that case aztcd probes the addresses listed
+ under AZT_BASE_AUTO. But please remember, that autoprobing always may
+ incorrectly influence other hardware components too!
+- There are some other points, which may be configured, e.g. auto-eject the
+ CD when unmounting a drive, tray locking etc., see aztcd.h for details.
+- If you're using a linux kernel version prior to 2.1.0, in aztcd.h
+ uncomment the line '#define AZT_KERNEL_PRIOR_2_1'
+- Build a new kernel, configure it for 'Aztech/Orchid/Okano/Wearnes support'
+ (if you want aztcd to be part of the kernel). Do not configure it for
+ 'Aztech... support', if you want to use aztcd as a run time loadable module.
+ But in any case you must have the ISO9660-filesystem included in your
+ kernel.
+- Activate the new kernel, normally this is done by running LILO (don't for-
+ get to configure it before and to keep a copy of your old kernel in case
+ something goes wrong!).
+- Reboot
+- If you've included aztcd in your kernel, you now should see during boot
+ some messages like
+ Aztech CD-ROM Init: DriverVersion=<version number> BaseAddress=<baseaddress>
+ Aztech CD-ROM Init: FirmwareVersion=<firmware version id of your I/O-card>
+ Aztech CD-ROM Init: <drive type> detected
+ Aztech CD-ROM Init: End
+- If you have not included aztcd in your kernel, but want to load aztcd as a
+ run time loadable module see 4.1.
+- If the message looks correct, as user 'root' you should be able to mount
+ the drive by
+ mount -t iso9660 -r /dev/aztcd0 /mnt
+ and use it as any other filesystem. (If this does not work, check if
+ /dev/aztcd0 and /mnt do exist and create them, if necessary by doing
+ mknod /dev/aztcd0 b 29 0
+ mkdir /mnt
+- If this still does not help, see chapters OTHER DRIVES and DEBUGGING.
+If you do not need aztcd permanently, you can also load and remove the driver
+during runtime via insmod and rmmod. To build aztcd as a loadable module you
+must configure your kernel for AZTECH module support (answer 'm' when con-
+figuring the kernel). Anyhow, you may run into problems, if the version of
+your boot kernel is not the same than the source kernel version, from which
+you create the modules. So rebuild your kernel, if necessary.
+Now edit the base address of your AZTECH interface card in
+/usr/src/linux/drivers/cdrom/aztcd.h to the appropriate value.
+aztcd may be configured to use autoprobing the base address by setting
+AZT_BASE_ADDR to '-1'. In that case aztcd probes the addresses listed
+under AZT_BASE_AUTO. But please remember, that autoprobing always may
+incorrectly influence other hardware components too!
+There are also some special features which may be configured, e.g.
+auto-eject a CD when unmounting the drive etc; see aztcd.h for details.
+Then change to /usr/src/linux and do a
+ make modules
+ make modules_install
+After that you can run-time load the driver via
+ insmod /lib/modules/X.X.X/misc/aztcd.o
+and remove it via rmmod aztcd.
+If you did not set the correct base address in aztcd.h, you can also supply the
+base address when loading the driver via
+ insmod /lib/modules/X.X.X/misc/aztcd.o aztcd=<base address>
+Again specifying aztcd=-1 will cause autoprobing.
+If you do not have the iso9660-filesystem in your boot kernel, you also have
+to load it before you can mount the CDROM:
+ insmod /lib/modules/X.X.X/fs/isofs.o
+The mount procedure works as described in 4. above.
+(In all commands 'X.X.X' is the current linux kernel version number)
+Most soundcards do have a bus interface to the CDROM-drive. In many cases
+this soundcard needs to be configured, before the CDROM can be used. This
+configuration procedure consists of writing some kind of initialization
+data to the soundcard registers. The AZTECH-CDROM driver in the moment does
+only support one type of soundcard (SoundWave32). Users of other soundcards
+should try to boot DOS first and let their DOS drivers initialize the
+soundcard and CDROM, then warm boot (or use loadlin) their PC to start
+Support for the CDROM-interface of SoundWave32-soundcards is directly
+implemented in the AZTECH driver. Please edit linux/drivers/cdrom/aztdc.h,
+uncomment line '#define AZT_SW32' and set the appropriate value for
+AZT_BASE_ADDR and AZT_SW32_BASE_ADDR. This support was tested with an Orchid
+CDS-3110 connected to a SoundWave32.
