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authorJens Axboe <jens.axboe@oracle.com>2009-09-09 09:08:54 +0200
committerJens Axboe <jens.axboe@oracle.com>2009-09-11 09:20:25 +0200
commit03ba3782e8dcc5b0e1efe440d33084f066e38cae (patch)
treee5a6513b411de16a46199530ec98ef9b7f1efc50 /mm/backing-dev.c
parent66f3b8e2e103a0b93b945764d98e9ba46cb926dd (diff)
downloadconfigs-03ba3782e8dcc5b0e1efe440d33084f066e38cae.tar.gz
writeback: switch to per-bdi threads for flushing data
This gets rid of pdflush for bdi writeout and kupdated style cleaning. pdflush writeout suffers from lack of locality and also requires more threads to handle the same workload, since it has to work in a non-blocking fashion against each queue. This also introduces lumpy behaviour and potential request starvation, since pdflush can be starved for queue access if others are accessing it. A sample ffsb workload that does random writes to files is about 8% faster here on a simple SATA drive during the benchmark phase. File layout also seems a LOT more smooth in vmstat: r b swpd free buff cache si so bi bo in cs us sy id wa 0 1 0 608848 2652 375372 0 0 0 71024 604 24 1 10 48 42 0 1 0 549644 2712 433736 0 0 0 60692 505 27 1 8 48 44 1 0 0 476928 2784 505192 0 0 4 29540 553 24 0 9 53 37 0 1 0 457972 2808 524008 0 0 0 54876 331 16 0 4 38 58 0 1 0 366128 2928 614284 0 0 4 92168 710 58 0 13 53 34 0 1 0 295092 3000 684140 0 0 0 62924 572 23 0 9 53 37 0 1 0 236592 3064 741704 0 0 4 58256 523 17 0 8 48 44 0 1 0 165608 3132 811464 0 0 0 57460 560 21 0 8 54 38 0 1 0 102952 3200 873164 0 0 4 74748 540 29 1 10 48 41 0 1 0 48604 3252 926472 0 0 0 53248 469 29 0 7 47 45 where vanilla tends to fluctuate a lot in the creation phase: r b swpd free buff cache si so bi bo in cs us sy id wa 1 1 0 678716 5792 303380 0 0 0 74064 565 50 1 11 52 36 1 0 0 662488 5864 319396 0 0 4 352 302 329 0 2 47 51 0 1 0 599312 5924 381468 0 0 0 78164 516 55 0 9 51 40 0 1 0 519952 6008 459516 0 0 4 78156 622 56 1 11 52 37 1 1 0 436640 6092 541632 0 0 0 82244 622 54 0 11 48 41 0 1 0 436640 6092 541660 0 0 0 8 152 39 0 0 51 49 0 1 0 332224 6200 644252 0 0 4 102800 728 46 1 13 49 36 1 0 0 274492 6260 701056 0 0 4 12328 459 49 0 7 50 43 0 1 0 211220 6324 763356 0 0 0 106940 515 37 1 10 51 39 1 0 0 160412 6376 813468 0 0 0 8224 415 43 0 6 49 45 1 1 0 85980 6452 886556 0 0 4 113516 575 39 1 11 54 34 0 2 0 85968 6452 886620 0 0 0 1640 158 211 0 0 46 54 A 10 disk test with btrfs performs 26% faster with per-bdi flushing. A SSD based writeback test on XFS performs over 20% better as well, with the throughput being very stable around 1GB/sec, where pdflush only manages 750MB/sec and fluctuates wildly while doing so. Random buffered writes to many files behave a lot better as well, as does random mmap'ed writes. A separate thread is added to sync the super blocks. In the long term, adding sync_supers_bdi() functionality could get rid of this thread again. Signed-off-by: Jens Axboe <jens.axboe@oracle.com>
Diffstat (limited to 'mm/backing-dev.c')
-rw-r--r--mm/backing-dev.c341
1 files changed, 323 insertions, 18 deletions
diff --git a/mm/backing-dev.c b/mm/backing-dev.c
index 6f163e0f050..7f3fa79f25c 100644
--- a/mm/backing-dev.c
+++ b/mm/backing-dev.c
@@ -1,8 +1,11 @@
#include <linux/wait.h>
#include <linux/backing-dev.h>
+#include <linux/kthread.h>
+#include <linux/freezer.h>
#include <linux/fs.h>
#include <linux/pagemap.h>
