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authorLinus Torvalds <torvalds@ppc970.osdl.org>2005-04-16 15:20:36 -0700
committerLinus Torvalds <torvalds@ppc970.osdl.org>2005-04-16 15:20:36 -0700
commit1da177e4c3f41524e886b7f1b8a0c1fc7321cac2 (patch)
tree0bba044c4ce775e45a88a51686b5d9f90697ea9d /Documentation/Changes
downloadlinaro-lsk-1da177e4c3f41524e886b7f1b8a0c1fc7321cac2.tar.gz
Linux-2.6.12-rc2
Initial git repository build. I'm not bothering with the full history, even though we have it. We can create a separate "historical" git archive of that later if we want to, and in the meantime it's about 3.2GB when imported into git - space that would just make the early git days unnecessarily complicated, when we don't have a lot of good infrastructure for it. Let it rip!
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+Intro
+=====
+
+This document is designed to provide a list of the minimum levels of
+software necessary to run the 2.6 kernels, as well as provide brief
+instructions regarding any other "Gotchas" users may encounter when
+trying life on the Bleeding Edge. If upgrading from a pre-2.4.x
+kernel, please consult the Changes file included with 2.4.x kernels for
+additional information; most of that information will not be repeated
+here. Basically, this document assumes that your system is already
+functional and running at least 2.4.x kernels.
+
+This document is originally based on my "Changes" file for 2.0.x kernels
+and therefore owes credit to the same people as that file (Jared Mauch,
+Axel Boldt, Alessandro Sigala, and countless other users all over the
+'net).
+
+The latest revision of this document, in various formats, can always
+be found at <http://cyberbuzz.gatech.edu/kaboom/linux/Changes-2.4/>.
+
+Feel free to translate this document. If you do so, please send me a
+URL to your translation for inclusion in future revisions of this
+document.
+
+Smotrite file <http://oblom.rnc.ru/linux/kernel/Changes.ru>, yavlyaushisya
+russkim perevodom dannogo documenta.
+
+Visite <http://www2.adi.uam.es/~ender/tecnico/> para obtener la traducción
+al español de este documento en varios formatos.
+
+Eine deutsche Version dieser Datei finden Sie unter
+<http://www.stefan-winter.de/Changes-2.4.0.txt>.
+
+Last updated: October 29th, 2002
+
+Chris Ricker (kaboom@gatech.edu or chris.ricker@genetics.utah.edu).
+
+Current Minimal Requirements
+============================
+
+Upgrade to at *least* these software revisions before thinking you've
+encountered a bug! If you're unsure what version you're currently
+running, the suggested command should tell you.
+
+Again, keep in mind that this list assumes you are already
+functionally running a Linux 2.4 kernel. Also, not all tools are
+necessary on all systems; obviously, if you don't have any PCMCIA (PC
+Card) hardware, for example, you probably needn't concern yourself
+with pcmcia-cs.
+
+o Gnu C 2.95.3 # gcc --version
+o Gnu make 3.79.1 # make --version
+o binutils 2.12 # ld -v
+o util-linux 2.10o # fdformat --version
+o module-init-tools 0.9.10 # depmod -V
+o e2fsprogs 1.29 # tune2fs
+o jfsutils 1.1.3 # fsck.jfs -V
+o reiserfsprogs 3.6.3 # reiserfsck -V 2>&1|grep reiserfsprogs
+o xfsprogs 2.6.0 # xfs_db -V
+o pcmcia-cs 3.1.21 # cardmgr -V
+o quota-tools 3.09 # quota -V
+o PPP 2.4.0 # pppd --version
+o isdn4k-utils 3.1pre1 # isdnctrl 2>&1|grep version
+o nfs-utils 1.0.5 # showmount --version
+o procps 3.2.0 # ps --version
+o oprofile 0.5.3 # oprofiled --version
+
+Kernel compilation
+==================
+
+GCC
+---
+
+The gcc version requirements may vary depending on the type of CPU in your
+computer. The next paragraph applies to users of x86 CPUs, but not
+necessarily to users of other CPUs. Users of other CPUs should obtain
+information about their gcc version requirements from another source.
+
+The recommended compiler for the kernel is gcc 2.95.x (x >= 3), and it
+should be used when you need absolute stability. You may use gcc 3.0.x
+instead if you wish, although it may cause problems. Later versions of gcc
+have not received much testing for Linux kernel compilation, and there are
+almost certainly bugs (mainly, but not exclusively, in the kernel) that
+will need to be fixed in order to use these compilers. In any case, using
+pgcc instead of plain gcc is just asking for trouble.
+
+The Red Hat gcc 2.96 compiler subtree can also be used to build this tree.
+You should ensure you use gcc-2.96-74 or later. gcc-2.96-54 will not build
+the kernel correctly.