+If you want your soundcard to be supported, find out, how it needs to be
+configured and mail me (see 6.) the appropriate information.
+Multisession support for CD's still is a myth. I implemented and tested a basic
+support for multisession and XA CDs, but I still have not enough CDs and appli-
+cations to test it rigorously. So if you'd like to help me, please contact me
+(Email address see below). As of version 1.4 and newer you can enable the
+multisession support in aztcd.h by setting AZT_MULTISESSION to 1. Doing so
+will cause the ISO9660-filesystem to deal with multisession CDs, ie. redirect
+requests to the Table of Contents (TOC) information from the last session,
+which contains the info of all previous sessions etc.. If you do set
+AZT_MULTISESSION to 0, you can use multisession CDs anyway. In that case the
+drive's firmware will do automatic redirection. For the ISO9660-filesystem any
+multisession CD will then look like a 'normal' single session CD. But never-
+theless the data of all sessions are viewable and accessible. So with practical-
+ly all real world applications you won't notice the difference. But as future
+applications may make use of advanced multisession features, I've started to
+implement the interface for the ISO9660 multisession interface via ioctl
+The drive status recognition does not work correctly in all cases. Changing
+a disk or having the door open, when a drive is already mounted, is detected
+by the Aztech driver itself, but nevertheless causes multiple read attempts
+by the different layers of the ISO9660-filesystem driver, which finally timeout,
+so you have to wait quite a little... But isn't it bad style to change a disk
+in a mounted drive, anyhow ?!
+The driver uses busy wait in most cases for the drive handshake (macros
+STEN_LOW and DTEN_LOW). I tested with a 486/DX2 at 66MHz and a Pentium at
+60MHz and 90MHz. Whenever you use a much faster machine you are likely to get
+timeout messages. In that case edit aztcd.h and increase the timeout value
+For some 'slow' drive commands I implemented waiting with a timer waitqueue
+(macro STEN_LOW_WAIT). If you get this timeout message, you may also edit
+aztcd.h and increase the timeout value AZT_STATUS_DELAY. The waitqueue has
+shown to be a little critical. If you get kernel panic messages, edit aztcd.c
+and substitute STEN_LOW_WAIT by STEN_LOW. Busy waiting with STEN_LOW is more
+stable, but also causes CPU overhead.
+With release 1.20 aztcd was modified to allow access to CD-ROMS when running
+under dosemu-0.60.0 aztcd-versions before 1.20 are most likely to crash
+Linux, when a CD-ROM is accessed under dosemu. This problem has partly been
+fixed, but still when accessing a directory for the first time the system
+might hang for some 30sec. So be patient, when using dosemu's CD-ROM support
+in combination with aztcd :-) !
+This problem has now (July 1995) been fixed by a modification to dosemu's
+CD-ROM driver. The new version came with dosemu-0.60.2, see dosemu's
+Please send detailed bug reports and bug fixes via EMail to
+Please include a description of your CD-ROM drive type and interface card,
+the exact firmware message during Linux bootup, the version number of the
+AZTECH-CDROM-driver and the Linux kernel version. Also a description of your
+system's other hardware could be of interest, especially microprocessor type,
+clock frequency, other interface cards such as soundcards, ethernet adapter,
+game cards etc..
+I will try to collect the reports and make the necessary modifications from
+time to time. I may also come back to you directly with some bug fixes and
+ask you to do further testing and debugging.
+Editors of CD-ROMs are invited to send a 'cooperation' copy of their
+CD-ROMs to the volunteers, who provided the CD-ROM support for Linux. My
+snail mail address for such 'stuff' is
+ Prof. Dr. W. Zimmermann
+ Fachhochschule fuer Technik Esslingen
+ Fachbereich IT
+ Flandernstrasse 101
+ D-73732 Esslingen
+ Germany
+The following drives ORCHID CDS3110, OKANO CDD110, WEARNES CDD110 and Conrad
+TXC Nr. 993123-series 04 nearly look the same as AZTECH CDA268-01A, especially
+they seem to use the same command codes. So it was quite simple to make the
+AZTECH driver work with these drives.
+Unfortunately I do not have any of these drives available, so I couldn't test
+it myself. In some installations, it seems necessary to initialize the drive
+with the DOS driver before (especially if combined with a sound card) and then
+do a warm boot (CTRL-ALT-RESET) or start Linux from DOS, e.g. with 'loadlin'.
+If you do not succeed, read chapter DEBUGGING. Thanks in advance!
+Sorry for the inconvenience, but it is difficult to develop for hardware,
+which you don't have available for testing. So if you like, please help us.
+If you do have a CyCDROM CR520ie thanks to Hilmar Berger's help your chances
+are good, that it will work with aztcd. The CR520ie is sold as an IDE-drive
+and really is connected to the IDE interface (primary at 0x1F0 or secondary
+at 0x170, configured as slave, not as master). Nevertheless it is not ATAPI
+compatible but still uses Aztech's command codes.
+-reread the complete README file
+-make sure, that your drive is hardware configured for
+ transfer mode: polled
+ IRQ: not used
+ DMA: not used
+ Base Address: something like 300, 320 ...
+ You can check this, when you start the DOS driver, which came with your
+ drive. By appropriately configuring the drive and the DOS driver you can
+ check, whether your drive does operate in this mode correctly under DOS. If
+ it does not operate under DOS, it won't under Linux.
+ If your drive's base address is something like 0x170 or 0x1F0 (and it is
+ not a CyCDROM CR520ie or CR 940ie) you most likely are having an IDE/ATAPI-
+ compatible drive, which is not supported by aztcd.c, use ide-cd.c instead.
+ Make sure the Base Address is configured correctly in aztcd.h, also make
+ sure, that /dev/aztcd0 exists with the correct major number (compare it with
+ the entry in file /usr/include/linux/major.h for the Aztech drive).
+-insert a CD-ROM and close the tray
+-cold boot your PC (i.e. via the power on switch or the reset button)
+-if you start Linux via DOS, e.g. using loadlin, make sure, that the DOS
+ driver for the CD-ROM drive is not loaded (comment out the calling lines
+ in DOS' config.sys!)
+-look for the aztcd: init message during Linux init and note them exactly
+-log in as root and do a mount -t iso9660 /dev/aztcd0 /mnt
+-if you don't succeed in the first time, try several times. Try also to open
+ and close the tray, then mount again. Please note carefully all commands
+ you typed in and the aztcd-messages, which you get.
+-if you get an 'Aztech CD-ROM init: aborted' message, read the remarks about
+ the version string below.
+If this does not help, do the same with the following differences
+-start DOS before; make now sure, that the DOS driver for the CD-ROM is
+ loaded under DOS (i.e. uncomment it again in config.sys)
+-warm boot your PC (i.e. via CTRL-ALT-DEL)
+ if you have it, you can also start via loadlin (try both).
+ ...
+ Again note all commands and the aztcd-messages.
+If you see STEN_LOW or STEN_LOW_WAIT error messages, increase the timeout
+If this still does not help,
+-look in aztcd.c for the lines #if 0
+ #define AZT_TEST1
+ ...
+ #endif
+ and substitute '#if 0' by '#if 1'.
+-recompile your kernel and repeat the above two procedures. You will now get
+ a bundle of debugging messages from the driver. Again note your commands
+ and the appropriate messages. If you have syslogd running, these messages
+ may also be found in syslogd's kernel log file. Nevertheless in some
+ installations syslogd does not yet run, when init() is called, thus look for
+ the aztcd-messages during init, before the login-prompt appears.
+ Then look in aztcd.c, to find out, what happened. The normal calling sequence
+ is: aztcd_init() during Linux bootup procedure init()
+ after doing a 'mount -t iso9660 /dev/aztcd0 /mnt' the normal calling sequence is
+ aztcd_open() -> Status 2c after cold reboot with CDROM or audio CD inserted
+ -> Status 8 after warm reboot with CDROM inserted
+ -> Status 2e after cold reboot with no disk, closed tray
+ -> Status 6e after cold reboot, mount with door open
+ aztUpdateToc()
+ aztGetDiskInfo()
+ aztGetQChannelInfo() repeated several times
+ aztGetToc()
+ aztGetQChannelInfo() repeated several times
+ a list of track information
+ do_aztcd_request() }
+ azt_transfer() } repeated several times
+ azt_poll }
+ Check, if there is a difference in the calling sequence or the status flags!
+ There are a lot of other messages, eg. the ACMD-command code (defined in
+ aztcd.h), status info from the getAztStatus-command and the state sequence of
+ the finite state machine in azt_poll(). The most important are the status
+ messages, look how they are defined and try to understand, if they make
+ sense in the context where they appear. With a CD-ROM inserted the status
+ should always be 8, except in aztcd_open(). Try to open the tray, insert an
+ audio disk, insert no disk or reinsert the CD-ROM and check, if the status
+ bits change accordingly. The status bits are the most likely point, where
+ the drive manufacturers may implement changes.
+If you still don't succeed, a good point to start is to look in aztcd.c in
+function aztcd_init, where the drive should be detected during init. Do the
+-reboot the system with boot parameter 'aztcd=<your base address>,0x79'. With
+ parameter 0x79 most of the drive version detection is bypassed. After that
+ you should see the complete version string including leading and trailing
+ blanks during init.
+ Now adapt the statement
+ if ((result[1]=='A')&&(result[2]=='Z' ...)
+ in aztcd_init() to exactly match the first 3 or 4 letters you have seen.
+-Another point is the 'smart' card detection feature in aztcd_init(). Normally
+ the CD-ROM drive is ready, when aztcd_init is trying to read the version
+ string and a time consuming ACMD_SOFT_RESET command can be avoided. This is
+ detected by looking, if AFL_OP_OK can be read correctly. If the CD-ROM drive
+ hangs in some unknown state, e.g. because of an error before a warm start or
+ because you first operated under DOS, even the version string may be correct,
+ but the following commands will not. Then change the code in such a way,
+ that the ACMD_SOFT_RESET is issued in any case, by substituting the
+ if-statement 'if ( ...=AFL_OP_OK)' by 'if (1)'.
+If you succeed, please mail me the exact version string of your drive and
+the code modifications, you have made together with a short explanation.
+If you don't succeed, you may mail me the output of the debugging messages.
+But remember, they are only useful, if they are exact and complete and you
+describe in detail your hardware setup and what you did (cold/warm reboot,
+with/without DOS, DOS-driver started/not started, which Linux-commands etc.)
+The AZTECH-Driver is a rework of the Mitsumi-Driver. Four major items had to
+be reworked:
+a) The Mitsumi drive does issue complete status information acknowledging
+each command, the Aztech drive does only signal that the command was
+processed. So whenever the complete status information is needed, an extra
+ACMD_GET_STATUS command is issued. The handshake procedure for the drive
+can be found in the functions aztSendCmd(), sendAztCmd() and getAztStatus().
+b) The Aztech Drive does not have a ACMD_GET_DISK_INFO command, so the
+necessary info about the number of tracks (firstTrack, lastTrack), disk
+length etc. has to be read from the TOC in the lead in track (see function
+c) Whenever data is read from the drive, the Mitsumi drive is started with a
+command to read an indefinite (0xffffff) number of sectors. When the appropriate
+number of sectors is read, the drive is stopped by a ACDM_STOP command. This
+does not work with the Aztech drive. I did not find a way to stop it. The
+stop and pause commands do only work in AUDIO mode but not in DATA mode.
+Therefore I had to modify the 'finite state machine' in function azt_poll to
+only read a certain number of sectors and then start a new read on demand. As I
+have not completely understood, how the buffer/caching scheme of the Mitsumi
+driver was implemented, I am not sure, if I have covered all cases correctly,
+whenever you get timeout messages, the bug is most likely to be in that
+function azt_poll() around switch(cmd) .... case ACD_S_DATA.
