path: root/Documentation/arm
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authorGregory Bean <gbean@codeaurora.org>2010-08-28 10:05:45 -0700
committerDaniel Walker <dwalker@codeaurora.org>2010-10-06 09:01:16 -0700
commit70816e2ca526cfe21ce884ecae057a9c1725ad27 (patch)
tree6c055fdc9ce56ece54182d505837d744c761065d /Documentation/arm
parent1963a2afc81afe6d85e7a12538b74a9919d958ae (diff)
msm: documentation: add gpiomux documentation.
Signed-off-by: Gregory Bean <gbean@codeaurora.org> Signed-off-by: Daniel Walker <dwalker@codeaurora.org>
Diffstat (limited to 'Documentation/arm')
2 files changed, 178 insertions, 0 deletions
diff --git a/Documentation/arm/00-INDEX b/Documentation/arm/00-INDEX
index 7f5fc3ba9c9..ecf7d04bca2 100644
--- a/Documentation/arm/00-INDEX
+++ b/Documentation/arm/00-INDEX
@@ -6,6 +6,8 @@ Interrupts
- ARM Interrupt subsystem documentation
- Release Notes for Linux on Intel's IXP2000 Network Processor
+ - MSM specific documentation
- Netwinder specific documentation
diff --git a/Documentation/arm/msm/gpiomux.txt b/Documentation/arm/msm/gpiomux.txt
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..67a81620adf
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/arm/msm/gpiomux.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,176 @@
+This document provides an overview of the msm_gpiomux interface, which
+is used to provide gpio pin multiplexing and configuration on mach-msm
+The first-generation API for gpio configuration & multiplexing on msm
+is the function gpio_tlmm_config(). This function has a few notable
+shortcomings, which led to its deprecation and replacement by gpiomux:
+The 'disable' parameter: Setting the second parameter to
+gpio_tlmm_config to GPIO_CFG_DISABLE tells the peripheral
+processor in charge of the subsystem to perform a look-up into a
+low-power table and apply the low-power/sleep setting for the pin.
+As the msm family evolved this became problematic. Not all pins
+have sleep settings, not all peripheral processors will accept requests
+to apply said sleep settings, and not all msm targets have their gpio
+subsystems managed by a peripheral processor. In order to get consistent
+behavior on all targets, drivers are forced to ignore this parameter,
+rendering it useless.
+The 'direction' flag: for all mux-settings other than raw-gpio (0),
+the output-enable bit of a gpio is hard-wired to a known
+input (usually VDD or ground). For those settings, the direction flag
+is meaningless at best, and deceptive at worst. In addition, using the
+direction flag to change output-enable (OE) directly can cause trouble in
+gpiolib, which has no visibility into gpio direction changes made
+in this way. Direction control in gpio mode should be made through gpiolib.
+Key Features of gpiomux
+- A consistent interface across all generations of msm. Drivers can expect
+the same results on every target.
+- gpiomux plays nicely with gpiolib. Functions that should belong to gpiolib
+are left to gpiolib and not duplicated here. gpiomux is written with the
+intent that gpio_chips will call gpiomux reference-counting methods
+from their request() and free() hooks, providing full integration.
+- Tabular configuration. Instead of having to call gpio_tlmm_config
+hundreds of times, gpio configuration is placed in a single table.
+- Per-gpio sleep. Each gpio is individually reference counted, allowing only
+those lines which are in use to be put in high-power states.
+- 0 means 'do nothing': all flags are designed so that the default memset-zero
+equates to a sensible default of 'no configuration', preventing users
+from having to provide hundreds of 'no-op' configs for unused or
+unwanted lines.
+To use gpiomux, provide configuration information for relevant gpio lines
+in the msm_gpiomux_configs table. Since a 0 equates to "unconfigured",
+only those lines to be managed by gpiomux need to be specified. Here
+is a completely fictional example:
+struct msm_gpiomux_config msm_gpiomux_configs[GPIOMUX_NGPIOS] = {
+ [12] = {
+ },
+ [34] = {
+ },
+To indicate that a gpio is in use, call msm_gpiomux_get() to increase
+its reference count. To decrease the reference count, call msm_gpiomux_put().