+#include <linux/mm.h>
#include <linux/sched.h>
#include <linux/module.h>
#include <linux/writeback.h>
@@ -22,8 +25,18 @@ struct backing_dev_info default_backing_dev_info = {
EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(default_backing_dev_info);
static struct class *bdi_class;
-DEFINE_MUTEX(bdi_lock);
+DEFINE_SPINLOCK(bdi_lock);
LIST_HEAD(bdi_list);
+LIST_HEAD(bdi_pending_list);
+
+static struct task_struct *sync_supers_tsk;
+static struct timer_list sync_supers_timer;
+
+static int bdi_sync_supers(void *);
+static void sync_supers_timer_fn(unsigned long);
+static void arm_supers_timer(void);
+
+static void bdi_add_default_flusher_task(struct backing_dev_info *bdi);
#ifdef CONFIG_DEBUG_FS
#include <linux/debugfs.h>
@@ -187,6 +200,13 @@ static int __init default_bdi_init(void)
{
int err;
+ sync_supers_tsk = kthread_run(bdi_sync_supers, NULL, "sync_supers");
+ BUG_ON(IS_ERR(sync_supers_tsk));
+
+ init_timer(&sync_supers_timer);
+ setup_timer(&sync_supers_timer, sync_supers_timer_fn, 0);
+ arm_supers_timer();
+
err = bdi_init(&default_backing_dev_info);
if (!err)
bdi_register(&default_backing_dev_info, NULL, "default");
@@ -195,6 +215,242 @@ static int __init default_bdi_init(void)
}
subsys_initcall(default_bdi_init);
+static void bdi_wb_init(struct bdi_writeback *wb, struct backing_dev_info *bdi)
+{
+ memset(wb, 0, sizeof(*wb));
+
+ wb->bdi = bdi;
+ wb->last_old_flush = jiffies;
+ INIT_LIST_HEAD(&wb->b_dirty);
+ INIT_LIST_HEAD(&wb->b_io);
+ INIT_LIST_HEAD(&wb->b_more_io);
+}
+
+static void bdi_task_init(struct backing_dev_info *bdi,
+ struct bdi_writeback *wb)
+{
+ struct task_struct *tsk = current;
+
+ spin_lock(&bdi->wb_lock);
+ list_add_tail_rcu(&wb->list, &bdi->wb_list);
+ spin_unlock(&bdi->wb_lock);
+
+ tsk->flags |= PF_FLUSHER | PF_SWAPWRITE;
+ set_freezable();
+
+ /*
+ * Our parent may run at a different priority, just set us to normal
+ */
+ set_user_nice(tsk, 0);
+}
+
+static int bdi_start_fn(void *ptr)
+{
+ struct bdi_writeback *wb = ptr;
+ struct backing_dev_info *bdi = wb->bdi;
+ int ret;
+
+ /*
+ * Add us to the active bdi_list
+ */
+ spin_lock(&bdi_lock);
+ list_add(&bdi->bdi_list, &bdi_list);
+ spin_unlock(&bdi_lock);
+
+ bdi_task_init(bdi, wb);
+
+ /*
+ * Clear pending bit and wakeup anybody waiting to tear us down
+ */
+ clear_bit(BDI_pending, &bdi->state);
+ smp_mb__after_clear_bit();
+ wake_up_bit(&bdi->state, BDI_pending);
+
+ ret = bdi_writeback_task(wb);
+
+ /*
+ * Remove us from the list
+ */
+ spin_lock(&bdi->wb_lock);
+ list_del_rcu(&wb->list);
+ spin_unlock(&bdi->wb_lock);
+
+ /*
+ * Flush any work that raced with us exiting. No new work
+ * will be added, since this bdi isn't discoverable anymore.
+ */
+ if (!list_empty(&bdi->work_list))
+ wb_do_writeback(wb, 1);
+
+ wb->task = NULL;
+ return ret;
+}
+
+int bdi_has_dirty_io(struct backing_dev_info *bdi)
+{
+ return wb_has_dirty_io(&bdi->wb);
+}
+
+static void bdi_flush_io(struct backing_dev_info *bdi)
+{
+ struct writeback_control wbc = {
+ .bdi = bdi,
+ .sync_mode = WB_SYNC_NONE,
+ .older_than_this = NULL,
+ .range_cyclic = 1,
+ .nr_to_write = 1024,
+ };
+
+ writeback_inodes_wbc(&wbc);
+}
+
+/*
+ * kupdated() used to do this. We cannot do it from the bdi_forker_task()
+ * or we risk deadlocking on ->s_umount. The longer term solution would be
+ * to implement sync_supers_bdi() or similar and simply do it from the
+ * bdi writeback tasks individually.