+d) I did not get information about changing drive mode. So I doubt, that the
+code around function azt_poll() case AZT_S_MODE does work. In my test I have
+not been able to switch to reading in raw mode. For reading raw mode, Aztech
+uses a different command than for cooked mode, which I only have implemen-
+ted in the ioctl-section but not in the section which is used by the ISO9660.
+The driver was developed on an AST PC with Intel 486/DX2, 8MB RAM, 340MB IDE
+hard disk and on an AST PC with Intel Pentium 60MHz, 16MB RAM, 520MB IDE
+running Linux kernel version 1.0.9 from the LST 1.8 Distribution. The kernel
+was compiled with gcc.2.5.8. My CD-ROM drive is an Aztech CDA268-01A. My
+drive says, that it has Firmware Version AZT26801A1.3. It came with an ISA-bus
+interface card and works with polled I/O without DMA and without interrupts.
+The code for all other drives was 'remote' tested and debugged by a number of
+volunteers on the Internet.
+Points, where I feel that possible problems might be and all points where I
+did not completely understand the drive's behaviour or trust my own code are
+marked with /*???*/ in the source code. There are also some parts in the
+Mitsumi driver, where I did not completely understand their code.
+Without the help of P.Bush, Aztech, who delivered technical information
+about the Aztech Drive and without the help of E.Moenkeberg, GWDG, who did a
+great job in analyzing the command structure of various CD-ROM drives, this
+work would not have been possible. E.Moenkeberg was also a great help in
+making the software 'kernel ready' and in answering many of the CDROM-related
+questions in the newsgroups. He really is *the* Linux CD-ROM guru. Thanks
+also to all the guys on the Internet, who collected valuable technical
+information about CDROMs.
+Joe Nardone ( was a patient tester even for my first
+trial, which was more than slow, and made suggestions for code improvement.
+Especially the 'finite state machine' azt_poll() was rewritten by Joe to get
+clean C code and avoid the ugly 'gotos', which I copied from mcd.c.
+Robby Schirmer ( tested the audio stuff (ioctls)
+and suggested a lot of patches for them.
+Joseph Piskor and Peter Nugent were the first users with the ORCHID CD3110
+and also were very patient with the problems which occurred.
+Reinhard Max delivered the information for the CDROM-interface of the
+SoundWave32 soundcards.
+Jochen Kunz and Olaf Kaluza delivered the information for supporting Conrad's
+TXC drive.
+Hilmar Berger delivered the patches for supporting CyCDROM CR520ie.
+Anybody, who is interested in these items should have a look at '',
+directory 'pub/linux/cdrom' and at '', directory 'pub/cdrom'.
+11. PROGRAMMING ADD ONs: cdplay.c
+You can use the ioctl-functions included in aztcd.c in your own programs. As
+an example on how to do this, you will find a tiny CD Player for audio CDs
+named 'cdplay.c'. It allows you to play audio CDs. You can play a specified
+track, pause and resume or skip tracks forward and backwards. If you quit the
+program without stopping the drive, playing is continued. You can also
+(mis)use cdplay to read and hexdump data disks. You can find the code in the
+APPENDIX of this file, which you should cut out with an editor and store in a
+separate file 'cdplay.c'. To compile it and make it executable, do
+ gcc -s -Wall -O2 -L/usr/lib cdplay.c -o /usr/local/bin/cdplay # compiles it
+ chmod +755 /usr/local/bin/cdplay # makes it executable
+ ln -s /dev/aztcd0 /dev/cdrom # creates a link
+ (for /usr/lib substitute the top level directory, where your include files
+ reside, and for /usr/local/bin the directory, where you want the executable
+ binary to reside )
+You have to set the correct permissions for cdplay *and* for /dev/mcd0 or
+/dev/aztcd0 in order to use it. Remember, that you should not have /dev/cdrom
+mounted, when you're playing audio CDs.