+The effect of this configuration is as follows:
+When the system boots, gpios 12 and 34 will be initialized with their
+'suspended' configurations. All other gpios, which were left unconfigured,
+will not be touched.
+When msm_gpiomux_get() is called on gpio 12 to raise its reference count
+above 0, its active configuration will be applied. Since no other gpio
+line has a valid active configuration, msm_gpiomux_get() will have no
+effect on any other line.
+When msm_gpiomux_put() is called on gpio 12 or 34 to drop their reference
+count to 0, their suspended configurations will be applied.
+Since no other gpio line has a valid suspended configuration, no other
+gpio line will be effected by msm_gpiomux_put(). Since gpio 34 has no valid
+active configuration, this is effectively a no-op for gpio 34 as well,
+with one small caveat, see the section "About Output-Enable Settings".
+All of the GPIOMUX_VALID flags may seem like unnecessary overhead, but
+they address some important issues. As unused entries (all those
+except 12 and 34) are zero-filled, gpiomux needs a way to distinguish
+the used fields from the unused. In addition, the all-zero pattern
+is a valid configuration! Therefore, gpiomux defines an additional bit
+which is used to indicate when a field is used. This has the pleasant
+side-effect of allowing calls to msm_gpiomux_write to use '0' to indicate
+that a value should not be changed:
+ msm_gpiomux_write(0, GPIOMUX_VALID, 0);
+replaces the active configuration of gpio 0 with an all-zero configuration,
+but leaves the suspended configuration as it was.
+Static Configurations
+To install a static configuration, which is applied at boot and does
+not change after that, install a configuration with a suspended component
+but no active component, as in the previous example:
+ [34] = {
+ },
+The suspended setting is applied during boot, and the lack of any valid
+active setting prevents any other setting from being applied at runtime.
+If other subsystems attempting to access the line is a concern, one could
+*really* anchor the configuration down by calling msm_gpiomux_get on the
+line at initialization to move the line into active mode. With the line
+held, it will never be re-suspended, and with no valid active configuration,
+no new configurations will be applied.
+But then, if having other subsystems grabbing for the line is truly a concern,
+it should be reserved with gpio_request instead, which carries an implicit
+gpiomux and gpiolib
+It is expected that msm gpio_chips will call msm_gpiomux_get() and
+msm_gpiomux_put() from their request and free hooks, like this fictional
+static int request(struct gpio_chip *chip, unsigned offset)
+ return msm_gpiomux_get(chip->base + offset);
+static void free(struct gpio_chip *chip, unsigned offset)
+ msm_gpiomux_put(chip->base + offset);
+ ...somewhere in a gpio_chip declaration...
+ .request = request,
+ .free = free,
+This provides important functionality:
+- It guarantees that a gpio line will have its 'active' config applied
+ when the line is requested, and will not be suspended while the line
+ remains requested; and
+- It guarantees that gpio-direction settings from gpiolib behave sensibly.
+ See "About Output-Enable Settings."
+This mechanism allows for "auto-request" of gpiomux lines via gpiolib
+when it is suitable. Drivers wishing more exact control are, of course,
+free to also use msm_gpiomux_set and msm_gpiomux_get.
+About Output-Enable Settings
+Some msm targets do not have the ability to query the current gpio
+configuration setting. This means that changes made to the output-enable
+(OE) bit by gpiolib cannot be consistently detected and preserved by gpiomux.
+Therefore, when gpiomux applies a configuration setting, any direction
+settings which may have been applied by gpiolib are lost and the default
+input settings are re-applied.
+For this reason, drivers should not assume that gpio direction settings
+continue to hold if they free and then re-request a gpio. This seems like
+common sense - after all, anybody could have obtained the line in the
+meantime - but it needs saying.
+This also means that calls to msm_gpiomux_write will reset the OE bit,
+which means that if the gpio line is held by a client of gpiolib and
+msm_gpiomux_write is called, the direction setting has been lost and
+gpiolib's internal state has been broken.
+Release gpio lines before reconfiguring them.