+ */
+static int bdi_sync_supers(void *unused)
+{
+ set_user_nice(current, 0);
+
+ while (!kthread_should_stop()) {
+ set_current_state(TASK_INTERRUPTIBLE);
+ schedule();
+
+ /*
+ * Do this periodically, like kupdated() did before.
+ */
+ sync_supers();
+ }
+
+ return 0;
+}
+
+static void arm_supers_timer(void)
+{
+ unsigned long next;
+
+ next = msecs_to_jiffies(dirty_writeback_interval * 10) + jiffies;
+ mod_timer(&sync_supers_timer, round_jiffies_up(next));
+}
+
+static void sync_supers_timer_fn(unsigned long unused)
+{
+ wake_up_process(sync_supers_tsk);
+ arm_supers_timer();
+}
+
+static int bdi_forker_task(void *ptr)
+{
+ struct bdi_writeback *me = ptr;
+
+ bdi_task_init(me->bdi, me);
+
+ for (;;) {
+ struct backing_dev_info *bdi, *tmp;
+ struct bdi_writeback *wb;
+
+ /*
+ * Temporary measure, we want to make sure we don't see
+ * dirty data on the default backing_dev_info
+ */
+ if (wb_has_dirty_io(me) || !list_empty(&me->bdi->work_list))
+ wb_do_writeback(me, 0);
+
+ spin_lock(&bdi_lock);
+
+ /*
+ * Check if any existing bdi's have dirty data without
+ * a thread registered. If so, set that up.
+ */
+ list_for_each_entry_safe(bdi, tmp, &bdi_list, bdi_list) {
+ if (bdi->wb.task)
+ continue;
+ if (list_empty(&bdi->work_list) &&
+ !bdi_has_dirty_io(bdi))
+ continue;
+
+ bdi_add_default_flusher_task(bdi);
+ }
+
+ set_current_state(TASK_INTERRUPTIBLE);
+
+ if (list_empty(&bdi_pending_list)) {
+ unsigned long wait;
+
+ spin_unlock(&bdi_lock);
+ wait = msecs_to_jiffies(dirty_writeback_interval * 10);
+ schedule_timeout(wait);
+ try_to_freeze();
+ continue;
+ }
+
+ __set_current_state(TASK_RUNNING);
+
+ /*
+ * This is our real job - check for pending entries in
+ * bdi_pending_list, and create the tasks that got added
+ */
+ bdi = list_entry(bdi_pending_list.next, struct backing_dev_info,
+ bdi_list);
+ list_del_init(&bdi->bdi_list);
+ spin_unlock(&bdi_lock);
+
+ wb = &bdi->wb;
+ wb->task = kthread_run(bdi_start_fn, wb, "flush-%s",
+ dev_name(bdi->dev));
+ /*
+ * If task creation fails, then readd the bdi to
+ * the pending list and force writeout of the bdi
+ * from this forker thread. That will free some memory
+ * and we can try again.
+ */
+ if (IS_ERR(wb->task)) {
+ wb->task = NULL;
+
+ /*
+ * Add this 'bdi' to the back, so we get
+ * a chance to flush other bdi's to free
+ * memory.
+ */
+ spin_lock(&bdi_lock);
+ list_add_tail(&bdi->bdi_list, &bdi_pending_list);
+ spin_unlock(&bdi_lock);
+
+ bdi_flush_io(bdi);
+ }
+ }
+
+ return 0;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Add the default flusher task that gets created for any bdi
+ * that has dirty data pending writeout
+ */
+void static bdi_add_default_flusher_task(struct backing_dev_info *bdi)
+{
+ if (!bdi_cap_writeback_dirty(bdi))
+ return;
+
+ /*
+ * Check with the helper whether to proceed adding a task. Will only
+ * abort if we two or more simultanous calls to
+ * bdi_add_default_flusher_task() occured, further additions will block
+ * waiting for previous additions to finish.
+ */
+ if (!test_and_set_bit(BDI_pending, &bdi->state)) {
+ list_move_tail(&bdi->bdi_list, &bdi_pending_list);
+
+ /*
+ * We are now on the pending list, wake up bdi_forker_task()
+ * to finish the job and add us back to the active bdi_list
+ */
+ wake_up_process(default_backing_dev_info.wb.task);
+ }
+}
+
int bdi_register(struct backing_dev_info *bdi, struct device *parent,
const char *fmt, ...)
{
@@ -213,13 +469,34 @@ int bdi_register(struct backing_dev_info *bdi, struct device *parent,
goto exit;
}
- mutex_lock(&bdi_lock);
+ spin_lock(&bdi_lock);
list_add_tail(&bdi->bdi_list, &bdi_list);
- mutex_unlock(&bdi_lock);
+ spin_unlock(&bdi_lock);
bdi->dev = dev;
- bdi_debug_register(bdi, dev_name(dev));
+ /*
+ * Just start the forker thread for our default backing_dev_info,
+ * and add other bdi's to the list. They will get a thread created
+ * on-demand when they need it.
+ */
+ if (bdi_cap_flush_forker(bdi)) {
+ struct bdi_writeback *wb = &bdi->wb;
+
+ wb->task = kthread_run(bdi_forker_task, wb, "bdi-%s",
+ dev_name(dev));
+ if (IS_ERR(wb->task)) {
+ wb->task = NULL;
+ ret = -ENOMEM;
+
+ spin_lock(&bdi_lock);
+ list_del(&bdi->bdi_list);
+ spin_unlock(&bdi_lock);
+ goto exit;
+ }
+ }
+
+ bdi_debug_register(bdi, dev_name(dev));
exit:
return ret;
}
@@ -231,17 +508,42 @@ int bdi_register_dev(struct backing_dev_info *bdi, dev_t dev)
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(bdi_register_dev);
-static void bdi_remove_from_list(struct backing_dev_info *bdi)
+/*
+ * Remove bdi from the global list and shutdown any threads we have running
+ */
+static void bdi_wb_shutdown(struct backing_dev_info *bdi)
{
- mutex_lock(&bdi_lock);
+ struct bdi_writeback *wb;
+
+ if (!bdi_cap_writeback_dirty(bdi))
+ return;
+
+ /*
+ * If setup is pending, wait for that to complete first
+ */
+ wait_on_bit(&bdi->state, BDI_pending, bdi_sched_wait,
+ TASK_UNINTERRUPTIBLE);
+
+ /*
+ * Make sure nobody finds us on the bdi_list anymore
+ */
+ spin_lock(&bdi_lock);
list_del(&bdi->bdi_list);
- mutex_unlock(&bdi_lock);
+ spin_unlock(&bdi_lock);
+
+ /*
+ * Finally, kill the kernel threads. We don't need to be RCU
+ * safe anymore, since the bdi is gone from visibility.
+ */
+ list_for_each_entry(wb, &bdi->wb_list, list)
+ kthread_stop(wb->task);
}
void bdi_unregister(struct backing_dev_info *bdi)
{
if (bdi->dev) {
- bdi_remove_from_list(bdi);
+ if (!bdi_cap_flush_forker(bdi))
+ bdi_wb_shutdown(bdi);
bdi_debug_unregister(bdi);
device_unregister(bdi->dev);
bdi->dev = NULL;
@@ -251,18 +553,25 @@ EXPORT_SYMBOL(bdi_unregister);
int bdi_init(struct backing_dev_info *bdi)
{
- int i;
- int err;
+ int i, err;
bdi->dev = NULL;
bdi->min_ratio = 0;
bdi->max_ratio = 100;
bdi->max_prop_frac = PROP_FRAC_BASE;
+ spin_lock_init(&bdi->wb_lock);
INIT_LIST_HEAD(&bdi->bdi_list);
- INIT_LIST_HEAD(&bdi->b_io);
- INIT_LIST_HEAD(&bdi->b_dirty);
- INIT_LIST_HEAD(&bdi->b_more_io);
+ INIT_LIST_HEAD(&bdi->wb_list);
+ INIT_LIST_HEAD(&bdi->work_list);
+
+ bdi_wb_init(&bdi->wb, bdi);
+
+ /*
+ * Just one thread support for now, hard code mask and count
+ */
+ bdi->wb_mask = 1;
+ bdi->wb_cnt = 1;
for (i = 0; i < NR_BDI_STAT_ITEMS; i++) {
err = percpu_counter_init(&bdi->bdi_stat[i], 0);
@@ -277,8 +586,6 @@ int bdi_init(struct backing_dev_info *bdi)
err:
while (i--)
percpu_counter_destroy(&bdi->bdi_stat[i]);
-
- bdi_remove_from_list(bdi);
}
return err;
@@ -289,9 +596,7 @@ void bdi_destroy(struct backing_dev_info *bdi)
{
int i;
- WARN_ON(!list_empty(&bdi->b_dirty));
- WARN_ON(!list_empty(&bdi->b_io));
- WARN_ON(!list_empty(&bdi->b_more_io));
+ WARN_ON(bdi_has_dirty_io(bdi));
bdi_unregister(bdi);