+This program is just a hack for testing the ioctl-functions in aztcd.c. I will
+not maintain it, so if you run into problems, discard it or have a look into
+the source code 'cdplay.c'. The program does only contain a minimum of user
+protection and input error detection. If you use the commands in the wrong
+order or if you try to read a CD at wrong addresses, you may get error messages
+or even hang your machine. If you get STEN_LOW, STEN_LOW_WAIT or segment violation
+error messages when using cdplay, after that, the system might not be stable
+any more, so you'd better reboot. As the ioctl-functions run in kernel mode,
+most normal Linux-multitasking protection features do not work. By using
+uninitialized 'wild' pointers etc., it is easy to write to other users' data
+and program areas, destroy kernel tables etc.. So if you experiment with ioctls
+as always when you are doing systems programming and kernel hacking, you
+should have a backup copy of your system in a safe place (and you also
+should try restoring from a backup copy first)!
+A reworked and improved version called 'cdtester.c', which has yet more
+features for testing CDROM-drives can be found in
+Documentation/cdrom/sbpcd, written by E.Moenkeberg.
+Werner Zimmermann
+Fachhochschule fuer Technik Esslingen
+October, 1997
+APPENDIX: Source code of cdplay.c
+/* Tiny Audio CD Player
+ Copyright 1994, 1995, 1996 Werner Zimmermann (
+This program originally was written to test the audio functions of the
+AZTECH.CDROM-driver, but it should work with every CD-ROM drive. Before
+using it, you should set a symlink from /dev/cdrom to your real CDROM
+The GNU General Public License applies to this program.
+History: V0.1 W.Zimmermann: First release. Nov. 8, 1994
+ V0.2 W.Zimmermann: Enhanced functionality. Nov. 9, 1994
+ V0.3 W.Zimmermann: Additional functions. Nov. 28, 1994
+ V0.4 W.Zimmermann: fixed some bugs. Dec. 17, 1994
+ V0.5 W.Zimmermann: clean 'scanf' commands without compiler warnings
+ Jan. 6, 1995
+ V0.6 W.Zimmermann: volume control (still experimental). Jan. 24, 1995
+ V0.7 W.Zimmermann: read raw modified. July 26, 95
+#include <stdio.h>
+#include <ctype.h>
+#include <sys/ioctl.h>
+#include <sys/types.h>
+#include <fcntl.h>
+#include <unistd.h>
+#include <linux/cdrom.h>
+#include <linux/../../drivers/cdrom/aztcd.h>
+void help(void)
+{ printf("Available Commands: STOP s EJECT/CLOSE e QUIT q\n");
+ printf(" PLAY TRACK t PAUSE p RESUME r\n");
+ printf(" NEXT TRACK n REPEAT LAST l HELP h\n");
+ printf(" SUB CHANNEL c TRACK INFO i PLAY AT a\n");
+ printf(" READ d READ RAW w VOLUME v\n");
+int main(void)
+{ int handle;
+ unsigned char command=' ', ini=0, first=1, last=1;
+ unsigned int cmd, i,j,k, arg1,arg2,arg3;
+ struct cdrom_ti ti;
+ struct cdrom_tochdr tocHdr;
+ struct cdrom_subchnl subchnl;
+ struct cdrom_tocentry entry;
+ struct cdrom_msf msf;
+ union { struct cdrom_msf msf;
+ unsigned char buf[CD_FRAMESIZE_RAW];
+ } azt;
