path: root/Documentation/filesystems/hpfs.txt
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authorLinus Torvalds <>2005-04-16 15:20:36 -0700
committerLinus Torvalds <>2005-04-16 15:20:36 -0700
commit1da177e4c3f41524e886b7f1b8a0c1fc7321cac2 (patch)
tree0bba044c4ce775e45a88a51686b5d9f90697ea9d /Documentation/filesystems/hpfs.txt
Initial git repository build. I'm not bothering with the full history, even though we have it. We can create a separate "historical" git archive of that later if we want to, and in the meantime it's about 3.2GB when imported into git - space that would just make the early git days unnecessarily complicated, when we don't have a lot of good infrastructure for it. Let it rip!
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+Read/Write HPFS 2.09
+1998-2004, Mikulas Patocka
+Chris Smith, 1993, original read-only HPFS, some code and hpfs structures file
+ is taken from it
+Jacques Gelinas, MSDos mmap, Inspired by fs/nfs/mmap.c (Jon Tombs 15 Aug 1993)
+Werner Almesberger, 1992, 1993, MSDos option parser & CR/LF conversion
+Mount options
+uid=xxx,gid=xxx,umask=xxx (default uid=gid=0 umask=default_system_umask)
+ Set owner/group/mode for files that do not have it specified in extended
+ attributes. Mode is inverted umask - for example umask 027 gives owner
+ all permission, group read permission and anybody else no access. Note
+ that for files mode is anded with 0666. If you want files to have 'x'
+ rights, you must use extended attributes.
+case=lower,asis (default asis)
+ File name lowercasing in readdir.
+conv=binary,text,auto (default binary)
+ CR/LF -> LF conversion, if auto, decision is made according to extension
+ - there is a list of text extensions (I thing it's better to not convert
+ text file than to damage binary file). If you want to change that list,
+ change it in the source. Original readonly HPFS contained some strange
+ heuristic algorithm that I removed. I thing it's danger to let the
+ computer decide whether file is text or binary. For example, DJGPP
+ binaries contain small text message at the beginning and they could be
+ misidentified and damaged under some circumstances.
+check=none,normal,strict (default normal)
+ Check level. Selecting none will cause only little speedup and big
+ danger. I tried to write it so that it won't crash if check=normal on
+ corrupted filesystems. check=strict means many superfluous checks -
+ used for debugging (for example it checks if file is allocated in
+ bitmaps when accessing it).
+errors=continue,remount-ro,panic (default remount-ro)
+ Behaviour when filesystem errors found.
+chkdsk=no,errors,always (default errors)
+ When to mark filesystem dirty so that OS/2 checks it.
+eas=no,ro,rw (default rw)
+ What to do with extended attributes. 'no' - ignore them and use always
+ values specified in uid/gid/mode options. 'ro' - read extended
+ attributes but do not create them. 'rw' - create extended attributes
+ when you use chmod/chown/chgrp/mknod/ln -s on the filesystem.
+timeshift=(-)nnn (default 0)
+ Shifts the time by nnn seconds. For example, if you see under linux
+ one hour more, than under os/2, use timeshift=-3600.
+File names
+As in OS/2, filenames are case insensitive. However, shell thinks that names
+are case sensitive, so for example when you create a file FOO, you can use
+'cat FOO', 'cat Foo', 'cat foo' or 'cat F*' but not 'cat f*'. Note, that you
+also won't be able to compile linux kernel (and maybe other things) on HPFS
+because kernel creates different files with names like bootsect.S and
+bootsect.s. When searching for file thats name has characters >= 128, codepages
+are used - see below.
+OS/2 ignores dots and spaces at the end of file name, so this driver does as
+well. If you create 'a. ...', the file 'a' will be created, but you can still
+access it under names 'a.', 'a..', 'a . . . ' etc.
+Extended attributes
+On HPFS partitions, OS/2 can associate to each file a special information called
+extended attributes. Extended attributes are pairs of (key,value) where key is
+an ascii string identifying that attribute and value is any string of bytes of
+variable length. OS/2 stores window and icon positions and file types there. So
+why not use it for unix-specific info like file owner or access rights? This
+driver can do it. If you chown/chgrp/chmod on a hpfs partition, extended
+attributes with keys "UID", "GID" or "MODE" and 2-byte values are created. Only
+that extended attributes those value differs from defaults specified in mount
+options are created. Once created, the extended attributes are never deleted,
+they're just changed. It means that when your default uid=0 and you type
+something like 'chown luser file; chown root file' the file will contain
+extended attribute UID=0. And when you umount the fs and mount it again with
+uid=luser_uid, the file will be still owned by root! If you chmod file to 444,
+extended attribute "MODE" will not be set, this special case is done by setting
+read-only flag. When you mknod a block or char device, besides "MODE", the
+special 4-byte extended attribute "DEV" will be created containing the device
+number. Currently this driver cannot resize extended attributes - it means
+that if somebody (I don't know who?) has set "UID", "GID", "MODE" or "DEV"
+attributes with different sizes, they won't be rewritten and changing these
+values doesn't work.