+
+In addition, please pay attention to compiler optimization. Anything
+greater than -O2 may not be wise. Similarly, if you choose to use gcc-2.95.x
+or derivatives, be sure not to use -fstrict-aliasing (which, depending on
+your version of gcc 2.95.x, may necessitate using -fno-strict-aliasing).
+
+Make
+----
+
+You will need Gnu make 3.79.1 or later to build the kernel.
+
+Binutils
+--------
+
+Linux on IA-32 has recently switched from using as86 to using gas for
+assembling the 16-bit boot code, removing the need for as86 to compile
+your kernel. This change does, however, mean that you need a recent
+release of binutils.
+
+System utilities
+================
+
+Architectural changes
+---------------------
+
+DevFS has been obsoleted in favour of udev
+(http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/kernel/hotplug/)
+
+32-bit UID support is now in place. Have fun!
+
+Linux documentation for functions is transitioning to inline
+documentation via specially-formatted comments near their
+definitions in the source. These comments can be combined with the
+SGML templates in the Documentation/DocBook directory to make DocBook
+files, which can then be converted by DocBook stylesheets to PostScript,
+HTML, PDF files, and several other formats. In order to convert from
+DocBook format to a format of your choice, you'll need to install Jade as
+well as the desired DocBook stylesheets.
+
+Util-linux
+----------
+
+New versions of util-linux provide *fdisk support for larger disks,
+support new options to mount, recognize more supported partition
+types, have a fdformat which works with 2.4 kernels, and similar goodies.
+You'll probably want to upgrade.
+
+Ksymoops
+--------
+
+If the unthinkable happens and your kernel oopses, you'll need a 2.4
+version of ksymoops to decode the report; see REPORTING-BUGS in the
+root of the Linux source for more information.
+
+Module-Init-Tools
+-----------------
+
+A new module loader is now in the kernel that requires module-init-tools
+to use. It is backward compatible with the 2.4.x series kernels.
+
+Mkinitrd
+--------
+
+These changes to the /lib/modules file tree layout also require that
+mkinitrd be upgraded.
+
+E2fsprogs
+---------
+
+The latest version of e2fsprogs fixes several bugs in fsck and
+debugfs. Obviously, it's a good idea to upgrade.
+
+JFSutils
+--------
+
+The jfsutils package contains the utilities for the file system.
+The following utilities are available:
+o fsck.jfs - initiate replay of the transaction log, and check
+ and repair a JFS formatted partition.
+o mkfs.jfs - create a JFS formatted partition.
+o other file system utilities are also available in this package.
+
+Reiserfsprogs
+-------------
+
+The reiserfsprogs package should be used for reiserfs-3.6.x
+(Linux kernels 2.4.x). It is a combined package and contains working
+versions of mkreiserfs, resize_reiserfs, debugreiserfs and
+reiserfsck. These utils work on both i386 and alpha platforms.
+
+Xfsprogs
+--------
+
+The latest version of xfsprogs contains mkfs.xfs, xfs_db, and the
+xfs_repair utilities, among others, for the XFS filesystem. It is
+architecture independent and any version from 2.0.0 onward should
+work correctly with this version of the XFS kernel code (2.6.0 or
+later is recommended, due to some significant improvements).
+
+
+Pcmcia-cs
+---------
+
+PCMCIA (PC Card) support is now partially implemented in the main
+kernel source. Pay attention when you recompile your kernel ;-).
+Also, be sure to upgrade to the latest pcmcia-cs release.
+
+Quota-tools
+-----------
+
+Support for 32 bit uid's and gid's is required if you want to use
+the newer version 2 quota format. Quota-tools version 3.07 and
+newer has this support. Use the recommended version or newer
+from the table above.
+
+Intel IA32 microcode
+--------------------
+
+A driver has been added to allow updating of Intel IA32 microcode,
+accessible as both a devfs regular file and as a normal (misc)
+character device. If you are not using devfs you may need to:
+
+mkdir /dev/cpu
+mknod /dev/cpu/microcode c 10 184
+chmod 0644 /dev/cpu/microcode
+
+as root before you can use this. You'll probably also want to
+get the user-space microcode_ctl utility to use with this.
+
+Powertweak
+----------
+
+If you are running v0.1.17 or earlier, you should upgrade to
+version v0.99.0 or higher. Running old versions may cause problems
+with programs using shared memory.
+
+udev
+----
+udev is a userspace application for populating /dev dynamically with
+only entries for devices actually present. udev replaces devfs.
+
+Networking
+==========
+
+General changes
+---------------
+
+If you have advanced network configuration needs, you should probably
+consider using the network tools from ip-route2.