+ struct cdrom_volctrl volctrl;
+ printf("\nMini-Audio CD-Player V0.72 (C) 1994,1995,1996 W.Zimmermann\n");
+ handle=open("/dev/cdrom",O_RDWR);
+ ioctl(handle,CDROMRESUME);
+ if (handle<=0)
+ { printf("Drive Error: already playing, no audio disk, door open\n");
+ printf(" or no permission (you must be ROOT in order to use this program)\n");
+ }
+ else
+ { help();
+ while (1)
+ { printf("Type command (h = help): ");
+ scanf("%s",&command);
+ switch (command)
+ { case 'e': cmd=CDROMEJECT;
+ ioctl(handle,cmd);
+ break;
+ case 'p': if (!ini)
+ { printf("Command not allowed - play track first\n");
+ }
+ else
+ if (ioctl(handle,cmd)) printf("Drive Error\n");
+ }
+ break;
+ case 'r': if (!ini)
+ { printf("Command not allowed - play track first\n");
+ }
+ else
+ if (ioctl(handle,cmd)) printf("Drive Error\n");
+ }
+ break;
+ case 's': cmd=CDROMPAUSE;
+ if (ioctl(handle,cmd)) printf("Drive error or already stopped\n");
+ if (ioctl(handle,cmd)) printf("Drive error\n");
+ break;
+ case 't': cmd=CDROMREADTOCHDR;
+ if (ioctl(handle,cmd,&tocHdr)) printf("Drive Error\n");
+ first=tocHdr.cdth_trk0;
+ last= tocHdr.cdth_trk1;
+ if ((first==0)||(first>last))
+ { printf ("--could not read TOC\n");
+ }
+ else
+ { printf("--first track: %d --last track: %d --enter track number: ",first,last);
+ scanf("%i",&arg1);
+ ti.cdti_trk0=arg1;
+ if (ti.cdti_trk0<first) ti.cdti_trk0=first;
+ if (ti.cdti_trk0>last) ti.cdti_trk0=last;
+ ti.cdti_ind0=0;
+ ti.cdti_trk1=last;
+ ti.cdti_ind1=0;
+ if (ioctl(handle,cmd,&ti)) printf("Drive Error\n");
+ ini=1;
+ }
+ break;
+ case 'n': if (!ini++)
+ { if (ioctl(handle,CDROMREADTOCHDR,&tocHdr)) printf("Drive Error\n");
+ first=tocHdr.cdth_trk0;
+ last= tocHdr.cdth_trk1;
+ ti.cdti_trk0=first-1;
+ }
+ if ((first==0)||(first>last))
+ { printf ("--could not read TOC\n");
+ }
+ else
+ if (++ti.cdti_trk0 > last) ti.cdti_trk0=last;
+ ti.cdti_ind0=0;
+ ti.cdti_trk1=last;
+ ti.cdti_ind1=0;
+ if (ioctl(handle,cmd,&ti)) printf("Drive Error\n");
+ ini=1;
+ }
+ break;
+ case 'l': if (!ini++)
+ { if (ioctl(handle,CDROMREADTOCHDR,&tocHdr)) printf("Drive Error\n");
+ first=tocHdr.cdth_trk0;
+ last= tocHdr.cdth_trk1;
+ ti.cdti_trk0=first+1;
+ }
+ if ((first==0)||(first>last))
+ { printf ("--could not read TOC\n");
+ }
+ else
+ if (--ti.cdti_trk0 < first) ti.cdti_trk0=first;
+ ti.cdti_ind0=0;
+ ti.cdti_trk1=last;
+ ti.cdti_ind1=0;
+ if (ioctl(handle,cmd,&ti)) printf("Drive Error\n");
+ ini=1;
+ }
+ break;
+ case 'c': subchnl.cdsc_format=CDROM_MSF;
+ if (ioctl(handle,CDROMSUBCHNL,&subchnl))
+ printf("Drive Error\n");
+ else
+ { printf("AudioStatus:%s Track:%d Mode:%d MSF=%d:%d:%d\n", \
+ subchnl.cdsc_audiostatus==CDROM_AUDIO_PLAY ? "PLAYING":"NOT PLAYING",\
+ subchnl.cdsc_trk,subchnl.cdsc_adr, \
+ subchnl.cdsc_absaddr.msf.minute, subchnl.cdsc_absaddr.msf.second, \
+ subchnl.cdsc_absaddr.msf.frame);
+ }
+ break;
+ case 'i': if (!ini)
+ { printf("Command not allowed - play track first\n");
+ }
+ else
+ printf("Track No.: ");