+You can do symlinks on HPFS partition, symlinks are achieved by setting extended
+attribute named "SYMLINK" with symlink value. Like on ext2, you can chown and
+chgrp symlinks but I don't know what is it good for. chmoding symlink results
+in chmoding file where symlink points. These symlinks are just for Linux use and
+incompatible with OS/2. OS/2 PmShell symlinks are not supported because they are
+stored in very crazy way. They tried to do it so that link changes when file is
+moved ... sometimes it works. But the link is partly stored in directory
+extended attributes and partly in OS2SYS.INI. I don't want (and don't know how)
+to analyze or change OS2SYS.INI.
+HPFS can contain several uppercasing tables for several codepages and each
+file has a pointer to codepage it's name is in. However OS/2 was created in
+America where people don't care much about codepages and so multiple codepages
+support is quite buggy. I have Czech OS/2 working in codepage 852 on my disk.
+Once I booted English OS/2 working in cp 850 and I created a file on my 852
+partition. It marked file name codepage as 850 - good. But when I again booted
+Czech OS/2, the file was completely inaccessible under any name. It seems that
+OS/2 uppercases the search pattern with its system code page (852) and file
+name it's comparing to with its code page (850). These could never match. Is it
+really what IBM developers wanted? But problems continued. When I created in
+Czech OS/2 another file in that directory, that file was inaccessible too. OS/2
+probably uses different uppercasing method when searching where to place a file
+(note, that files in HPFS directory must be sorted) and when searching for
+a file. Finally when I opened this directory in PmShell, PmShell crashed (the
+funny thing was that, when rebooted, PmShell tried to reopen this directory
+again :-). chkdsk happily ignores these errors and only low-level disk
+modification saved me. Never mix different language versions of OS/2 on one
+system although HPFS was designed to allow that.
+OK, I could implement complex codepage support to this driver but I think it
+would cause more problems than benefit with such buggy implementation in OS/2.
+So this driver simply uses first codepage it finds for uppercasing and
+lowercasing no matter what's file codepage index. Usually all file names are in
+this codepage - if you don't try to do what I described above :-)
+Known bugs
+HPFS386 on OS/2 server is not supported. HPFS386 installed on normal OS/2 client
+should work. If you have OS/2 server, use only read-only mode. I don't know how
+to handle some HPFS386 structures like access control list or extended perm
+list, I don't know how to delete them when file is deleted and how to not
+overwrite them with extended attributes. Send me some info on these structures
+and I'll make it. However, this driver should detect presence of HPFS386
+structures, remount read-only and not destroy them (I hope).
+When there's not enough space for extended attributes, they will be truncated
+and no error is returned.
+OS/2 can't access files if the path is longer than about 256 chars but this
+driver allows you to do it. chkdsk ignores such errors.
+Sometimes you won't be able to delete some files on a very full filesystem
+(returning error ENOSPC). That's because file in non-leaf node in directory tree
+(one directory, if it's large, has dirents in tree on HPFS) must be replaced
+with another node when deleted. And that new file might have larger name than
+the old one so the new name doesn't fit in directory node (dnode). And that
+would result in directory tree splitting, that takes disk space. Workaround is
+to delete other files that are leaf (probability that the file is non-leaf is
+about 1/50) or to truncate file first to make some space.
+You encounter this problem only if you have many directories so that
+preallocated directory band is full i.e.
+ number_of_directories / size_of_filesystem_in_mb > 4.
+You can't delete open directories.
+You can't rename over directories (what is it good for?).
+Renaming files so that only case changes doesn't work. This driver supports it
+but vfs doesn't. Something like 'mv file FILE' won't work.
+All atimes and directory mtimes are not updated. That's because of performance
+reasons. If you extremely wish to update them, let me know, I'll write it (but
+it will be slow).
+When the system is out of memory and swap, it may slightly corrupt filesystem
+(lost files, unbalanced directories). (I guess all filesystem may do it).
+When compiled, you get warning: function declaration isn't a prototype. Does
+anybody know what does it mean?
+What does "unbalanced tree" message mean?
+Old versions of this driver created sometimes unbalanced dnode trees. OS/2
+chkdsk doesn't scream if the tree is unbalanced (and sometimes creates
+unbalanced trees too :-) but both HPFS and HPFS386 contain bug that it rarely
+crashes when the tree is not balanced. This driver handles unbalanced trees
+correctly and writes warning if it finds them. If you see this message, this is
+probably because of directories created with old version of this driver.
+Workaround is to move all files from that directory to another and then back
+again. Do it in Linux, not OS/2! If you see this message in directory that is
+whole created by this driver, it is BUG - let me know about it.