+
+Packet Filter / NAT
+-------------------
+The packet filtering and NAT code uses the same tools like the previous 2.4.x
+kernel series (iptables). It still includes backwards-compatibility modules
+for 2.2.x-style ipchains and 2.0.x-style ipfwadm.
+
+PPP
+---
+
+The PPP driver has been restructured to support multilink and to
+enable it to operate over diverse media layers. If you use PPP,
+upgrade pppd to at least 2.4.0.
+
+If you are not using devfs, you must have the device file /dev/ppp
+which can be made by:
+
+mknod /dev/ppp c 108 0
+
+as root.
+
+If you use devfsd and build ppp support as modules, you will need
+the following in your /etc/devfsd.conf file:
+
+LOOKUP PPP MODLOAD
+
+Isdn4k-utils
+------------
+
+Due to changes in the length of the phone number field, isdn4k-utils
+needs to be recompiled or (preferably) upgraded.
+
+NFS-utils
+---------
+
+In 2.4 and earlier kernels, the nfs server needed to know about any
+client that expected to be able to access files via NFS. This
+information would be given to the kernel by "mountd" when the client
+mounted the filesystem, or by "exportfs" at system startup. exportfs
+would take information about active clients from /var/lib/nfs/rmtab.
+
+This approach is quite fragile as it depends on rmtab being correct
+which is not always easy, particularly when trying to implement
+fail-over. Even when the system is working well, rmtab suffers from
+getting lots of old entries that never get removed.
+
+With 2.6 we have the option of having the kernel tell mountd when it
+gets a request from an unknown host, and mountd can give appropriate
+export information to the kernel. This removes the dependency on
+rmtab and means that the kernel only needs to know about currently
+active clients.
+
+To enable this new functionality, you need to:
+
+ mount -t nfsd nfsd /proc/fs/nfs
+
+before running exportfs or mountd. It is recommended that all NFS
+services be protected from the internet-at-large by a firewall where
+that is possible.
+
+Getting updated software
+========================
+
+Kernel compilation
+******************
+
+gcc 2.95.3
+----------
+o <ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/gcc/gcc-2.95.3.tar.gz>
+
+Make
+----
+o <ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/make/>
+
+Binutils
+--------
+o <ftp://ftp.kernel.org/pub/linux/devel/binutils/>
+
+System utilities
+****************
+
+Util-linux
+----------
+o <ftp://ftp.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/util-linux/>
+
+Ksymoops
+--------
+o <ftp://ftp.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/kernel/ksymoops/v2.4/>
+
+Module-Init-Tools
+-----------------
+o <ftp://ftp.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/people/rusty/modules/>
+
+Mkinitrd
+--------
+o <ftp://rawhide.redhat.com/pub/rawhide/SRPMS/SRPMS/>
+
+E2fsprogs
+---------
+o <http://prdownloads.sourceforge.net/e2fsprogs/e2fsprogs-1.29.tar.gz>
+
+JFSutils
+--------
+o <http://jfs.sourceforge.net/>
+
+Reiserfsprogs
+-------------
+o <http://www.namesys.com/pub/reiserfsprogs/reiserfsprogs-3.6.3.tar.gz>
+
+Xfsprogs
+--------
+o <ftp://oss.sgi.com/projects/xfs/download/>
+
+Pcmcia-cs
+---------
+o <ftp://pcmcia-cs.sourceforge.net/pub/pcmcia-cs/pcmcia-cs-3.1.21.tar.gz>
+
+Quota-tools
+----------
+o <http://sourceforge.net/projects/linuxquota/>
+
+Jade
+----
+o <ftp://ftp.jclark.com/pub/jade/jade-1.2.1.tar.gz>
+
+DocBook Stylesheets
+-------------------
+o <http://nwalsh.com/docbook/dsssl/>
+
+Intel P6 microcode
+------------------
+o <http://www.urbanmyth.org/microcode/>
+
+Powertweak
+----------
+o <http://powertweak.sourceforge.net/>
+
+udev
+----
+o <http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/kernel/hotplug/udev.html>
+
+Networking
+**********
+
+PPP
+---
+o <ftp://ftp.samba.org/pub/ppp/ppp-2.4.0.tar.gz>
+
+Isdn4k-utils
+------------
+o <ftp://ftp.isdn4linux.de/pub/isdn4linux/utils/isdn4k-utils.v3.1pre1.tar.gz>
+
+NFS-utils
+---------
+o <http://sourceforge.net/project/showfiles.php?group_id=14>
+
+Iptables
+--------
+o <http://www.iptables.org/downloads.html>
+
+Ip-route2
+---------
+o <ftp://ftp.tux.org/pub/net/ip-routing/iproute2-2.2.4-now-ss991023.tar.gz>
+
+OProfile
+--------
+o <http://oprofile.sf.net/download/>
+
+NFS-Utils
+---------
+o <http://nfs.sourceforge.net/>
+