+ scanf("%d",&arg1);
+ entry.cdte_track=arg1;
+ if (entry.cdte_track<first) entry.cdte_track=first;
+ if (entry.cdte_track>last) entry.cdte_track=last;
+ entry.cdte_format=CDROM_MSF;
+ if (ioctl(handle,cmd,&entry))
+ { printf("Drive error or invalid track no.\n");
+ }
+ else
+ { printf("Mode %d Track, starts at %d:%d:%d\n", \
+ entry.cdte_adr,entry.cdte_addr.msf.minute, \
+ entry.cdte_addr.msf.second,entry.cdte_addr.msf.frame);
+ }
+ }
+ break;
+ case 'a': cmd=CDROMPLAYMSF;
+ printf("Address (min:sec:frame) ");
+ scanf("%d:%d:%d",&arg1,&arg2,&arg3);
+ msf.cdmsf_min0 =arg1;
+ msf.cdmsf_sec0 =arg2;
+ msf.cdmsf_frame0=arg3;
+ if (msf.cdmsf_sec0 > 59) msf.cdmsf_sec0 =59;
+ if (msf.cdmsf_frame0> 74) msf.cdmsf_frame0=74;
+ msf.cdmsf_min1=60;
+ msf.cdmsf_sec1=00;
+ msf.cdmsf_frame1=00;
+ if (ioctl(handle,cmd,&msf))
+ { printf("Drive error or invalid address\n");
+ }
+ break;
+#ifdef AZT_PRIVATE_IOCTLS /*not supported by every CDROM driver*/
+ case 'd': cmd=CDROMREADCOOKED;
+ printf("Address (min:sec:frame) ");
+ scanf("%d:%d:%d",&arg1,&arg2,&arg3);
+ azt.msf.cdmsf_min0 =arg1;
+ azt.msf.cdmsf_sec0 =arg2;
+ azt.msf.cdmsf_frame0=arg3;
+ if (azt.msf.cdmsf_sec0 > 59) azt.msf.cdmsf_sec0 =59;
+ if (azt.msf.cdmsf_frame0> 74) azt.msf.cdmsf_frame0=74;
+ if (ioctl(handle,cmd,&azt.msf))
+ { printf("Drive error, invalid address or unsupported command\n");
+ }
+ k=0;
+ getchar();
+ for (i=0;i<128;i++)
+ { printf("%4d:",i*16);
+ for (j=0;j<16;j++)
+ { printf("%2x ",azt.buf[i*16+j]);
+ }
+ for (j=0;j<16;j++)
+ { if (isalnum(azt.buf[i*16+j]))
+ printf("%c",azt.buf[i*16+j]);
+ else
+ printf(".");
+ }
+ printf("\n");
+ k++;
+ if (k>=20)
+ { printf("press ENTER to continue\n");
+ getchar();
+ k=0;
+ }
+ }
+ break;
+ case 'w': cmd=CDROMREADRAW;
+ printf("Address (min:sec:frame) ");
+ scanf("%d:%d:%d",&arg1,&arg2,&arg3);
+ azt.msf.cdmsf_min0 =arg1;
+ azt.msf.cdmsf_sec0 =arg2;
+ azt.msf.cdmsf_frame0=arg3;
+ if (azt.msf.cdmsf_sec0 > 59) azt.msf.cdmsf_sec0 =59;
+ if (azt.msf.cdmsf_frame0> 74) azt.msf.cdmsf_frame0=74;
+ if (ioctl(handle,cmd,&azt))
+ { printf("Drive error, invalid address or unsupported command\n");
+ }
+ k=0;
+ for (i=0;i<147;i++)
+ { printf("%4d:",i*16);
+ for (j=0;j<16;j++)
+ { printf("%2x ",azt.buf[i*16+j]);
+ }
+ for (j=0;j<16;j++)
+ { if (isalnum(azt.buf[i*16+j]))
+ printf("%c",azt.buf[i*16+j]);
+ else
+ printf(".");
+ }
+ printf("\n");
+ k++;
+ if (k>=20)
+ { getchar();
+ k=0;
+ }
+ }
+ break;
+ case 'v': cmd=CDROMVOLCTRL;
+ printf("--Channel 0 Left (0-255): ");
+ scanf("%d",&arg1);
+ printf("--Channel 1 Right (0-255): ");
+ scanf("%d",&arg2);
+ volctrl.channel0=arg1;
+ volctrl.channel1=arg2;
+ volctrl.channel2=0;
+ volctrl.channel3=0;
+ if (ioctl(handle,cmd,&volctrl))
+ { printf("Drive error or unsupported command\n");
+ }
+ break;
+ case 'q': if (close(handle)) printf("Drive Error: CLOSE\n");
+ exit(0);
+ case 'h': help();
+ break;
+ default: printf("unknown command\n");
+ break;
+ }
+ }
+ }
+ return 0;