+Bugs in OS/2
+When you have two (or more) lost directories pointing each to other, chkdsk
+locks up when repairing filesystem.
+Sometimes (I think it's random) when you create a file with one-char name under
+OS/2, OS/2 marks it as 'long'. chkdsk then removes this flag saying "Minor fs
+error corrected".
+File names like "a .b" are marked as 'long' by OS/2 but chkdsk "corrects" it and
+marks them as short (and writes "minor fs error corrected"). This bug is not in
+Codepage bugs described above.
+If you don't install fixpacks, there are many, many more...
+0.90 First public release
+0.91 Fixed bug that caused shooting to memory when write_inode was called on
+ open inode (rarely happened)
+0.92 Fixed a little memory leak in freeing directory inodes
+0.93 Fixed bug that locked up the machine when there were too many filenames
+ with first 15 characters same
+ Fixed write_file to zero file when writing behind file end
+0.94 Fixed a little memory leak when trying to delete busy file or directory
+0.95 Fixed a bug that i_hpfs_parent_dir was not updated when moving files
+1.90 First version for 2.1.1xx kernels
+1.91 Fixed a bug that chk_sectors failed when sectors were at the end of disk
+ Fixed a race-condition when write_inode is called while deleting file
+ Fixed a bug that could possibly happen (with very low probability) when
+ using 0xff in filenames
+ Rewritten locking to avoid race-conditions
+ Mount option 'eas' now works
+ Fsync no longer returns error
+ Files beginning with '.' are marked hidden
+ Remount support added
+ Alloc is not so slow when filesystem becomes full
+ Atimes are no more updated because it slows down operation
+ Code cleanup (removed all commented debug prints)
+1.92 Corrected a bug when sync was called just before closing file
+1.93 Modified, so that it works with kernels >= 2.1.131, I don't know if it
+ works with previous versions
+ Fixed a possible problem with disks > 64G (but I don't have one, so I can't
+ test it)
+ Fixed a file overflow at 2G
+ Added new option 'timeshift'
+ Changed behaviour on HPFS386: It is now possible to operate on HPFS386 in
+ read-only mode
+ Fixed a bug that slowed down alloc and prevented allocating 100% space
+ (this bug was not destructive)
+1.94 Added workaround for one bug in Linux
+ Fixed one buffer leak
+ Fixed some incompatibilities with large extended attributes (but it's still
+ not 100% ok, I have no info on it and OS/2 doesn't want to create them)
+ Rewritten allocation
+ Fixed a bug with i_blocks (du sometimes didn't display correct values)
+ Directories have no longer archive attribute set (some programs don't like
+ it)
+ Fixed a bug that it set badly one flag in large anode tree (it was not
+ destructive)
+1.95 Fixed one buffer leak, that could happen on corrupted filesystem
+ Fixed one bug in allocation in 1.94
+1.96 Added workaround for one bug in OS/2 (HPFS locked up, HPFS386 reported
+ error sometimes when opening directories in PMSHELL)
+ Fixed a possible bitmap race
+ Fixed possible problem on large disks
+ You can now delete open files
+ Fixed a nondestructive race in rename
+1.97 Support for HPFS v3 (on large partitions)
+ Fixed a bug that it didn't allow creation of files > 128M (it should be 2G)
+1.97.1 Changed names of global symbols
+ Fixed a bug when chmoding or chowning root directory
+1.98 Fixed a deadlock when using old_readdir
+ Better directory handling; workaround for "unbalanced tree" bug in OS/2
+1.99 Corrected a possible problem when there's not enough space while deleting
+ file
+ Now it tries to truncate the file if there's not enough space when deleting
+ Removed a lot of redundant code
+2.00 Fixed a bug in rename (it was there since 1.96)
+ Better anti-fragmentation strategy
+2.01 Fixed problem with directory listing over NFS
+ Directory lseek now checks for proper parameters
+ Fixed race-condition in buffer code - it is in all filesystems in Linux;
+ when reading device (cat /dev/hda) while creating files on it, files
+ could be damaged
+2.02 Woraround for bug in breada in Linux. breada could cause accesses beyond
+ end of partition
+2.03 Char, block devices and pipes are correctly created
+ Fixed non-crashing race in unlink (Alexander Viro)
+ Now it works with Japanese version of OS/2
+2.04 Fixed error when ftruncate used to extend file
+2.05 Fixed crash when got mount parameters without =
+ Fixed crash when allocation of anode failed due to full disk
+ Fixed some crashes when block io or inode allocation failed
+2.06 Fixed some crash on corrupted disk structures
+ Better allocation strategy
+ Reschedule points added so that it doesn't lock CPU long time
+ It should work in read-only mode on Warp Server
+2.07 More fixes for Warp Server. Now it really works
+2.08 Creating new files is not so slow on large disks
+ An attempt to sync deleted file does not generate filesystem error
+2.09 Fixed error on extremly fragmented files
+ vim: set textwidth=80: